The Millennium Stadium, is the national stadium of Wales. Located in Cardiff, it is the home of the Wales national rugby union team and has held Wales national football team games. Built to host the 1999 Rugby World Cup, it has gone on to host many other large-scale events, such as the Tsunami Relief Cardiff concert, the Super Special Stage of Wales Rally Great Britain, the Speedway Grand Prix of Great Britain and various music concerts, it hosted six FA Cup finals and several other high-profile football fixtures while Wembley Stadium was being redeveloped. The stadium is owned by a subsidiary company of the Welsh Rugby Union; the architects were Bligh Lobb Sports Architecture. The structural engineers were WS Atkins and the building contractor was Laing; the total construction cost of the stadium was £121 million, of which the Millennium Commission funded £46 million. The Millennium Stadium opened in June 1999 and its first major event was an international rugby union match on 26 June 1999, when Wales beat South Africa in a test match by 29–19 before a crowd of 29,000.
With a total seating capacity of 74,500, it is the third-largest stadium in the Six Nations Championship behind the Stade de France and Twickenham. It is the second-largest stadium in the world with a retractable roof and was the second stadium in Europe to have this feature. Listed as a category four stadium by UEFA, the stadium was chosen as the venue for the 2017 UEFA Champions League Final, which took place on 3 June 2017. In 2015, the Welsh Rugby Union announced a 10-year sponsorship deal with the Principality Building Society that saw the stadium renamed as the "Principality Stadium" from early 2016; until 1969, Cardiff RFC and Wales both played their home matches on the same pitch at Cardiff Arms Park, but all this changed in the 1969–70 season. As a result of an agreement between Cardiff Athletic Club and the WRU, the National Stadium project established that a new stadium for international matches and events was required, with Cardiff RFC moving to a new purpose built stadium on the original cricket ground at the site of the former Cardiff Arms Park stadium.
By 7 April 1984 the National Stadium was opened. However, in 1994, a redevelopment committee was set up to consider redeveloping the National Stadium, by 1995 the WRU had been chosen to host the 1999 Rugby World Cup. In 1995, the National Stadium, designed in 1962, only had a capacity of 53,000. France was about to build the Stade de France, which would have a capacity of more than 80,000 for the 1998 FIFA World Cup; the original capacity of the National Stadium was 65,000, but this had been reduced to 53,000, due to the Taylor Report. 11,000 of 53,000 capacity was on the East Terrace and the conversion to an all-seater stadium would have reduced the stadium capacity still further to just 47,500. In addition to the problems of capacity, the National Stadium was very well hidden by the neighbouring buildings to the south in Park Street, Wood Street and to the east in Westgate Street, by Cardiff Rugby Ground in the north, it was only visible from across the River Taff in the west. Access to the ground was very restricted with the main entrance being a narrow opening in Westgate Street to the east, shared by both vehicles and spectators alike.
The options for the new stadium included adding a third tier to the existing National Stadium, or moving to a new site. This last option was discounted because it would have required a vast car parking facility, that would have put severe short-term pressures on the local transport infrastructure, creating traffic jams and pollution; the committee chose a new stadium on the same site but with considerable increase in its capacity. It would involve moving the alignment of the stadium from west-east to north-south; this was the option supported by the Millennium Commission. It would become the fourth redevelopment of the Cardiff Arms Park site, it was decided that the new stadium should have a sliding roof to accommodate a multi-use venue, with a grass pitch for rugby and football. The only other sliding roofs in Europe at the time were at two Dutch stadia – the Amsterdam Arena, completed in 1996 with a capacity of 50,000. To remain on the Arms Park site, additional space had to be found to allow safe access and to provide room for the increased capacity and improved facilities.
This was achieved by the purchase of adjacent buildings to the south and east and by the construction of a new £6 million River Walk by the River Taff on the western side of the stadium. By 1999, the Millennium Stadium had replaced the National Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park, as the national stadium of Wales for rugby union and association football international matches. Cardiff RFC continued as before to play at Cardiff Arms Park rugby ground, which had replaced the cricket ground in 1969; the stadium was designed by a team led by Bob Sheard at Lobb Sport Architecture, who merged with HOK Sport to become Populous. The building contractor was Laing and the structural engineers were WS Atkins. Mike Otlet of WS Atkins designed the stadium's retractable roof. Cimolai S.p. A. from Italy fabricated and erected the 72 steel plane frames for the stands and all the 4,500 components of the roof. Construction involved the demolition of a number of buildings the existing National Stadium, Wales Empire Pool in Wood Stre
Wales Empire Pool
The Wales Empire Pool, known locally as the Empire Pool, was an international standard swimming pool building, located in Cardiff, Wales from 1958 until it was demolished in 1998. It was a centrepiece for Commonwealth Games. A site on Wood Street in the centre of the Cardiff had been identified in the 1930s as a good location for a new swimming baths. However, the construction of a new pool was not realised until Cardiff was chosen as the hosts of the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games; the pool's site was next to the Cardiff Arms Park, the main stadium for the Games. The building was acclaimed as the first example of modernist architecture in Cardiff, was similar in design to the Royal Festival Hall in London, it was designed by D. M. Davies, believed to be influenced by Peter Behrens' 1910 AEG turbine factory; the Royal Institute of British Architects differs in opinion, attributing the design to John Dryburgh, the City Architect 1957–74. The structural engineer was Oscar Faber, known for his work with reinforced concrete.
Work on the new pool began in January 1956 and the completed building was opened by the Lord Mayor of Cardiff, J. H. Morgan, on 18 April 1958, two months before the Empire Games started; the City Council were reluctant to finance the new pool, but agreed to do so when confronted with the ultimatum of "No Pool – No Games". The total cost of construction was £650,000 and the 1958 Empire Games went on to achieve a financial surplus of £37,000; the main attraction of the Empire Pool was the international standard swimming pool, which measured 55 by 20 yards with a depth of between 3 and 16 feet, with diving boards. For spectators there were 1,722 permanent seats. In addition to the main pool, there was an aerotone therapeutic bath, Turkish baths, physiotherapy rooms, hot showers, a restaurant and a large reception area. In 1970 the main pool was shortened to 50 metres. In 1973 a teaching pool was created for school children, opened by Winifred Mathias, Lord Mayor of Cardiff; the Empire Pool was demolished in 1998 to make space for the Millennium Stadium, leading to a severe lack of swimming facilities in the South Wales area.
In 2003 a new Wales National Pool was opened in Swansea while Cardiff received the £32 million Cardiff International Pool, which opened in Cardiff Bay in February 2008. List of Commonwealth Games venues
Leisure centres in Cardiff
Most leisure centres in Cardiff, capital of Wales, are owned by Cardiff Council. Since 2018, the running of the six Council-run leisure centres, one swimming pool and three other leisure facilities has been outsourced to Greenwich Leisure, operating under their'Better' branding; the Cardiff International Pool in Cardiff Bay is run separately by another private company. Channel View Centre reopened on 1 March 2002 after a period of closure from 1997, in Grangetown in the south of the city, its facilities include a sports hall with 3G Astroturf pitch, outdoor five-a-side 3G Astroturf pitch, fitness suite, dance studio, music room, activities area, climbing wall, squash court and a World Trail. Activities include junior activities, children's parties, holiday programmes and fitness classes including aerobics, circuits and cardio and kickboxing; the Centre is host to Cardiff Bay Water Activity Centre which offers a wide range of water and land based activities. The centre is served by Grangetown railway station.
Eastern Leisure Centre opened in 1982 in Llanrumney. Facilities include a 25m x 12m swimming pool, 6 badminton courts, multi use sports hall, 5 squash courts, fitness suite, outdoor tarmac 5-a-side pitch, activity area, community suite, crèche, junior activities, children's parties, holiday programmes and gymnastics, cafeteria and vending machines, a lounge bar. Cardiff Council is planning to develop the site of the leisure centre to include a new secondary school for the area; the centre is served by Cardiff Bus services 49 and 50. Eastern Leisure Centre is closed for refurbishment, it is anticipated to reopen in Autumn 2016. Fairwater Leisure Centre opened in 1983 in Fairwater, its facilities include 4 badminton courts, sports hall, 4 squash courts, outdoor skate park, fitness suite, 25m x 12.5m swimming pool, children's activities, junior activities including gymnastics and football, holiday programme, vending machines, a lounge bar. In 2008, a local version of Britain's Got Talent was held at the centre.
In February 2010, the leisure centre was targeted by thieves. The centre is served by Danescourt railway station. Llanishen Leisure Centre is the largest in Cardiff, in Llanishen in the north of the city; the centre opened in 1987 and has facilities including a leisure pool with wave machine, 6 badminton courts, multi use sports hall, 3 squash courts, fitness suite with cardio theatre music system, mini gym with fitness assessment room, community suite, crèche, junior activities, children's parties, holiday programmes, bar/coffee area, pool side café, snooker room, a private function room with catering and licensed bar for 250 people. In 2006, Llanishen Leisure Centre installed a pool cover and controls for its pool pumps heating and cooling, resulting in a 20% drop in CO² emissions since 2006 and energy savings of more than £30,000 were made in 2008–09; the leisure centre is served by Cardiff Bus services 29, 29B and 52A and Ty Glas railway station. Maindy Centre known as Maindy Swimming Pool and Cycle Track was opened in 1993 in Maindy.
In June 2005 a new 56 station fitness Suite, dance studio and lecture room were opened. Its facilities include a 25m deck level swimming pool, football pitch, floodlit 460m outdoor velodrome, outdoor tarmac 5-a-side pitch, a cafeteria; the Life Trail has the following stations: Welcome station, Lower Body Warm-Up, Upper Body Warm Up, Torso Stability, Standing Push Up, Forearm Roll and Lower Body Stretch. The site incorporates the Road Safety Centre which provides various road safety programmes, school crossing patrol training, mature driver refresher courses, driving simulators and external traffic features. Maindy Centre is home to the Maindy Flyers Youth Cycling Club, Maindy Marlins Swimming Club, Maindy Corries Football Club, Maindy Higashi Karate Club, Maindy Triathlon Club and Maindy Rookie Lifesaving Club; the cycle track was used in the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games held in Cardiff. The leisure centre is served by Cardiff Bus services 21, 23, 24, 25 and 27. Pentwyn Leisure Centre opened in 1989 in Pentwyn in the north east of the city.
Its facilities include a leisure pool with slide and features, 4 badminton courts, multi use sports hall, 2 squash courts, fitness suite, community suite, an upper activity area, crèche, junior activities, children's parties, holiday programmes,bar/coffee area, poolside café, suites available for private function hire with catering and licensed bar. In November 2009, the Welsh Open Dodgeball Tournament was held at Pentwyn Leisure Centre; the centre's swimming pool was dyed pink in celebration of a fundraising community day in 2009. The leisure centre is served by Cardiff Bus services 51 and 58. STAR Centre, in Splott first opened in 1981 and was taken over by the Council in 2001 undergoing refurbishment to include a fitness suite, a disabled lift in the foyer and the incorporation of the new Splott Library, its facilities include six badminton courts, facilities for basketball/netball/football, disabled facilities and changing room, fitness suite, soft play, meeting rooms, function room, children's activities, holiday programmes, vending machines, a licensed bar.
Cardiff City F.C.
Cardiff City Football Club is a professional association football club based in Cardiff, Wales. The team compete in the Premier League, the top tier of the English football league system, as of the 2018–19 season. Founded in 1899 as Riverside A. F. C; the club changed its name to Cardiff City in 1908 and entered the Southern Football League in 1910 before joining the English Football League in 1920. The club has spent 17 seasons in the top tier of English football since, the longest period being between 1921 and 1929; the team's most recent season in the top flight is the current 2018–19 Premier League season. The club is the only team from outside England to have won the FA Cup, doing so in 1927, they have reached three other cup finals in English competitions, the 1925 FA Cup Final against Sheffield United, the 2008 FA Cup Final against Portsmouth and the 2012 Football League Cup Final against Liverpool, suffering defeat on each occasion. They have won the Welsh Cup on 22 occasions, making them the second most successful team in the competition's history behind Wrexham.
With the exception of a short period this century, the team have played in home colours of blue and white since 1908, which gives them the nickname "The Bluebirds". The club's first permanent ground was Ninian Park opened in 1910. Cardiff have long-standing rivalries with nearby clubs Swansea City, known as the South Wales derby and Bristol City, known as the Severnside derby; the club's record appearance holder is Billy Hardy, who made 590 appearances in a 20-year playing spell with Cardiff, their record goalscorer is Len Davies with 179 goals. Following a meeting at the home of lithographic artist Bartley Wilson in Cardiff, the club was founded in 1899 as Riverside A. F. C. as a way of keeping players from the Riverside Cricket Club together and in shape during the winter months. In their first season, they played friendlies against local sides at their Sophia Gardens ground. In 1900 they joined the District League for their first competitive season; when King Edward VII granted Cardiff city status in 1905, the club put in a request to the South Wales and Monmouthshire Football Association to change their name to Cardiff City.
The request was turned down. To enhance their standing, the team arranged to join the South Wales Amateur League in 1907; the following year they were granted permission to change the name of the club to Cardiff City. Although growing in stature, the club was forced to turn down the opportunity to join the newly formed Second Division of the Southern Football League due to a lack of facilities at their Sophia Gardens ground. Over the next two years, Cardiff played friendlies against some of Britain's top professional sides, including Middlesbrough, Bristol City and Crystal Palace; the matches were played at grounds in Cardiff and nearby towns so as to gauge the level of public interest in the team. The club secured land to build their own stadium, Ninian Park, completed in 1910; the club turned professional the same year. They made their first signing the following year with the acquisition of Jack Evans from fellow Welsh side Cwmparc. With the new grounds in place, Cardiff joined the Southern Football League Second Division and appointed their first manager, Davy McDougall, who became player-manager.
They went on to finish in fourth place in their first year in the league. The board decided to replace McDougall with Fred Stewart, who had previous managerial experience with Stockport County, he set about adopting a more professional approach, signing several players with Football League experience, including brothers John and George Burton and Billy Hardy. Stewart led the team to promotion in his second season by winning the Second Division title, they remained in the First Division for the next decade, finished in the top four on two occasions. In 1920, the club submitted a successful application to join the Football League and were placed into the Second Division for the 1920–21 season. Stewart brought in several players with Football League experience, breaking the club's transfer record on two occasions to sign Jimmy Gill and Jimmy Blair from The Wednesday, they played their first match in the Football League on 28 August 1920, defeating Stockport County 5–2. The side finished the season in second place to win promotion to the First Division.
They finished behind Birmingham City on goal average, reached the semi-final of the FA Cup. In their third season in the top-tier, the team finished runners-up to Huddersfield Town because of a goal average difference of 0.024. Cardiff drew their final match; the following season was the first time Cardiff appeared at Wembley Stadium, having reached their first FA Cup final. The team lost 1–0 to Sheffield United following a goal from England international Fred Tunstall; the 1926–27 season, when they finished in 14th position, was Cardiff's worst performance in the top tier of English Football since winning promotion six seasons before. However, they reached their second FA Cup final in the space of two years. On St George's Day, 23 April 1927, at Wembley Stadium in London, Cardiff became the only non-English side to win the FA Cup by defeating Arsenal 1–0 in the final, he hurried a tame shot toward the goal. Captain Fred Keenor received the FA Cup trophy at the end of the match from King George V only seven years after Cardi
Grangetown is a district and community in the south of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It is one of the largest districts in the south of the city and is bordered by Riverside and Butetown; the River Taff winds its way through the area. Adjacent to the city's Cardiff Bay area, Grangetown is benefitting from the nearby developments and is experiencing a period of gentrification and improvements in its infrastructure, its population as of 2011 was 19,385 in 8,261 households. One of the "five towns of Cardiff", the others are Butetown, Crockherbtown and Temperance Town. Grangetown is a diverse and multiracial district and has a significant population of Somali and mixed-race residents, it is various mosques including the newly built Abu Bakkar mosque. Until the mid-19th-century Grangetown was an area of marshy land used for farming, it appears to have been granted to the Cistercian abbey of Margam Abbey sometime at the end of the twelfth century. The monks established a monastic grange there which they held until they were expelled in around 1290 by Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Glamorgan.
They were held them until the dissolution of the monasteries. The grange was named after the'moor' or saltmarsh upon which it stood, giving rise to English forms such as'More Grange' and'Grangemoor' and French equivalents such as'La Grange de Mora'. By the fifteenth century the grange was being farmed to laymen; the last farmer was a landowner called Lewis ap Richard, known as a patron of the Welsh-language poet Rhys Brychan. After the dissolution, the grange remained in the hand of Lewis's descendants. Lewis's son, Edward Lewis a noted patron of Welsh poets, settled at the Van near Caerphilly; the grange remained in the hands of the Lewises of the Van when they moved to St Fagans Castle during the 1610s. The Lewis estates passed through an heiress into the hands of Other Lewis Windsor, 4th Earl of Plymouth; the grange was farmed by a succession of tenants into the twentieth century. The farmhouse, known as Grange Farm, still exists today but is now surrounded by streets of terraced brick houses, which were built to house the many workers who moved to Cardiff to work in the industrial boom of the 19th century centered on the docks.
The farmhouse dates in part from the sixteenth century. The name Grangetown is the usual form in Welsh; the variants Y Grange and Y Grênj are sometimes seen. Owen John Thomas has used the form Y Grange Mawr; the names Trelluest and Trefynach appear to be recent coinages. Gwyddoniadur Cymru, the Welsh-language version of the Encyclopaedia of Wales, uses Grangetown, but notes the existence of Trelluest. Grangetown developed after 1850, the year Penarth Road and the bridges over the River Taff and River Ely were constructed, linking Cardiff with Penarth. In 1857 Baroness Windsor obtained an Act of Parliament to build housing in the area, intending to call it The Grange. Grangetown became a suburb of Cardiff in 1875; the area was low subject to flooding. In 1883 the sea flooded parts of Grangetown to a depth of five feet. Samuel Arthur Brain, the founder of Brains Brewery, was elected to Cardiff Council in 1885 to represent Grangetown. Grangetown's original public library on Redlaver Street was built 1900–1901 in the Tudor Gothic style.
It has now been converted into flats. Cardiff's popular pastries, Clark's Pies, arrived in Grangetown in 1955 when Dennis Dutch opened a shop in Bromsgrove Street; the shop still trades today. The Grangetown electoral ward returns three local councillors to Cardiff Council. Grangetown is part of the Cardiff South and Penarth constituency which returns one MP to the UK Parliament and one AM to the National Assembly for Wales. Grangetown has at least ten Christian places of worship including Grangetown Baptist Church and the Salvation Army citadel as well as a Hindu temple on Merches Place, mosque called Masjid Abu Bakr on Clydach Street and newly built Masjid called Markaz At-Tawheed on Penarth road; the church of St Paul, Paget Street, was built between 1889 and 1902 at the expense of Lord Windsor. It uses an "eccentric" palette of materials including pennant rubble, pink sandstone and Portland cement; the architect was a distinguished Arts & Crafts designer. St Patrick's Church is the Roman Catholic place of worship for the neighbourhood.
St Dyfrig and St Sampson, Pentre Gardens, dates from 1911. The number of Grangetown residents over three years old who speak Welsh has grown from 1,217 in the 2001 UK Census to 1,867 in the 2011 UK Census; this equates to over 15% of the total increase in Welsh speakers in Cardiff, despite Grangetown having only 5.6% of Cardiff's population. Grangetown was the location of the first Welsh-medium primary school class in Cardiff and the former county of Glamorgan; this class opened in 1949 with 8 pupils in what is now Ninian Park Primary School, an event commemorated by a plaque in the school's foyer. A Welsh-medium primary school, Ysgol Tan-yr-eos, was opened on the same site in 2006; this school was closed in 2013 and children in Welsh-medium education will be schooled in either Ysgol Gymraeg Pwll Coch or Ysgol Gymraeg Treganna, both in Canton. Plans for a new Welsh-medium school in Grangetown were withdrawn by Cardiff Council in July 2013. A Cardiff music and entertainment venue that opened in October 2015.
The Tramshed is housed in a
1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Cardiff, from 18–26 July 1958. Thirty-five nations sent a total of 1,130 athletes and 228 officials to the Cardiff Games and 23 countries and dependencies won medals, for the first time, Ghana and the Isle of Man; the Cardiff Games introduced the Queen's Baton Relay, conducted as a prelude to every British Empire and Commonwealth Games since. The British Empire and Commonwealth Games, including the opening and closing ceremonies, were held at the Cardiff Arms Park in the centre Cardiff. A new Wales Empire Pool was constructed for the event; the Sophia Gardens Pavilion was used for the boxing and wrestling events, Maindy Stadium was used for cycling. 178,000 tickets were sold during the Games. Rowing took place on Llyn Padarn in Llanberis. 36 countries and territories were represented, being the largest number to date, with a significant number of teams competing for the first time at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. At Cardiff Arms Park, an anti-apartheid crowd protested at the all-white South African team.
South Africa left the Commonwealth in 1961 and next appeared at the Games in 1994.. * Host nation Boxing Events were at Sophia Gardens Pavilion, Cardiff. The track cycling events were held at the Maindy Stadium in Cardiff; the rowing events were held on Llyn Padarn in Llanberis. Swimming events were held at the Wales Empire Pool in Cardiff. Diving events were held at the Wales Empire Pool in Cardiff. Commonwealth Games Official Site Pathe news: Commonwealth Games Cardiff 1958 reel 1 Pathe news: Commonwealth Games Cardiff 1958 reel 2
The Cardiff Arena known as Cardiff Bay Ice Arena and known by ice hockey fans as the Big Blue Tent, was a temporary ice rink in Cardiff Bay, Wales. It had a capacity of 2,500 for ice hockey and was home to the Cardiff Devils after leaving the Wales National Ice Rink, being demolished to make way for a John Lewis store, it was used for figure skating and hosted three competitions. It was replaced as the home of the Cardiff Devils; the ice rink was a prefabricated structure constructed in Finland. Assembly began in 2006 and after a number of delays opened on 6 December 2006 when the Devils hosted the Manchester Phoenix in an Elite Ice Hockey League fixture; the Devils won the game 7-4 while Manchester's Tony Hand became the first player to score a goal at the rink. The last game in the Cardiff Arena was played against Coventry Blaze on 27 February 2016; the first game in Ice Arena Wales was against the Belfast Giants on 12 March 2016. In Summer 2016, the rink was dismantled; the wooden frame was moved to Leeds where it will be upgraded to form part of the new ice rink located on Elland Road, yards away from Leeds United Football Club.
The upgrade will consist of new walls and an extension at the non-seated end of the rink which will include a bar and cafe over two floors. The stairs to the seating area have been moved to the back in order to improve sightlines. Following several delays and problems, the rink is due to open in January 2019. Sport in Cardiff Media related to Cardiff Arena at Wikimedia Commons Cardiff Devils official website