A cardinal is a leading bishop and prince of the College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church. Their duties include participating in papal consistories, conclaves when the Holy See is vacant. Most have additional missions, such as leading a diocese or a dicastery of the Roman Curia, the equivalent of a government of the Holy See. During the sede vacante, the day-to-day governance of the Holy See is in the hands of the College of Cardinals; the right to enter the Papal conclave of cardinals where the pope is elected is limited to those who have not reached the age of 80 years by the day the vacancy occurs. In 1059, the right of electing the pope was reserved to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven suburbicarian sees. In the 12th century the practice of appointing ecclesiastics from outside Rome as cardinals began, with each of them assigned a church in Rome as his titular church or linked with one of the suburbicarian dioceses, while still being incardinated in a diocese other than that of Rome.
The term cardinal at one time applied to any priest permanently assigned or incardinated to a church, or to the senior priest of an important church, based on the Latin cardo, meaning "pivotal" as in "principal" or "chief". The term was applied in this sense as early as the 9th century to the priests of the tituli of the diocese of Rome. There is disagreement about the origin of the term, but the consensus that "cardinalis" from the word cardo was first used in late antiquity to designate a bishop or priest, incorporated into a church for which he had not been ordained. In Rome the first persons to be called cardinals were the deacons of the seven regions of the city at the beginning of the 6th century, when the word began to mean "principal", "eminent", or "superior"; the name was given to the senior priest in each of the "title" churches of Rome and to the bishops of the seven sees surrounding the city. By the 8th century the Roman cardinals constituted a privileged class among the Roman clergy.
They took part in the papal liturgy. By decree of a synod of 769, only a cardinal was eligible to become Bishop of Rome. Cardinals were granted the privilege of wearing the red hat by Pope Innocent IV in 1244. In cities other than Rome, the name cardinal began to be applied to certain church men as a mark of honour; the earliest example of this occurs in a letter sent by Pope Zacharias in 747 to Pippin III, ruler of the Franks, in which Zacharias applied the title to the priests of Paris to distinguish them from country clergy. This meaning of the word spread and from the 9th century various episcopal cities had a special class among the clergy known as cardinals; the use of the title was reserved for the cardinals of Rome in 1567 by Pius V. In the year 1563 the Ecumenical Council of Trent, headed by Pope Pius IV, wrote about the importance of selecting good cardinals: "nothing is more necessary to the Church of God than that the holy Roman pontiff apply that solicitude which by the duty of his office he owes the universal Church in a special way by associating with himself as cardinals the most select persons only, appoint to each church most eminently upright and competent shepherds.
Traditions developed entitling certain monarchs, including those of Austria and France, to nominate one of their trusted clerical subjects to be created cardinal, a so-called "crown-cardinal". In early modern times, cardinals had important roles in secular affairs. In some cases, they took on powerful positions in government. In Henry VIII's England, his chief minister was for some time Cardinal Wolsey. Cardinal Richelieu's power was so great that he was for many years the ruler of France. Richelieu's successor was a cardinal, Jules Mazarin. Guillaume Dubois and André-Hercule de Fleury complete the list of the four great cardinals to have ruled France. In Portugal, due to a succession crisis, one cardinal, King of Portugal, was crowned king, the only example of a cardinal-king. While the incumbents of some sees are made cardinals, some countries are entitled to at least one cardinal by concordate, no see carries an actual right to the cardinalate, not if its bishop is a Patriarch. In 1059, Pope Nicholas II gave cardinals the right to elect the Bishop of Rome in the papal bull In nomine Domini.
For a time this power was assigned to the cardinal bishops, but in 1179 the Third Lateran Council restored the right to the whole body of cardinals. In 1586 Pope Sixtus V limited the number of cardinals to 70: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, 14 cardinal deacons. Pope John XXIII exceeded that limit citing the need to staff Church offices. In November 1970 in Ingravescentem aetatem, Pope Paul VI established that electors would be under the age of eighty years; when it took effect on 1 January 1971, it deprived twenty-five cardinals of the right to participate in a conclave. In October 1975 in Romano Pontifici eligendo, he set the maximum number of electors at 120, while establishing no lim
The 54th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment was an aviation regiment of the Soviet Air Forces during World War II and the Cold War, which became part of the Soviet Air Defense Forces and the Russian Air Force. The 237th Fighter Aviation Regiment began forming in May 1941. From August 1942 the regiment served in combat with the 220th Fighter Aviation Division. On 3 February 1943 the regiment became the 54th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment and the division became the 1st Guards Fighter Aviation Division fighting as part of the 16th Air Army. After the end of the war, the regiment received the Bell P-63 Kingcobra, it was based at Vaiņode in the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic. The 54th Guards received the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 in 1950 and the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 in 1956, it became part of the Soviet Air Defense Forces' 27th Air Defense Corps after the 1st Guards Division headquarters disbanded in 1960. In 1967, the 54th Guards became one of the first regiments equipped with the Sukhoi Su-15 interceptor, received the Su-15TM in the late 1970s.
In 1987, the 54th Guards received the Sukhoi Su-27. By November 1990, according to CFE Treaty data, the regiment fielded 38 Su-27s. In November 1992, under the command of Colonel Ye. A. Tikhomirov, the regiment was relocated to Savasleyka. On 1 September 2002, it was reorganized as the 3958th Air Base, part of the 4th Center for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel. On 26 March 2005, the honors of the 54th Guards were transferred to the 3958th, which became the 3958th Guards Air Base. In early 2011, the base became the Aviation Squadron of the State Center for Training of Aviation Personnel and Combat Testing after the 4th Center was redesignated. 220th Fighter Aviation Division, August 1942 - 2.43 1st Guards Fighter Aviation Division, 2.43 - 1960 27th Air Defence Corps, 1960-12.77 1st Guards Fighter Aviation Division, 12.77 - 15.4.86 27th Air Defense Corps, 4.86 - 1992 148th Centre for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel PVO, 1992 - 2001 4th Centre for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel, 2001 - 2002 Guryevsk, Kaliningrad Oblast, May 1945 - August 1945 Vainode, Latvian SSR, 8.45 - 1992 Savostleyka, Gorkiy Oblast, 1992 - present Bykov, Mikhail.
Все истребительные авиаполки Сталина. Первая полная энциклопедия. Moscow: Yauza. ISBN 9785457567276. Bykov, Mikhail. Все асы Сталина 1936–1953 гг. Moscow: Yauza. ISBN 9785457567221. Lenskii, A. G.. M.. Военная авиация отечества - Организация, вооружение, дислокация. St. Petersburg. OCLC 54860360. Lenskii, A. G.. M.. Советские Войска ПВО в последние годы Союза ССР. Часть 1. St. Petersburg: Info Ol. OCLC 861180616
I Don't Know What the World Is Coming To is the seventh studio album by American singer-songwriter Bobby Womack. The album was released on March 1975, by United Artists Records; the album debuted at number 126 on the Billboard 200. In 1978 British rock singer Rod Stewart lifted the melody from " Put Something Down On It" for his hit song "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?" Bobby Womack - guitar, vocals Glen Goins, Charles Fullilove, Ken Khristian, Larry Otis - guitar Sneaky Pete Kleinow - pedal steel Tommy Cogbill, Paul Stallworth, Chuck Rainey - bass Truman Thomas, Roger Dollarhide, David Foster, Bobby Wood, William Smith, Leon Ware - keyboards Robert Robertie, Ron Selico, Jim Keltner, Bill Braun, Bill Lordan, Larry Zack, Soko Richardson - drums Joe Lala - congas Jonathan Blair - electric violin Cosme DeAguero - vibraphone Catherine Gotthoffer - harp René Hall - strings Bill Withers - vocals on "It's All Over Now" Cindy "Sundray" Scott - answer vocals on "What's Your World" Linda Lawrence - answer vocals on "Interlude #2"TechnicalTruman Thomas - associate producer Roger Dollarhide - engineer Bob Cato, Lloyd Ziff - art direction Ria Lewerke - design Doug Metzler - photography