Thomas Weld (cardinal)
Thomas Weld was an English Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal. A member of the Weld-Blundell family, Weld was born in London on 22 January 1773, the eldest son of Thomas Weld of Lulworth Castle, Dorset, by his wife Mary, eldest daughter of Sir John Stanley Massey Stanley of Hooton, who belonged to the elder and Catholic branch of the Stanley family, now extinct, he was educated at home under Jesuit Charles Plowden. On 14 June 1796 Weld married, at Ugbrooke, Lucy Bridget, second daughter of Thomas Clifford of Tixall, fourth son of Hugh, third Lord Clifford, their only issue was Mary Lucy, born at Upwey, near Weymouth, on 31 January 1799. The loss of his wife at Clifton on 1 June 1815, the subsequent marriage of his only child to her second cousin, Hugh Charles Clifford, on 1 September 1818, left him at liberty to embrace the clerical state, to renounce the family property to his next brother, Joseph Weld, he placed himself under the direction of his old friend, the celebrated Abbé Carron, Mgr Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen, Archbishop of Paris, ordained him priest on 7 April 1821.
Father Weld kept a poor orphanage in London. On 20 June 1822 he began to assist the pastor of the Chelsea mission, after some time he was removed to Hammersmith; the Holy See having nominated him coadjutor to Alexander Macdonell, Bishop of Kingston, the ceremony of Weld's consecration as titular Bishop of Amyclae, a town in the Peloponnese, was performed at St Edmund's College, Ware, by Bishop William Poynter on 6 August 1826. Circumstances, delayed his departure for Canada, his daughter being in failing health, he accompanied her and her husband to Italy, shortly after his arrival at Rome, Cardinal Albani, on 19 January 1830, announced to him that Pope Pius VIII had decided to honour him with the purple. He was admitted into the College of Cardinals on 15 March 1830, his daughter died at Palo on 15 May 1831, was buried on 18 May in the church of San Marcello al Corso at Rome, from which he derived his title. On his elevation to the Sacred College he received assurances from persons of high influence and dignity in England that his nomination had excited no jealousy, but on the contrary had given general satisfaction.
His apartments in the Odescalchi Palace were splendidly furnished, periodically filled by the aristocracy of Rome and foreign, by large numbers of his fellow-countrymenHe died on 10 April 1837, his remains were deposited in the church of Santa Maria in Aquiro. The funeral oration, delivered by Nicholas Wiseman, has been published, his father, Thomas Weld of Lulworth, a former pupil of the Jesuit school in Liège, in 1794 donated 30 acres of land with buildings, to the Society of Jesus to establish Stonyhurst College. He distinguished himself in relieving the misfortunes of the refugees of the French Revolution, supported the English Poor Clares who had fled from Gravelines, the Visitandines, his uncle, Edward Weld, married Maria Smythe in July 1775, but he died just three months after a fall from his horse. His widow married Thomas Fitzherbert in 1778, but he died in 1781; the widowed Mrs Fitzherbert was introduced to George, Prince of Wales in spring 1784, they went through a form of marriage on 15 December 1785.
The marriage was considered invalid under the Royal Marriages Act 1772 because it had not been approved by King George III and the Privy Council. His brother, Joseph Weld, third son of Thomas Weld, was born on 27 January 1777, he received the exiled Royal family of France at Lulworth in August 1830, the king and his suite remaining there for some days, until their removal to Holyrood House. He was the owner of the "Alarm", "Arrow" and "Lulworth" yachts, which he navigated himself until late in life, having a practical knowledge and a real liking for the sea, he was always fortunate in the construction and sailing of his vessels, he died at Lulworth Castle on 19 October 1863. Joseph was founder of the Isle of Wight based Royal Yacht Squadron, his grandson William Clifford was Bishop of Clifton from 1857 to 1893. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Weld, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Pope Pius VIII
Pope Pius VIII, born Francesco Saverio Castiglioni, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 31 March 1829 to his death in 1830. Pius VIII's pontificate was the shortest of the 19th century, is the least remembered, his brief papacy witnessed the Catholic Emancipation in Great Britain in 1829, which he welcomed, the July Revolution in France in 1830, which he reluctantly accepted. Pius VIII is remembered for his writings on marriages between Catholics and Protestants in the 1830 encyclical Litteris altero abhinc, in which he declared that a marriage could only be properly blessed if proper provisions had been made to ensure the bringing up of children in the Catholic faith, his death less than two years after his election to the papacy has led to speculation of a possible murder. Francesco Saverio Castiglioni was born in Cingoli, the third of eight children of Count Ottavio Castiglioni and his wife Sanzia Ghislieri, his baptismal name was recorded as Francesco Saverio Maria Felice.
An ancestor of his was Pope Celestine IV. He studied at the Collegio Campana run by the Society of Jesus and, after that, at the University of Bologna where he earned a doctorate in canon law and in civil law in 1785, he was ordained to the priesthood in Rome on 17 December 1785. He served as the Vicar General of Anagni and Ascoli Piceno. On 11 August 1800 Castiglioni was appointed Bishop of Montalto, he received episcopal consecration on 17 August in Rome at the Church of Santi Domenico e Sisto. Cardinal Giuseppe Doria Pamphili served as consecrator, assisted by Nicola Buschi and Camillo Campanelli, he refused to swear allegiance to his client state, the Kingdom of Italy. On 29 July 1808 he was taken to Milan. Castiglioni was subsequently taken to Pavia, to Mantua, to Turin, where he arrived on 10 November 1813. On 18 November he was brought back to Milan. After Napoleon fell, Castiglioni returned to his diocese on 16 June 1814, he was praised by Pope Pius VII who in 1816 elevated him to the cardinalate as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Traspontina.
He held various high offices thereafter, including that of Apostolic Penitentiary. He soon became. Castiglioni was considered a front-runner in the conclave of 1823, he was known to be close to Pius VII, who referred to Castiglioni as "Pius VIII." However, he failed to gain the necessary votes, in part due to controversy surrounding an alliance between him and another favorite, Secretary of State Ercole Consalvi. Annibale Cardinal della Genga was elected instead, he took the name of Pope Leo XII. After the death of Pope Leo XII in 1829, Castiglioni was again considered to be a major candidate, though was questioned due to his frail health. Despite these concerns, he was elected as pope in the papal conclave of 1829. Given that Pope Pius VII had referred to him as Pius VIII, it seemed only suitable that it was the pontifical name that he chose, he was crowned on 5 April 1829 by Cardinal Giuseppe Albani. As Pope Pius VIII, he initiated some reforms in the Papal States. On 24 May 1829 he issued an Traditi humilitati.
Regarding religious pluralism, he condemned the "foul contrivance of the sophists of this age" that would place Catholicism on par with any other religion. Regarding Bible translations, he wrote in that encyclical: We must be wary of those who publish the Bible with new interpretations contrary to the Church's laws, they skillfully distort the meaning by their own interpretation. They print the Bibles in the vernacular and, absorbing an incredible expense, offer them free to the uneducated. Furthermore, the Bibles are without perverse little inserts to ensure that the reader imbibes their lethal poison instead of the saving water of salvation. On 25 March 1830, in the brief Litteris altero, he condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations. Pius VIII accepted the situation on mixed marriages between Protestants and Catholics in Germany, but he opposed changes in Ireland and Poland, which were still Catholic. In Litteris altero abhinc, he declared that a mixed marriage could only be blessed by a priest if proper promises had been made to educate the children of the marriage as Catholics.
His brief pontificate saw the Catholic Emancipation in the United Kingdom and the July Revolution in France, which occurred in 1829 and 1830, respectively. Pius VIII recognised Louis Philippe I as French king and allowed him to use the French king's customary title "Roi Très Chretien," which means "His Most Christian Majesty."Pius VIII held three consistories in which he elevated a total of six men into the cardinalate. He held these ceremonies on 27 July 1829, 15 March 1830 and 5 July 1830, he canonized no saints during his brief pontificate but he beatified two individuals. On 23 December 1829 he beatified Benincasa da Montepulciano, on 4 March 1830 he beatified Chiara Gambacorti. In 1830 Pius VIII proclaimed Saint Bernard of Clairvaux a Doctor of the Church. Of remarkable importance to the future is a letter of his to a French bishop, in which he allowed the taking of moderate interest. Being, at that time, head of the Roman State, he remained popular for decades for removing the so-called cancelletti from the taverns, which Leo XII had ordered to be put there to hinder the consumption of wine unless accompanied by a meal.
A poem was written about him that ran thus: "Allor che il sommo Pio / comparve innanzi a Dio / gli domandò: Che hai fatto? / Rispose: Nient'ho fatto. / Corresser gli angeletti: / Levò i cancelle