Autoire is a commune in the Lot department in southwestern France. Communes of the Lot department INSEE population
Assier is a commune in the Lot department in the Occitanie region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Assiéroises. Assier is located some 18 km south-east of Gramat; the village is in the centre of the commune at the intersection of two highways: the D11 from Saint-Simon in the north-west which continues to Reyrevignes in the south-east and the D653 from Livernon in the south-west which continues to join the D840 north-east of the commune. The Brive-la-Gaillarde to Rodez railway passes through the commune from north-west to south-east with a station just west of the village; the highest parts of the commune are to the north-east. The Limargue landscape provides grazing for cattle. A small stream flows with a slight slope parallel to the D653 in a wide valley flooded during heavy rain. After two ponds and an old mill, its water is lost near the centre of the village. In the south the rocky terrain forms a undulating limestone plateau pierced by a few sinkholes around ten metres deep.
This plateau is covered with short grass. There are forests of contorted downy oaks that are used for firewood. Assier is located at the end of an Early Jurassic formation called Limargue at the edge of the Causses limestone. In the south-east the Causse de Gramat is composed of Karstified limestone from the Middle and Late Jurassic; the oldest Early Jurassic terrain is in the Ruisseau d'Assier to the north-west: on the level in a tarn of black marl and layers of impervious schist from the Toarcian period. The valley floor consists of alluvium brought down by modern streams. Assier is on the edge of the Causse de Gramat; the waters from the Limargue to the north-east come across impermeable marl from the Early Jurassic the descend below the permeable limestone from the Middle and Late Jurassic. The limit of the Drainage basin is located to the north of Assier, water flows towards the south towards the Célé: this is the system called "Gramat-Sud" which drains 330 square kilometres. To the north-west, north of Vialans, there are the emergences of Routabous and Tour de Maroc of calcareous sandstone from the Pliensbachian period.
The small streams or Biales sink into the limestone through karstic openings. From north-west to south-east, these are:; the Ruisseau de l'Homme has its source near the Chapel of Saint-Médard. It flows towards the two Pertes d'Assier sinkholes: the first is at the foot of the east wall of the chateau in the ruins of an old mill, still functioning at the beginning of the 20th century, 75 metres south of the pond formed by the Ruisseau d'Assier at the entry to the town; the second sinkhole is 20 metres east of the pond. These waters flow in the stream that passes near the ponds along the D653 road towards Lacapelle-Marival; the re-emergences are at Saint-Sulpice in the Célé valley 13.5 km away. The time of passage of the water is 12 days; the Perte de l'Abois: a temporary sinkhole consisting of an entrance three metres high located in a small valley that crosses the D11 between Assier and Reyrevignes. The Perte du Cayre and the Grotte du Pech d'Amont: these cavities are the head of the hydro-geological system that drains water toward the re-emergence of the Diège at Espagnac-Sainte-Eulalie, nine kilometres away.
The transit time for the water is 40 hours. Other cavities at a higher altitude would have been of old sinkholes or were connected to the existing water systems: the Grotte du Cirque and the Grotte du Fennet. In addition to the sinkholes in the Limargue-Causse contact zone, many caves and Pit caves open up on limestone terrain; the best known are: The Grotte du Cirque. This hole is adorned with beautiful concretions; this has been a classified site since 29 April 1997 and monitoring arrangements for visits have been defined since 27 January 2009. This hole was mentioned in 1894 by Édouard-Alfred Martel, it opens on the side of a sinkhole through a low passage and a corridor 60 metres long leading to a shaft 15 metres deep a large gallery 45 metres long, 20 m wide and 30 m high. A narrow passage and a shaft lead to a low point of about 45 metres underground; the name Assier could be related to the name of a watercourse according to Ernest Nègre. According to others Assier has a Germanic origin; this name decomposes to: ans, a pagan deity, hari meaning "army".
The territory of Assier has been inhabited from the earliest times. Three dolmens and tumuli are visible on the limestone of the plateau to the east of the village; the dolmens around Assier were made from thick strata of limestone. They were emptied of their contents in the past; the Dolmen in the Bois des Bœufs is covered with a slab 3.7 metres long, 2.6 m wide and 0.3 m thick with an approximate mass of about 8 tonnes. This capstone rests on two orthostats with a length of about 3 m and 0.6 m high. It has been a historical monument since 1889; this dolmen includes a Dry stone wall. Four ot
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Cahors is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France. Its site is dramatic, being contained on three sides within a U-shaped bend in the River Lot known as the presqu'île. Cahors is known as the centre of AOC'black' wine, made since the Middle Ages and exported via Bordeaux, long before that region had developed its own viniculture industry. Cahors has had a rich history since Celtic times; the original name of the town was Divona or Divona Cadurcorum, "Divona of the Cadurci," Divona was a fountain, now called "la fontaine des Chartreux", worshiped by the Cadurci, a Celtic people of Gaul before the Roman conquest in the 50s BC. The Cadurci were among the last Celtic tribes to resist the Roman invasion. Cahors derives from Cadurcorum. However, romanization was rapid and profound: Cahors became a large Roman city, with many monuments whose remnants can be seen today, it has declined economically since the Middle Ages, lost its university in the 18th century. Today it is a popular tourist centre with people coming to enjoy its mediaeval quarter and the 14th-century fortified Valentré bridge.
It is the seat of the Diocese of Cahors. It was infamous at that time for having bankers that charged interest on their loans; the church in these times said. Because of this Cahors became synonymous with this sin, was mentioned in Dante's Inferno alongside Sodom as wicked. Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or d'Euse, was born in Cahors in the son of a shoemaker. In the 2007 Tour de France, Cahors was the start of stage 18; the town is situated 115 km north of Toulouse, on the RN20 / A20, connecting the city, via Limoges to Paris and Orleans. The town's height above sea level is between 332 metres; the area of the town is 64.72 square kilometres, with population density high for France at 309 inhabitants per square kilometre. The Valentré Bridge, the symbol of the town. Building began in 1308 and was completed in 1378; the legend associated with this bridge is one of the most realized of all Devil's Bridge legends, with a developed plot, complex characters, a surprising dénouement. When the bridge was restored in 1879, the architect Paul Gout made reference to this by placing a small sculpture of the devil at the summit of one of the towers.
Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, a national monument. Saint-Barthélémy Church. Maison Henri IV or Hôtel de Roaldès. Daurade quarter with: Maison Hérétié Maison Dolive Maison du Bourreau The barbican that once defended the Barre Gate. Tour des pendus. Palais Duèze. Tower of Pope John XXII. Collège Pélegry. Cloister Arc de Diane, a relic of ancient Roman baths. Roman Amphitheatre – remains of an oval amphitheatre were revealed when the underground car park was excavated at the Place Gambetta, just west of, beneath, Boulevard Gambetta in the city centre; the stone walls can be seen in the car park first level, below the statue of Leon Gambetta, opened to the public in April 2009. The area around Cahors produces wine robust and tannic red wine. Wine from the Cahors appellation must be made from at least 70% Malbec grape, with a maximum of 30% Merlot or Tannat grape varieties; the Cahors Blues Festival has taken place annually, in July, since 1982. Pope John XXII Jules Combarieu, musicologist Communes of the Lot department INSEE commune file Official website Cahors Cathedral at Structurae
The Causses are a group of limestone plateaus in the Massif Central. They are bordered to the north-west by the Limousin and the Périgord uplands, to the east by the Aubrac and the Cévennes. Large river gorges cut through the plateau, such as the Tarn, Jonte and Aveyron. Causse is an Occitan word meaning "limestone plateau". Arranged from the north-west to the south-east, the following plateaus are found: the Causses du Quercy: the Causse de Martel the Causse de Gramat the Causse de Limogne the Causse corrèzien the Grands Causses: the Causse du Comtal the Causse de Sévérac the Causse de Sauveterre the Causse Méjean the Causse Noir the Causse Rouge the Causse du Larzac Many sites on the Causses are included in Natura 2000, notably the Parc Naturel Régional des Grands Causses on the Larzac, Méjean, Noir plateaus; the Causses and the Cévennes, Mediterranean agro-pastoral Cultural Landscape was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2011. Http://www.gorgesdutarn.net/?lang=en
Alvignac is a commune in the Lot department in southwestern France. Inhabitants are called Alvignacois. Communes of the Lot department Cave of Reveillon INSEE statistics