Electoral district of Kavel
Kavel, created in 1969 and coming into effect in 1970, is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. Located to the east of Adelaide, Kavel includes the residential hills suburbs and farming areas of Balhannah, Brukunga, Carey Gully, Dawesley, Hay Valley, Mount Barker, Mount Barker Junction, Mount Barker Springs, Mount Barker Summit, Mount George, Oakbank, Piccadilly, Totness and Woodside. Amongst others abolished seats include Gumeracha and Mount Barker. Kavel is named after Lutheran pastor August Kavel who migrated to South Australia from in 1838 with 250 people seeking freedom from religious persecution, they and German immigrants and their descendants have made a significant contribution to South Australia's development and culture. Kavel has been held by the Liberal Party for its entire existence. Like most seats in the Adelaide Hills, it has been reasonably safe for that party, it has been held by only four members. The first member, Roger Goldsworthy, served as Deputy Premier of South Australia from 1979 to 1982 under David Tonkin.
Goldsworthy retired in 1992 to allow former state Liberal leader John Olsen to transfer from the Australian Senate back to state politics. Olsen went on to become Premier of South Australia after a 1996 party-room coup against Premier Dean Brown, he was forced to retire from politics after being caught misleading the House, was succeeded by Mark Goldsworthy, son of Roger. Mark held the seat until handing it to current member Dan Cregan in 2018; the strong Family First Party vote of 15.7 percent at the 2006 election was due in part to their prominent local candidate, church minister Thomas "Tom" Playford V, son of former Premier Sir Thomas Playford who represented Gumeracha decades earlier. Playford ran as an independent in the 2002 election. Kavel state by-election, 1992 ECSA profile for Kavel: 2018 ABC profile for Kavel: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Kavel: 2018
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Charleston, South Australia
Charleston is a small town in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia. It is situated on the Onkaparinga Valley Road between Woodside and Mount Torrens, on the main route from the Adelaide Hills to the Barossa Valley, 3 km south-east of Lobethal. Charleston is close to the source of the River Onkaparinga; the town was laid out in 1857 by Charles Dunn, a brother of the prominent miller John Dunn, in a subdivision of section 5197, Hundred of Onkaparinga, may have been named "Charlestown", but the current spelling has always been more common in newspaper reports Most of the local businesses are on the Onkaparinga Valley Road, while the largest number of houses are on Newman Road. Charleston is served by a community postal agency called the Bookpost, a bookshop, internet cafe and General Store. Next to The Bookpost is the Charleston Hotel which received national attention as one of the main props in a car advertisement, based on Slim Dusty's famous song "Answer to a Pub With No Beer". Charleston was served by the Mount Pleasant railway line from 1918 to 1953.
It is on the Onkaparinga Valley Road and the Amy Gillett Bikeway on the former railway route
Mount Lofty Ranges
The Mount Lofty Ranges are the range of mountains just to the east of Adelaide in the Australian state of South Australia. The Mount Lofty Ranges stretch from the southernmost point of the Fleurieu Peninsula at Cape Jervis northwards for over 300 kilometres before petering out north of Peterborough. In the vicinity of Adelaide, they separate the Adelaide Plains from the extensive plains that surround the Murray River and stretch eastwards to Victoria; the Heysen Trail traverses the entire length of the ranges, crossing westwards to the Flinders Ranges near Hallett. The mountains have a Mediterranean climate with moderate rainfall brought by south-westerly winds, hot summers and cool winters; the southern ranges are wetter than the northern ranges. The part of the ranges south of and including the Barossa Valley are known as the South Mount Lofty Ranges, the highest part of this section is the summit of Mount Lofty; the part of the ranges nearest Adelaide is called the Adelaide Hills and, further north, the Barossa Range.
The ranges encompass a wide variety of land usage, including significant residential development concentrated in the foothills, suburbs of Stirling and Bridgewater, the towns Mount Barker and Victor Harbor in particular. Several pine plantation forests exist, most around Mount Crawford and Cudlee Creek in the north and Kuitpo Forest and Second Valley in the south. Several protected areas exist near Adelaide where the hills face the city in order to preserve sought-after residential land: Black Hill Conservation Park, Cleland Conservation Park and Belair National Park are the largest; the other significant parks in the southern ranges are Deep Creek Conservation Park, on the rugged southern shores of the Fleurieu Peninsula, Para Wirra Conservation Park at the southern edge of the Barossa Valley. There are many wineries in the ranges. Two wine regions in particular are world-renowned: McLaren Vale. Grapes are grown in the Adelaide Hills and the Onkaparinga Valley. Although no major mines operate in the southern ranges today, there are several large disused ones, a myriad of small ones.
An iron sulfide mine at Brukunga, northeast of Mount Barker, operated from 1955 to 1972, proving a valuable source for the production of superphosphate fertilisers vital for the postwar development of the State's outlying agricultural areas. The runoff from the mine proved quite toxic for the local environment, efforts have been underway since to alleviate the damage. A small short-lived silver and lead mine in the foothills of the ranges at Glen Osmond was first opened just two years after the founding of the State in 1836: it is significant for being not only the first metal mine in the history of the State, but the first in all Australia. South Australia never experienced a nineteenth-century gold rush like those interstate, but gold was mined near both Echunga and Williamstown. Other mines in the southern ranges include a nineteenth-century silver-lead mine at Talisker near Cape Jervis, which features many remaining old buildings, the limestone mine at Rapid Bay, which ceased operations much more recently.
Copper was mined at Kapunda and Kanmantoo and may be again and a zinc mine is proposed near Strathalbyn. Quarries dot the most spectacular and massive of which are in the Adelaide foothills. Only one railway now crosses the ranges: the major Adelaide-Melbourne line, first constructed in the 1870s and has had only minor realignments since. Passenger services used to run from the city to Bridgewater in the heart of the hills and ranges, but now stop at Belair in the foothills. A railway approaches the ranges at Willunga; the Mount Barker to Victor Harbor line skirts the eastern edge of the ranges. North of Adelaide, there is a railway to Angaston in the east of the Barossa Valley, former railways to Truro and across the ranges near Eudunda to Morgan on the Murray River; the ranges form part of the water supply for Adelaide, there is an extensive infrastructure of reservoirs and pipelines, on the Torrens, Little Para and Gawler River catchments. Mount Bold, South Para, Kangaroo Creek, Millbrook reservoirs are the largest.
The northern ranges confused with the southern Flinders Ranges, sometimes referred to as the "Mid-North ranges" or "central hill country", stretch from hills near Kapunda in the south to arid ranges beyond Peterborough in the northeast. The highest peak in this section is Mount Bryan. Other significant peaks include New Campbell Stein Hill, which overlooks Burra; the northern ranges include Tothill Range and the Skilly Hills. Mining, although absent today, was once a major industry in the northern ranges; the copper mine at Kapunda, just north of the Barossa, operated from 1842 to 1877 and was a major boost to the infant State's economy, but was soon overshadowed by the large workings at Burra, further north. The mine here operated from 1845 to 1877 with a few minor interruptions, was superseded by larger workings on the Yorke Peninsula; as testament to the volume of copper at Burra, the mine re-opened as an open-cut in 1971, before closing
Castambul is a small locality near Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the Adelaide Hills Council local government area. Castambul was named Sixth Creek, but was renamed Castambul by Price Maurice after the Kastamonu region in the Black Sea area of Turkey. In the 1850s, Australia's first payable gold mine was located in the area; the area was home to Price Maurice, who moved to Castambul in 1856 and bred Angora goats for wool. Angora goats were introduced from Turkey to South Australia by John Haigh, who bred them near Port Lincoln. After purchasing Haigh's flock, Maurice was impressed with their potential and soon sent to Turkey for additional animals, his enterprises in South Australia were successful but he returned to Britain with his family in 1862 for health reasons. Kastambul Post Office opened on an unknown date and closed at the end of 1971. Today little exists of the old settlement. In 1966, work started on the Kangaroo Creek Reservoir, a dam of the River Torrens, in 1969, it was completed at a cost of $5.3 million.
Apart from supplying water to eastern Adelaide, it serves a flood protection role and holds 19,160 megalitres. Castambul is located east of Montacute on the road out of Adelaide via Athelstone. Castambul has a CSR calcite quarry and tea gardens, both located on Gorge Road, the former Victoria Goldmine on Batchelor Road is a heritage-listed site; the area is not serviced by Adelaide public transport
Basket Range is a small town in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. It is located on an north-south ridge that runs from Deep Creek in the north to Greenhill Road in the south; the area is encircled by hills, giving the town the appearance of nestling within a large basket, hence "Basket Range". It has been suggested that the name may derive from the practice of German farmers who, travelling from Lobethal to Adelaide along the old Bullock Track which passed through the area, would carry their produce in large wicker baskets, it has been suggested that a Mr Basket was in charge of issuing timber-cutting licences in the early days. The town's main industries include apple and cherry orchards, there are numerous cottages available for bed and breakfast accommodation. Basket Range Primary School was established in 1885, the Basket Range CFS was founded in 1969. Basket Range Post Office opened on 1 April 1892. Basket Range is home to one of the oldest cricket clubs in the region. Basket Range Cricket Club was formed in 1892 and their oval overlooks the wide sweeping hills views of the area