Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Sean R. Eberhart is a Republican member of the Indiana House of Representatives, representing the 57th District since 2007, he served on the Shelby County Council from 1998 to 2006 and as its President from 2003 to 2006. He served on the County Council's 4th district. State Representative Sean Eberhart official Indiana State Legislature site Sean Eberhart for State Representative official campaign site Profile at Vote Smart
Tim Brown (Indiana politician)
Timothy Neal Brown is a Republican member of the Indiana House of Representatives, representing the 41st District since 1994. He was elected to chair of the House Ways and Means Committee in 2012. On September 12, 2018, Brown was injured in a motorcycle accident. Indiana State Legislature - Representative Dr. Tim Brown Official government website Project Vote Smart - Representative Timothy Brown profile
Brian C. Bosma is an American politician and lawyer, the current Speaker of the Indiana House of Representatives. A member of the Republican Party, Bosma has served in the Indiana House since 1986, he replaced Gordon Harper. He was elected in the 50th district, but was redistricted to the 88th district in 1992; the 88th district encompasses northeast portions of Hancock and Hamilton County. Upon Republicans regaining a majority in the Indiana House in 2004, he was elected to his first of four nonconsecutive terms to the speakership, he served his first term as speaker until 2006, when Democrats gained control of the House, has since served as speaker after Republicans obtained a super majority in the House in the 2010 elections. Outside of state politics, Bosma is in an attorney in private practice, working as a partner with Kroger, Gardis & Regas and is the founding director of Bosma Industries for the Blind, an Indianapolis-based private non-profit which serves as Indiana's largest employer of blind individuals and those with severe visual impairments.
Brian Bosma was born in Indiana to parents Margaret and Charles Bosma. His mother was a kindergarten teacher, while his father, a United States Army officer in World War II and businessman, served in the Indiana State Senate from 1962 to 1980, his grandfather, who immigrated from the Netherlands with his eleven brothers and sisters, was a dairy operator and founded Bosma Dairy Barn, where Brian worked growing up. Bosma graduated from Beech Grove High School, where he played on the school's basketball team, subsequently attended Purdue University. At Purdue, Bosma received a bachelor of science in engineering in 1981 and was a member of Beta Sigma Psi fraternity, he went on to study at Indiana University's Robert H. McKinney School of Law, where graduated with his Juris Doctor in 1984 and was admitted to the Indiana State Bar Association and became a member of the American Bar Association that year. Bosma resides in Indiana with his wife Cheryl. Together, they have two children. Bosma is a Protestant and attends Grace Community Church in Noblesville, where he serves on the church's governing board.
He is a discussion leader with the Bible Study Fellowship. After passing the Indiana Bar, Bosma began working as an associate attorney with Bingham Summers Welsh and Spilman, he worked at the law firm from 1984 to 1985 upon becoming a legislative adviser in the Indiana Department of Education, a position he held from 1985 to 1986, where he served as the legislative liaison to Indiana Superintendent of Public Instruction H. Dean Evans. After leaving the state education department, Bosma reentered private practice and joined as a partner at Indianapolis-based Kroger and Regas, LLP in 1986. Bosma has since continued to work as a partner at Kroger and Regas outside of his work in the Indiana House's legislative sessions, where he practices Governmental law, Environmental law, Construction law and Real Estate law and is the chairman of the firms' environmental practice group; the facility of Bosma Industries was a public institution created by the Indiana Legislature in 1915 and was known as the Board of Industrial Aid for the Blind, having been operated in part by Indiana's Vocational Rehabilitation Services.
During his time as a legislator, Bosma's father, who advocated for the rights of the blind and disabled, was honored by the state via an executive order by then-Governor Robert D. Orr in renaming the board'Bosma Industries for the Blind'. A few years after the renaming to Bosma Industries, members of the Indiana Legislature, becoming concerned with the cost and effectiveness of the program, had removed all state funding for the facility; this move by the state led Bosma and others to arrange the process of privatizing Bosma Industries. In 1988, Bosma became its founding director under private leadership, while maintaining over $1 million in contracts with the state. Bosma Industries works to create employment opportunities for individuals with severe visual impairments and its business model has been described as "part 5013 foundation that does the rehab and training, part business, that packs and ships vast quantities of latex gloves, packages dry food, provides business services, contracts for other production needs, competing on the open market."
Having over 200 employees, including over 85 of which being blind and visually impaired, Bosma Industries operates off of a $42.5 million annual budget. Bosma Industries serves as the largest employer in Indiana of individuals with visual disabilities. Representative Brian Bosma was first elected in 1986 to represent House District 88, which today encompasses the northeast portion of Marion County, a portion of southern Hamilton County and the western part of Hancock County, he replaced Gordon Harper. He served as the Republican Minority Floor Leader from 1994 to 1999. Bosma was selected to serve as the Republican Minority Leader from 2000 to 2004 and again from 2006 to 2010. In 2004, when House Republicans assumed a 52-48 majority, Bosma was elected Speaker of the House by his peers. After serving as Republican Leader following the 2006 and 2008 elections, Bosma was again elected Speaker of the House when Republicans won a 60-seat majority in 2010 and a 69-seat super-majority in 2012; as Speaker of the 114th General Assembly, Representative Bosma and the House Republicans worked to revitalize Indiana's economy, passed a balanced budget, adopted sweepi
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Indiana House of Representatives
The Indiana House of Representatives is the lower house of the Indiana General Assembly, the state legislature of the United States state of Indiana. The House is composed of 100 members representing an equal number of constituent districts. House members serve two-year terms without term limits. According to the 2010 census, each State House district contains an average of 64,838 people; the House convenes at the Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis. In order to run for a seat for the Indiana House of Representatives one must be a citizen of the United States, has to be at least 21 years of age upon taking office, should reside in the state of Indiana for 2 years and in the district to represent for at least 1 year at the time of the election. Representatives serve terms of two years, there is no limit on how many terms a representative may serve. †Member was appointed to the seat. As of 25 July 2018; the Indiana House of Representatives held its first session in the first statehouse in the original state capital of Corydon and the first speaker of the body was Isaac Blackford.
Under the terms of the constitution of 1816, state representatives served one years terms, meaning elections were held annually. In 1851, the constitution was replaced by the current constitution and terms were lengthened to two years, but sessions were held biennially. A 1972 constitutional amendment allowed for a short legislative session to be held in odd numbered years. On November 6, 2012, the Republican Party in Indiana expanded their majority in the House of Representatives from 60 members in the 117th General Assembly to 69 members, a "quorum-proof" majority; the Republicans were able to take 69% of the seats, despite having only received 54% of the votes for the state's House of Representatives. Of the 3 newly elected members of the U. S. House elected to the 113th Congress from Indiana, two are former members of the Indiana House of Representatives. Congresswoman Jackie Walorski represented Indiana's 21st district from 2005 to 2011 and Congressman Luke Messer represented Indiana's 57th district from 2003 to 2007.
Congressman Marlin Stutzman was re-elected to a second term, he is a former member of the Indiana House of Representatives where he served Indiana's 52nd district from 2003 to 2009. Speaker of the Indiana State House of Representatives Indiana Senate Government of Indiana Politics of Indiana American Legislative Exchange Council members Indiana General Assembly Indiana House of Representatives at Ballotpedia State House of Indiana at Project Vote Smart Indiana House Democrats Indiana House Republicans 2015 Indiana Candidate Guide - Qualifications