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Cargo cult science

Cargo cult science is a form of pseudoscience in which an imagined hypothesis is offered after the fact for some observed phenomenon, further occurrences of the phenomenon are deemed to be proof of the hypothesis. It can be paraphrased as, "It has been observed to work in the past, while other methods have been observed not to work." In contrast with the scientific method, there is no vigorous effort to disprove the hypothesis. The term Cargo cult science was first used by physicist Richard Feynman during his 1974 commencement address at the California Institute of Technology. Cargo cults are religious practices that have appeared in many traditional tribal societies in the wake of interaction with technologically advanced cultures, they focus on obtaining the material wealth of the advanced culture by imitating the actions they believe cause the appearance of cargo: by building landing strips, mock aircraft, mock radios, the like. Although cargo cult sciences employ the trappings of the scientific method, like an airplane with no motor, they fail to deliver anything of value.

Feynman adapted the speech into the final chapter of his book Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!. He based the phrase on a concept in anthropology, the cargo cult, which describes how some pre-industrialized cultures interpreted technologically sophisticated visitors as religious or supernatural figures who brought boons of cargo. In an effort to call for a second visit the natives would develop and engage in complex religious rituals, mirroring the observed behavior of the visitors manipulating their machines but without understanding the true nature of those tasks. Just as cargo cultists create mock airports that fail to produce airplanes, cargo cult scientists conduct flawed research that superficially resembles the scientific method, but which fails to produce scientifically useful results; the following is an excerpt from a speech. In the South Seas there is a cargo cult of people. During the war they saw airplanes land with lots of good materials, they want the same thing to happen now.

So they've arranged to imitate things like runways, to put fires along the sides of the runways, to make a wooden hut for a man to sit in, with two wooden pieces on his head like headphones and bars of bamboo sticking out like antennas—he's the controller—and they wait for the airplanes to land. They're doing everything right; the form is perfect. It looks the way it looked before, but it doesn't work. No airplanes land. So I call these things cargo cult science, because they follow all the apparent precepts and forms of scientific investigation, but they're missing something essential, because the planes don't land. Feynman cautioned that to avoid becoming cargo cult scientists, researchers must avoid fooling themselves, be willing to question and doubt their own theories and their own results, investigate possible flaws in a theory or an experiment, he recommended that researchers adopt an unusually high level of honesty, encountered in everyday life, gave examples from advertising and psychology to illustrate the everyday dishonesty which should be unacceptable in science.

Feynman cautioned, We've learned from experience. Other experimenters will find out whether you were wrong or right. Nature's phenomena will agree or they'll disagree with your theory. And, although you may gain some temporary fame and excitement, you will not gain a good reputation as a scientist if you haven't tried to be careful in this kind of work, and it's this type of integrity, this kind of care not to fool yourself, missing to a large extent in much of the research in cargo cult science. An example of cargo cult science is an experiment that uses another researcher's results in lieu of an experimental control. Since the other researcher's conditions might differ from those of the present experiment in unknown ways, differences in the outcome might have no relation to the independent variable under consideration. Other examples, given by Feynman, are from educational research and physics, he mentions other kinds of dishonesty, for example, falsely promoting one's research to secure funding.

Feynman believed a scientist of integrity must attempt to give out as much information as possible about their experiments so others could appraise their contribution. The oil drop experiment: The history of published results for this experiment is an example given in Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, in which each new publication and drifted more and more away from the initial values given by Robert Millikan toward the correct value, rather than all having a random distribution from the start around what is now believed to be the correct result. This slow drift in the chronological history of results is unnatural and suggests that nobody wanted to contradict the previous one, instead submitting only concordant results for publication. In his commencement address, Richard Feynman stated his belief that the antidote to both cargo cult science and pseudoscience is scientific integrity, which he describes as, "a kind of leaning over backwards" to make sure scientists do not fool themselves or others.

According to Feynman an ethical scientist must make the extra effort to ensure that their methods and results are transparent, allowing other people to appraise and understand the scientist's research. Feynman uses the case of a Wesson cooking oil advertisement as an example of an unethical and deceptive use of science that delivers nothing of value; the advertisement made the claim. In reality no oil will soak through food if it is cold enough

Antipathes dichotoma

Antipathes dichotoma is a species of colonial coral in the order Antipatharia, the black corals, so named because their calcareous skeletons are black. It was first described by the German zoologist and botanist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766, from a single specimen he received from near Marseilles in the Mediterranean Sea. A colony of Antipathes dichotoma can grow to a height of 1 m or more, it forms a sparsely branching structure with slender, flexible branches arranged irregularly around the trunk. The angle at which the branches project is variable but is nearly 90°; the smaller branches bear four to six rows of smooth conical spines. The polyps are 2 to 2.4 mm in diameter with four polyps per centimetre. They are arranged in a single series on the smallest branches and in multiple series on the largest ones. There is considerable variation in appearance of neighbouring colonies and in different parts of the same colony. Antipathes dichotoma occurs in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of the temperate western Atlantic Ocean.

Its range includes waters off the coast of Marseilles, the Gulf of Naples, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Bay of Biscay and off the coast of Morocco. It is a deep water species and is found at depths of 200 to 300 m. Where this species has been recorded as occurring in the Indo-Pacific region, it may have been misidentified; the black coral growing off Hawaii, for example, has been reclassified as Antipathes griggi

Family policy in Hungary

Family policy in Hungary refers to government measures in order to increase the national birthrate and stop the decline of Hungary's population. Hungary's family policy seeks to make childcare economically easier for new parents. Hungary's population has been declining since 1980 - when the country’s population peaked at 10.7 million - and with that it is the country in Europe, shrinking for the longest time. The main cause of, that women on average do not have 2.1 or more babies to keep the population stable. There were no governments that could change this declining trend since 1980, there were several visible alterations during the last decades, it fell from 2.17 in 1977 to 1.23 in 2011. The Bokros package, the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the European debt crisis all accelerated that downward trend; the Second Orbán Government made saving the nation from the demographic abyss a key aspect and therefore has introduced generous breaks for large families and increased social benefits for all families.

Those with three or more children pay no taxes. In just a couple years, Hungary went from being one of the countries that spend the least on families in the OECD to being one of those that do so the most. In 2015, it was 4% of GDP; the Orbán Government kept the earlier existed family allowance and beside that introduced the family tax benefit. The government introduced the discount for first married couples which means that newly married couples receive together 5,000 HUF per month during the next 24 months after marriage. Since 2015 CSOK can be required by married couples for used or newly built houses and apartments if they promise that they will have one, three or four children; the size of support depends on the number of children. At least one of the parents has to be under 40 years old, they have to meet the following requirements: unpunished life, 180 days social security payment before the request or 2 years social security payment. The children - who could be of blood or adoptee - have to live with the parents to fulfill the criteria.

They can get CSOK as preferential mortgage rates on housing. It can be calculated as follows: Families can refund most of their taxes up to 5 million HUF that they paid for house and building material purchases, they need to pay just the 5% VAT. The amount of the maternity benefit is equal to the 225% of the minimal pension at the time of birth of the child, in case of twin it is 300%, it is a one-off support. The child care allowance is paid monthly from the birth until the child's age of 2, its size is equal to 70% of the mother's or father's - since one of them can apply for that - salary, but it cannot be higher than 140% of the current minimal wage. Several measures were introduced since 2010 that made services free or cheaper for families with children; the vaccinations against the following diseases were free and obligatory in Hungary: tuberculosis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae, mumps, hepatitis, streptococcus pneumoniae. The government made vaccinations for other diseases free - chicken pox, the two types of meningitis and rotavirus - in 2018.

Children in the first nine classes get free textbooks in school since 2017. Those children who are in higher classes but live in disadvantaged conditions, suffer from long-term illness, get child protection benefit, or live in a large family with three or more children are entitled to free textbooks. However, the government plans to provide free textbooks for every pupils and students until the final exam; those children who live in disadvantaged conditions, suffer from long-term illness, get child protection benefit, or live in a large family with three or more children get free or half price meals in nurseries and schools. Meanwhile others get them on reduced prices; those youngsters younger than 20 who are going to achieve to get a European driving licence in Category B could take a course on KRESZ for free and try the test for the first time at no charge. In case of taking a successful language exam on B2 or C1 level the price of the exam is refunded by the state if the examinee is under 35 years old.

Children could use public transport free if they are accompanied by an adult and do not attend school yet. Pupils and undergraduates can use public transport at half price by showing their student card. Parents of one have 2 days extra paid vacation. Parents of two get 4 days and parents of three or more children receive seven days more of paid vacation than the average Hungarian; the Women 40 program makes it possible for women who have worked 40 years to retire in order to get more time to spend with grandchildren or with their own old parents. Maternity benefit is a one-off support to Hungarian mothers living abroad and amounts to 64,125 HUF per child. In case of twins it is 85,500 HUF together; every Hungarian parent living outside of Hungary can require 42,500 HUF account per child. This money stays in the bank and bears interest, he or she can get the final amount. Demographics of Hungary

DVD Copy Control Ass'n, Inc. v. Kaleidescape, Inc.

DVD Copy Control Association, Inc. v. Kaleidescape, Inc. 176 Cal. App. 4th 697 is a legal case heard by the California Court of Appeal concerning breach of contract and breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. It discusses incorporation by reference regarding a supplemental document, not part of the written license agreement between the parties; the Court of Appeal reversed the trial court's judgment and ruled in favor of the plaintiff, finding that defendant was bound to the entire contract, including the supplemental document. This case is of interest in the realm of copyright law due to its tangential relationship to the issues of fair use and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Kaleidescape, Inc. licensed the motion picture industry-supported digital rights management system, Content Scramble System, from the DVD Copy Control Association in order to provide a home entertainment server system that would allow a user to copy physical DVDs to a single persistent storage device.

Once in the Kaleidescape system, the DVD content could be stored and played back at any time, without requiring access to the original DVDs. It would allow users to make permanent copies of borrowed or rented DVDs. In particular, the Kaleidescape system would copy the CSS-encrypted files in their entirety from the DVDs using a "reader", which would save the encrypted files to the "server". Playback would only be allowed via a licensed Kaleidescape "player". In 2004, DVD CCA sued Kaleidescape for breach of contract and breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. DVD CCA alleged that because the Kaleidescape system allowed its users to play previously-copied content without requiring the DVD to be in the machine at the time of playback, Kaleidescape violated the "CSS General Specifications" section of the license agreement. Under this particular licensing scheme, the licensee must sign a standard agreement to maintain confidentiality of the CSS technology. At the time of signing, the licensee is not aware of the particular specifications to which the licensee must comply.

It is only after noting the "membership category", executing the agreement, paying the required fees, will the licensee receive the "CSS General Specifications". Since it was found that the General Specifications were not mentioned in the license, the trial court found that those terms were not properly incorporated by reference into the agreement. Thus, in the March 29, 2007 ruling for the case DVD Copy Control Association, Inc. v. Kaleidescape, Inc. No. 1-04-CV031829, Judge Leslie C. Nichols ruled in favor of Kaleidescape, finding that Kaleidescape was in full compliance with the DVD CCA's CSS licensing scheme. In particular, it was found that the "CSS General Specifications" were not technically included as part of the license agreement. Although this case only addressed breach of contract and was not a copyright case, it was considered by some to be an important recent test of fair use precedent, since it circles the question of whether a consumer who has purchased a DVD can copy or backup that DVD to whatever end the consumer desires.

DVD CCA filed its opening brief in December 2007, appealing the lower court decision to the 6th District Court of Appeal. In August 2009, the Court of Appeal reversed the lower court decision, ruling that the "CSS General Specifications" were a part of the contract; the Court of Appeal did not decide whether Kaleidescape complied with them and instead ordered the trial court to determine any breach of contract. In March 2012, the trial court ruled that Kaleidescape had violated the terms of the contract, an injunction was issued prohibiting them from selling or supporting the products in question. There were some fair use comments worthy of note in this case. Considered in the case were memos written by Kaleidescape's founders, including the reflection that enabling consumers to make permanent backups of DVDs would become "a value--loss proposition for content owners and rental businesses because there is no repeat business if everyone were to own product. Rental business will die, retail business will suffer because borrowing once to have a permanent copy forever seems too good to forego for the average consumer.”All three judges concurred, with Judge Rushing offering a separate opinion that addressed a bit more in the realm of fair use.

Judge Rushing stated, "In my view, its product was not designed or intended to facilitate the theft of intellectual property. He further commented, it is not a moral imperative," referencing the concern that such a system would enable a user to build an entire DVD library by copying rented or borrowed DVDs. Judge Rushing noted that the features provided by the Kaleidescape system has "no more tendency to permit'casual users' to engage in'unauthorized copying'" than a personal computer. Additionally, the Kaleidescape system only makes one copy to be stored within the system, does not enable further duplications of that copy, he contrasted this with the capabilities of an equivalent system built on a personal computer, remarking that such a capability for collecting copies of DVDs had been around for years prior to the development of the Kaleidescape system. A review was denied on October 22, 2009. Incorporation by refer

Hessinger Store

Hessinger Store was a historic general store located at Callicoon Center in Sullivan County, New York. It was built in 1840 and demolished in April 2011; the building was a general store, but functioned as a post office, dance hall, hotel / rooming house. It was a large wood frame building constructed in four phases over a 20 to 50-year period starting about 1840, it was built of heavy timber and beam construction and built into a hillside on a stone foundation. The largest section was the ​2 1⁄2-story center section; the second floor of the south wing served as a Masonic hall and features a barrel vaulted ceiling. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. After the Hessingers sold the building, it went through a succession of at least three owners, who failed to keep the building in good repair; the building became dilapidated and rodent-infested. In December 2010, the town of Calicoon decided to demolish the building. After a brief court battle the dilapidated building was demolished in April 2011

USS Modoc (1865)

USS Modoc, a single turret, an 1175-ton Casco-class light draft monitor built under contract by J. S. Underhill at Greenpoint, was completed as a spar torpedo vessel in June 1865, she had no active service. Though the original designs for the Casco-class monitors were drawn by John Ericsson, the final revision was created by Chief Engineer Alban C. Stimers following Rear Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont's failed bombardment of Fort Sumter in 1863. By the time that the plans were put before the Monitor Board in New York City and Simers had a poor relationship, Chief of the Bureau of Construction and Repair John Lenthall had little connection to the board; this resulted in the plans being approved and 20 vessels ordered without serious scrutiny of the new design. $14 million US was allocated for the construction of these vessels. It was discovered that Stimers had failed to compensate for the armour his revisions added to the original plan and this resulted in excessive stress on the wooden hull frames and a freeboard of only 3 inches.

Stimers was removed from the control of the project and Ericsson was called in to undo the damage. He was forced to raise the hulls of the monitors under construction by nearly two feet and the first few completed vessels had their turrets removed and were converted to torpedo boats with the weapons listed to the right. Modoc received her original name back on 10 August, she was sold to John Roach and broken up at New York, NY in August 1875. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found