Florida State Seminoles men's basketball
The Florida State Seminoles men's basketball team represents Florida State University in the intercollegiate sport of basketball. The Seminoles compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Atlantic Coast Conference. Though they have played under the shadow of the football program, the Seminoles have had successes on the hardwood and they have achieved success in recent years. Florida State has made seventeen NCAA Tournament appearances: advancing to the Round of 32 on ten occasions, the Sweet Sixteen six times, the Elite Eight on three occasions, the Final Four once, moving on to the championship game and finishing as runner-up. Florida State has made ten appearances in the National Invitation Tournament. In the sixty-nine season history of the Seminole basketball program, the Seminoles have won the regular season conference title four times and the conference tournament title three times, including one ACC championship. Florida State has had twenty-two All-Americans, twenty-six players inducted into the Hall of Fame, thirty-one players that went on to play in the NBA.
Jeff Sagarin and ESPN listed the program 74th in the college basketball all-time rankings in the'ESPN College Basketball Encyclopedia'. The Seminoles play their home games in the Donald L. Tucker Center on the university's Tallahassee, Florida campus; the current head men's basketball coach is Leonard Hamilton, in his seventeenth year. The Florida State Seminoles men's team annually plays an eighteen-game conference schedule, preceded by an out-of-conference schedule against few annual opponents except for Florida, their conference schedule consists of a home-and-home game against two permanent rivals, alternating home-and-home games against the other fourteen ACC teams. Florida State University has fielded a basketball team since 1947, the Seminoles are in their 71st season of play. Hugh Donald Loucks served as the first basketball coach for the Florida State Seminoles, he coached at the school for one year and compiled an overall record of 5–13, becoming one of only two coaches to leave the program with a losing record of 11 games.
After the departure of Loucks, J. K. Kennedy became the coach, he was the first coach to find success at Florida State, holding the position for eighteen years and compiling a record of 234–208. Hugh Durham played at Florida State in the 1950s, scoring 1,381 points in three years, his average of 21.9 points per game in 1958–59 is the seventh best tally in Florida State history. Durham's career average of 18.9 points per game is still the ninth best in school history. After his playing career had ended, he began his coaching career as an assistant coach in 1959. Seven years Durham would be named head coach in 1966. One of the top players during this time was future NBA Hall-of-Famer Dave Cowens. Durham led the Seminoles from 1966 to 1978. In 1972, Durham led Florida State to a runner-up finish in the NCAA Tournament. A hard-fought 81–76 loss to the top-ranked UCLA Bruins in the NCAA Championship game prevented Durham's Florida State team from winning the NCAA Tournament. Another key player for the Seminoles was Harry Davis.
Durham's overall record at Florida State was a 230–95 record with three NCAA tournament bids. He still owns the highest winning percentage of any Florida State coach at.708. Durham is the only coach in NCAA history to be the all-time winningest coach at three different Division I schools. After the departure of Hugh Durham, Joe Williams took over the Seminole basketball program. One of the standout players during this period was George McCloud. McCloud helped the Seminoles rebuild after the departure of Durham by becoming one of the most prolific scorers in FSU history. During his senior season, McCloud had the second-highest scoring average and the sixth-highest in Florida State history. Joe Williams would coach his final season in 1986; the 1992–1993 season would see the emergence of one of the Seminoles' best players in its history, Bob Sura. Not much was expected of the Seminoles in 1992 as they entered into their first season in the ACC, yet they finished second in the conference to national champion Duke.
The team repeated the second-place finish in 1993, establishing itself as a legitimate national power. In the 1993 NCAA Tournament they fell to Kentucky in the Elite Eight round. In Kennedy's final season he led the team to the NIT Final. Steve Robinson took over the program for the 1997–1998 season and led the Seminoles to the NCAA Tournament his first year. However, the team suffered losing records the next four seasons and Robinson left the program after the 2001–2002 campaign. Robinson is now an assistant coach with the North Carolina Tar Heels. Leonard Hamilton became Florida State’s seventh head basketball coach on March 19, 2002. In two years, Tim Pickett scored 1,039 points, earning him First-Team All-ACC and All-American Honorable Mention honors. Hamilton was named ACC Coach of the Year in 2009 and 2012. Hamilton is the first Seminole coach to win an ACC Championship, capturing the league tournament title in 2012, he has led the Seminoles to seven NCAA tournament appearances. During his tenure, Florida State has been the third-most successful team in the conference.
Hamilton is the winningest coach in the program's history and has sent twelve players to the NBA Draft. *^22 wins vacated from Leonard Hamilton's record from the 2006–2007 basketball season The Seminoles play all of their home games at the Donald L. Tucker Center, it is an 18,000-square-foot multi-purpose facility which has hosted over 25 years worth of Seminole games. Florida State has appeared in the NCAA Divi
History of Florida State University
The history of Florida State University dates to the 19th century and is intertwined with the history of education in the state of Florida and in the city of Tallahassee. Florida State University, known colloquially as Florida State and FSU, is one of the oldest and largest of the institutions in the State University System of Florida, it traces its origins to the West Florida Seminary, one of two state-funded seminaries the Florida Legislature voted to establish in 1851. The West Florida Seminary known as the Florida State Seminary, opened for classes in Tallahassee in 1857, absorbing the Florida Institute, established as an inducement for the state to place the seminary in the city; the former Florida Institute property, located where the historic Westcott Building now stands, is the oldest continuously used site of higher education in Florida. The area west of the state Capitol and ominously known as Gallows Hill, a place for public executions in early Tallahassee. In 1858 the seminary absorbed the Tallahassee Female Academy, established in 1843, became coeducational.
In 1863, during the American Civil War, Florida's Confederate government added a military school to the institution, changed its name to the Florida Military and Collegiate Institute. The school fielded student soldiers into an organized unit of the institution, which helped repel a Union attack on Tallahassee at the Battle of Natural Bridge. In 1883, it became part of the Florida University, the first state-supported university to be founded in Florida; the university project struggled with a lack of legislative support, the seminary soon returned to its old name, but focused on modern-style secondary education. In 1905 the Buckman Act restructured higher education in Florida, the school was reorganized as a college for white women, the Florida State College for Women. After World War II, the school was made coeducational once again to help accommodate the influx of students entering college under the G. I. Bill, was renamed Florida State University, it became racially integrated in 1963, was noted as a center of student activism during the 1960s.
Through the 20th and 21st centuries Florida State University has grown in both size and academic prominence, with a particular focus on graduate and doctoral research. In 1823 the United States Congress determined that the Florida Territory shall receive two seminaries of learning, one on each side of the Suwannee River. By 1838, the first constitution of the Florida Territory embraced and permanently guaranteed a system of general education and higher education. Throughout the history of Tallahassee strong energy and focus toward education originated with leaders and members of the First Presbyterian Church, located near Florida State University; the First Presbyterian Church building was built before 1838 and is the oldest public building in Tallahassee. For a century the First Presbyterian Church of Tallahassee would have a strong symbiotic relationship with the origin and development of the educational institution known today as Florida State University. City officials of Tallahassee, took steps to establish a school for boys as early as 1827 with the establishment of the Leon Academy.
The Leon Academy was advertised in the Pensacola Gazette of March 9, 1827 as being under the supervision of Presbyterian Rev. Henry M. White, A. M. By early 1831 the Leon Academy was under the control of the Tallahassee City Council; the Leon Academy was incorporated by an act of the Territorial Legislative Council on February 12, 1831 under the control of seven trustees. The Leon Academy suffered from lack of financial resources as well as high administrative turnover and in September 1836 was operated by John M. Brook of Virginia as a "private Seminary for boys", while the trustees continued to control and manage the property. By 1840 the Leon Academy ceased operations as a public school; the trustees, turned to the Territorial Legislature once again, who passed an "Act in Relation to the Trustees of Leon Academy" in 1840 wherein the Treasurer of the Territory was directed to pay funds to the trustees to "assist said Trustees in building an Academy". On March 9, 1840 the Leon Academy had been refreshed with some Territory support.
The trustees solicited Territory support on the basis the Leon Academy would serve both male and female students. There is disagreement among scholars if the male-only Leon Academy is the forerunner of the West Florida Seminary. A point of agreement between the scholars is that the same leading citizens of Tallahassee were interested in both institutions; the Leon Academy was replaced by schools for males and females in a system established by Reverend Joshua Phelps and Elder David C. Wilson, both of the First Presbyterian Church. Princeton University-educated Reverend William Neil and his wife Eliza Neil operated the academies for males and females, which were merged in 1846 into a new version of the Leon Academy for Males and Females; the Leon Academy split into the Tallahassee Female Academy known as the Leon Female Academy for females. While organized public education for males faltered between 1840 and 1850, education for females was intact and unusually complete. By January 1850 municipal elections in Tallahassee called for a city-supported school for males and the Tallahassee City Council, assumed financial responsibility for the Florida Institute the same year.
On January 24, 1851 the Florida Legislature voted to establish West Florida Seminary, which became Florida State University and East Florida Seminary which became the University of Florida. The 1851 law specified the organization and governing boards of the schools, including terms of office for those boards, spe
Florida State Seminoles men's golf
The Florida State Seminoles men's golf team represents Florida State University in the sport of golf. The Seminoles compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Atlantic Coast Conference, they play their home matches on the Don A. Veller Seminole Golf Course on the university's Tallahassee, Florida campus, are led by 16-year head coach Trey Jones; some notable alumni of the program are Paul Azinger, Hubert Green, Jeff Sluman, George McNeill, Jonas Blixt, Daniel Berger, Brooks Koepka. In the 69-year history of the Seminoles' men's golf program, they have won 13 conference championships and seven Seminoles have won individual conference titles. Florida State is one of just five universities to have had four alumni win the major championships and Florida State alums have won a total of 64 professional tournaments. Ten different Florida State alumni have represented the University with wins on the PGA Tour, including former Seminole golfers Hubert Green, winner of the 1977 U.
S. Open and the 1985 PGA Championship, Jeff Sluman, winner of the 1988 PGA Championship, Paul Azinger, winner of the 1993 PGA Championship, Brooks Koepka, winner of the 2017 and 2018 U. S. Open as well as the 2018 PGA Championship; the Dave Middleton Golf Complex and the Don Veller Seminole Golf Course are home to the PGA Golf Management Program, one of only a few programs in the country accredited by the Professional Golfers' Association of America. A 27,000-square-foot clubhouse, the Dave Middleton Golf Complex boasts private Wi-Fi classrooms and teaching labs, an internship library, a equipped club repair room, a pro shop, locker rooms and the Renegade Grill; the $7 million facility is a two-building complex, which includes a multi-directional driving range, a video analysis instructional center with hitting bays for inclement weather and putting greens, as well as locker rooms, a team lounge and fitness facility. The golf course was renovated in 2004 with the reconstruction of all 18 greens, tee boxes and the state-of-the-art TiffEagle Turf was installed on all the putting surfaces.
Each year the facility hosts more than 60,000 rounds of golf. The golf course was recognized as one of the top 10 golf courses in the country by the National Golf Foundation for customer loyalty and satisfaction. In 2007 a new 21,000-square-foot chipping green was added in the southeast corner near the 29 driving range boxes. A 10-acre practice facility is used by students in the PGM program. In 2017, the University announced that Nicklaus Design had been hired to renovate the course at a cost of $4-6 million. Florida State Seminoles Florida State Seminoles women's golf Seminoles.com – Official website of the Florida State Seminoles men's golf team
Florida State Seminoles softball
The Florida State Seminoles softball team represents Florida State University in the sport of softball. Florida State competes in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletics Association and the Atlantic Coast Conference. In the forty year history of the Seminoles softball program, the team has won sixteen ACC titles, two AIAW national titles and one WCWS national title. Florida State has made thirty-one appearances in the NCAA Tournament, advancing to the Women's College World Series on ten occasions. Jessica van der Linden and Lacey Waldrop have won the USA National Softball Player of the Year Award while thirty-three Seminole players have been honored as All-Americans and six have been drafted into the National Pro Fastpitch League; the Seminoles play their home games at JoAnne Graf Field on the university's Tallahassee, Florida campus, are led by head coach Lonni Alameda the coach of the USSSA Pride. FSU has been one of the most dominant softball programs in the history of collegiate softball.
Only five teams in the history of the NCAA have been to more WCWS than Florida State and no school east of Arizona has been to more NCAA Tournaments than the Seminoles. Florida State has made a regional appearance every year since 2000. Florida State has never endured a losing season and the Seminoles have achieved 34 forty-win seasons. 2018 seasonThe 2018 season saw the Seminoles win the ACC regular season title for the sixth consecutive year and the ACC tournament title for the fifth consecutive year, defeating Pittsburgh in the ACC championship game with a walk-off homerun. Securing a spot in the NCAA Tournament as the sixth overall seed; the Seminoles defeated Auburn and Jacksonville State twice to win the Tallahasser Regional and advance to the Tallahassee Super Regional, where they defeated LSU in a double header after dropping the first game of the series, clinching a spot in the Women's College World Series. In the World Series, the Seminoles dropped their opener to UCLA after blowing a late lead.
Florida State went on to sweep the Huskies to win the national title, becoming the first team to lose their first game in the World Series and go on to win the title during the championship series era. The Seminoles tied the record for most elimination game wins, going 6-0 over the course of the postseason; the softball team plays at the Seminole Softball Complex. Records are through the 2019 season Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, C = Conference Florida State softball maintains a winning percentage against all current ACC teams. Florida State has made 10 trips to the Women's College World Series, with a 14-19 record, winning the title in 2018. Florida State has made eighteen appearances with a 16-2 record. Serita Brooks Jessica Burroughs Susan Buttery Myssi Calkins Darby Cottle Danielle Cox Lisa Davidson Natalie Drouin Renee Espinoza Kristy Fuentes Toni Gutierrez Kylee Hanson Casey Hunter Morgan Klaeveman Christy Larsen Cindy Lawton Marla Looper Leslie Malerich Susan Painter Alex Powers Toni Robinette Sydney Sherrill Jan Sikes Brandi Stuart Jessica van der Linden Elisa Vasquez Lacey Waldrop Jessica Warren Shamalene Wilson Veronica Wootson ACC Player of the Year – Toni Gutierrez, Cindy Lawton, Shamalene Wilson, Jessica van der Linden, Maddie O'Brien, Alex Powers, Jessica Warren ACC Defensive Player of the Year – Jessica Warren ACC Pitcher of the Year – Sarah Hamilton, Lacey Waldrop, Jessica Burroughs, Kylee Hanson ACC Freshman of the Year - Shamalene Wilson, Kristy Hull, Jessica van der Linden, Veronica Wootson, Tiffany McDonald, Monica Montez, Jessica Warren, Sydney Sherrill ACC Coach of the Year – JoAnne Graf, Lonni Alameda Florida State Seminoles Florida State Seminoles baseball History of Florida State University List of Florida State University professional athletes Seminoles.com – Official website of the Florida State Seminoles softball team
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km in width, covering an area of 432 km2, it is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea. It is about 168 km east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt, its capital and largest city is Bridgetown. Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown, it first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese claimed the island in 1536, but abandoned it, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625.
In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, it became an English and British colony. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen, it has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island; the name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree, indigenous to the island, or to the bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs.
In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish, it is uncertain. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many if not most believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island; the original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth" or "Redstone island with teeth outside" or "Teeth". Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire"; the origin is uncertain. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word used by slaves, that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning'my home, kind', the Igbo phoneme in the Igbo orthography is close to.
The name could have arisen due to the large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century. The words'Bim' and'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire and Bimshire". Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians; that source suggested the followers of Byam became known as'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid; the Arawaks from South America became dominant around 800 AD, maintained that status until around 1200.
In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America. The Spanish and Portuguese claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries; the Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited; some Arawaks continue to live in Barbados. In the early years the majority of the labour was provided by European indentured servants English and Scottish, with enslaved Africans and enslaved Amerindian providing little of the workforce. During the Cromwellian era this included a large number of prisoners-of-war and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants; these last two groups were predominately Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by Engli
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is a facility at Florida State University, the University of Florida, Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that performs magnetic field research in physics, bioengineering, geochemistry, biochemistry. It is the only such facility in the US, is among nine worldwide; the lab is supported by the National Science Foundation and the state of Florida, works in collaboration with private industry. The lab holds a world record of possessing the world's strongest magnet for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments; the 33-ton series connected hybrid magnet broke the record during a series of tests conducted by MagLab engineers and scientists. The instrument reached its full field of 36 tesla on 15 November 2016. In 1989 Florida State University, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of Florida submitted a proposal to the National Science Foundation for a new national laboratory supporting interdisciplinary research in high magnetic fields.
The plan proposed a federal-state partnership serving magnet-related research and technology education, partnering industry. The goal was to maintain the competitive position of the US in magnet-related research and development. Following a peer-review competition, the NSF approved the FSU-led consortium's proposal. In a competing proposal to the NSF, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, with the University of Iowa, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, had suggested improving the existing world-class Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory at MIT. On September 5, 1990, MIT researchers asked the 21 members of the National Science Board to "review and reconsider" its decision. With $60 million at stake in the NSF grant, MIT stated it would phase out the Francis Bitter Lab if it lost its appeal, the first of its kind in NSF history; the request was turned down September 18, 1990. The laboratory's early years were spent establishing infrastructure, building the facility, recruiting faculty.
The Tallahassee complex was dedicated on October 1, 1994, to a large crowd, with keynote speaker Vice President Al Gore. The lab's mission, as set forth by the NSF, is: "To provide the highest magnetic fields and necessary services for scientific research conducted by users from a wide range of disciplines, including physics, materials science, engineering and geology." The lab focuses on four objectives: Develop user facilities and services for magnet-related research, open to all qualified scientists and engineers Advance magnet technology in cooperation with industry Promote a multidisciplinary research environment and administer in-house research program that uses and advances the facilities Develop an educational outreach program The National MagLab promotes science education and supports science and science teachers through its Center for Integrating Research and Learning. Programs include mentorships in an interdisciplinary learning environment. Through the Magnet Academy, the lab's website provides educational content on electricity and magnetism.
The National MagLab conducts monthly tours open to the public, hosts an annual open house with about 5,000 attendees. Special tour and outreach opportunities are available to local schools. In an interview on Skepticality, Dr. Scott Hannahs said, "If you come by on the third Saturday in February I believe we have an open house and we have Tesla coils shooting sparks and we melt rocks in the geochemistry group and we measure the speed of sound and we have lasers and potato launchers and we just have all sorts of things showing little scientific principles and stuff. We get together and we have about 5,000 people show up to come and tour a physics lab, a pretty amazing group of people." The Tallahassee laboratory at Florida State University is a 34,374 square meter complex and has 300 faculty, staff and postdoctoral students. Its director is physicist Gregory Scott Boebinger, its chief scientist is Laura Greene. The facility contains 14 resistive magnet cells connected to a 48 megawatt DC power supply and 15,000 square feet of cooling equipment to remove the heat generated by the magnets.
The facility houses several magnets, including a 45 tesla hybrid magnet, which combines resistive and superconducting magnets. The lab's 35 tesla resistive magnet is the strongest resistive magnet in the world, the 25 tesla Keck magnet has the highest homogeneity of any resistive magnet; this program serves a broad user base in solution and solid state NMR spectroscopy and MRI and diffusion measurements at high magnetic field strengths. The lab develops technology and applications at high magnetic fields through both in-house and external user activities. An in-house made 900 MHz NMR magnet has an ultra-wide bore measuring 105 mm in diameter, this superconducting magnet has the highest field for MRI study of a living animals; the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry program is involved in instrument and technique development and applications of FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Under the leadership of director Alan G. Marshall, the program continuously develops techniques and instruments and applications of FT-ICR mass spectrometry.
The program has several instruments, including a 14.5 tesla, 104 mm bore system. The most common form of EMR is electron paramagnetic/spin resonance. In EPR experiments, transitions are observed between the mS sublevels of an electronic spin state S that are split by the applied magnetic field as well as by the fine structure interactions and the electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions; this technique
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti