The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago. The Miocene was named by Charles Lyell; the Miocene is followed by the Pliocene. As the earth went from the Oligocene through the Miocene and into the Pliocene, the climate cooled towards a series of ice ages; the Miocene boundaries are not marked by a single distinct global event but consist rather of regionally defined boundaries between the warmer Oligocene and the cooler Pliocene Epoch. The Apes first evolved and diversified during the early Miocene, becoming widespread in the Old World. By the end of this epoch and the start of the following one, the ancestors of humans had split away from the ancestors of the chimpanzees to follow their own evolutionary path during the final Messinian stage of the Miocene; as in the Oligocene before it, grasslands continued to forests to dwindle in extent. In the seas of the Miocene, kelp forests made their first appearance and soon became one of Earth's most productive ecosystems.
The plants and animals of the Miocene were recognizably modern. Mammals and birds were well-established. Whales and kelp spread; the Miocene is of particular interest to geologists and palaeoclimatologists as major phases of the geology of the Himalaya occurred during the Miocene, affecting monsoonal patterns in Asia, which were interlinked with glacial periods in the northern hemisphere. The Miocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are named according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy: Regionally, other systems are used, based on characteristic land mammals. Of the modern geologic features, only the land bridge between South America and North America was absent, although South America was approaching the western subduction zone in the Pacific Ocean, causing both the rise of the Andes and a southward extension of the Meso-American peninsula. Mountain building took place in western North America and East Asia. Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines.
Well studied continental exposures occur in Argentina. India continued creating dramatic new mountain ranges; the Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish–Arabian region between 19 and 12 Ma. The subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a global fall in sea levels combined to cause a temporary drying up of the Mediterranean Sea near the end of the Miocene; the global trend was towards increasing aridity caused by global cooling reducing the ability of the atmosphere to absorb moisture. Uplift of East Africa in the late Miocene was responsible for the shrinking of tropical rain forests in that region, Australia got drier as it entered a zone of low rainfall in the Late Miocene. During the Oligocene and Early Miocene the coast of northern Brazil, south-central Peru, central Chile and large swathes of inland Patagonia were subject to a marine transgression; the transgressions in the west coast of South America is thought to be caused by a regional phenomenon while the rising central segment of the Andes represents an exception.
While there are numerous registers of Oligo-Miocene transgressions around the world it is doubtful that these correlate. It is thought that the Oligo-Miocene transgression in Patagonia could have temporarily linked the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, as inferred from the findings of marine invertebrate fossils of both Atlantic and Pacific affinity in La Cascada Formation. Connection would have occurred through narrow epicontinental seaways that formed channels in a dissected topography; the Antarctic Plate started to subduct beneath South America 14 million years ago in the Miocene, forming the Chile Triple Junction. At first the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction lay near the Strait of Magellan; as the southern part of Nazca Plate and the Chile Rise became consumed by subduction the more northerly regions of the Antarctic Plate begun to subduct beneath Patagonia so that the Chile Triple Junction advanced to the north over time.
The asthenospheric window associated to the triple junction disturbed previous patterns of mantle convection beneath Patagonia inducing an uplift of ca. 1 km that reversed the Oligocene–Miocene transgression. Climates remained moderately warm, although the slow global cooling that led to the Pleistocene glaciations continued. Although a long-term cooling trend was well underway, there is evidence of a warm period during the Miocene when the global climate rivalled that of the Oligocene; the Miocene warming b
Lytton, British Columbia
Lytton in British Columbia, sits at the confluence of the Thompson River and Fraser River on the east side of the Fraser. The location has been inhabited by the Nlaka'pamux people for over 10,000 years, it is one of the earliest locations settled by non-natives in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. It was founded during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858–59, when it was known as "The Forks"; the community includes the Village of Lytton and the surrounding community of the Lytton First Nation, whose name for the place is Camchin spelled Kumsheen. Lytton was on the route of the Gold Rush in 1858; the same year, Lytton was named for Edward Bulwer-Lytton, the British Colonial Secretary and a novelist. For many years Lytton was a stop on major transportation routes, the River Trail from 1858, Cariboo Wagon Road in 1862, the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, the Cariboo Highway in the 1920s, the Trans Canada Highway in the 1950s. However, it has become much less important since the construction of the Coquihalla Highway in 1987 which uses a more direct route to the BC Interior.
Novelist Bulwer-Lytton was a friend and contemporary of Charles Dickens and was one of the pioneers of the historical novel, exemplified by his most popular work, The Last Days of Pompeii. He is best remembered today for the opening line to the novel Paul Clifford, which begins "It was a dark and stormy night..." and is considered by some to be the worst opening sentence in the English language. However, Bulwer-Lytton is responsible for well-known sayings such as "The pen is mightier than the sword" from his play Richelieu. Despite being a popular author for 19th-century readers, few people today are aware of his prodigious body of literature spanning many genres. In the 21st century he is known best as the namesake for the Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest, sponsored annually by the English Department at San Jose State University, which challenges entrants "to compose the opening sentence to the worst of all possible novels". On August 30, 2008, the Village of Lytton invited Henry Lytton-Cobbold, the great-great-great grandson of Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to defend the great man's honour by debating Professor Scott Rice, the sponsor of the BLFC, on the literary and political legacies of his great ancestor.
The debate received wide media coverage including The Globe and Mail, The New York Times, The Guardian, CBC's As It Happens and many local and regional newspapers and radio and TV stations. The debate was moderated by Mike McArdell of Global TV. Lytton-Cobbold provided a spirited and crowd-inspiring defense of his ancestor, despite a factual and well-researched presentation by Rice, Lytton-Cobbold emerged as the crowd favorite by a wide margin. In the end, Rice begrudgingly admitted to an admiration of Bulwer-Lytton; this event was held as part of the Village of Lytton's 150BC celebrations, as it was the 150th anniversary of the community receiving its name. The population of the village municipality as of the 2016 census was 249, with another 1,700 in the immediate area living in rural areas and on reserves of the neighbouring six Nlaka'pamux communities.802 members out of 1,970 registered members of the Lytton First Nation live on reserves adjacent to the municipality. Lytton experiences a Cold semi-arid climate.
During summer heat waves, Lytton is the hottest spot in Canada, despite being north of 50° in latitude. Due to the dry summer air and a low elevation of 230 m, summer afternoon shade temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C and up and top 40 °C. Lytton, along with the nearby community of Lillooet, share the second-highest temperature recorded in Canada. On July 16 and 17, 1941, the temperature reached a record 44.4 °C on both days in both communities. Lytton holds the record for the hottest temperature recorded in the province during August after the temperature reached 41.8 °C on August 14, 2004. The coldest temperature recorded in Lytton was -31.7 °C on 18 January 1950. Hot summer temperatures are made more tolerable by low humidity. However, the heat can be intense with clear blue skies and blazing sunlight – heat radiates from the valley's slopes, forest fires are not uncommon during the summer. Lytton's climate is characterized by short and mild winters, with Pacific maritime influence during the winter ensuring thick cloud cover much of the time.
Cold snaps originating from arctic outflow occur from time to time, but tend to be short-lived, mountains to the north block extreme cold from penetrating the Fraser Canyon. Lytton receives 430.6 mm of annual precipitation on average, making Lytton much drier than communities to the south, but wetter than some of the driest spots in the BC interior such as Spences Bridge and Osoyoos. However, Lytton has the driest summers in the interior of British Columbia, indeed, one of the driest summers of all places in Canada. Maximum precipitation occurs in the cooler months, with the late autumn and early winter constituting the wettest time of the year. Open coniferous forests of ponderosa pine dominate the slopes around Lytton; some black cottonwood is scattered among the conifers. Bunchgrass dominates the forest floor. Non-native trees cultivated in Lytton include Manitoba Maple. Lytton lies on the Trans Canada Highway as well as both the Canadian Pacific and Canadian National Railways; the Canadian National Railway Crosses both the Fraser and Thompson Rivers on two large steel bridges at Lytton.
Via the Trans-Canada, Lytton is 265 km from t
Williams Lake, British Columbia
Williams Lake is a city in the Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada. Located in the central part of a region known as the Cariboo, it is the largest urban centre between Kamloops and Prince George, with a population of 10,832 in city limits. Williams Lake hosts the annual Williams Lake Stampede, which takes place over the Canada Day long weekend, it is the home town of Rick Hansen, the Canadian paraplegic athlete and activist for people with spinal cord injuries, who became famous during his fundraising Man in Motion world tour. Williams Lake is named in honour of Secwepemc chief William, whose counsel prevented the Shuswap from joining the Tsilhqot'in in their uprising against the settler population; the story of Williams Lake begins as much as 4000 years ago. The story of Williams Lake written by those coming into the region from outside begins in 1860 during the Cariboo Gold Rush when Gold Commissioner Philip Henry Nind and William Pinchbeck, a constable with the British Columbia Provincial Police, arrived from Victoria to organize a local government and maintain law and order.
At the time, two pack trails led to the goldfields, one from the Douglas Road and the other through the Fraser Canyon. They met at Williams Lake, which made it a good choice for merchants. By 1861, Commissioner Nind had requested the funds to build a jail. With the centre of local government being at Williams Lake, the miners and businessmen all had to travel there to conduct their business and soon the town had a post office, a courthouse, a roadhouse and the jail that Nind had requested. Meanwhile, William Pinchbeck had not been idle and had built his own roadhouse and store, he would own most of the valley. In 1863, the town was excited by the news of the construction of Cariboo Road, believing it would pass through their established and important trading centre. However, the roadbuilder Gustavus Blin Wright rerouted the original trail so that it bypassed Williams Lake and went through 150 Mile House instead; the Williams Lake by-pass doomed the city and accusations flew that Gustavus Blin Wright had changed the route for his own personal benefit as he owned a roadhouse at Deep Creek along the new route.
Regardless of Wright's motives, Williams Lake was forgotten and wouldn't be reborn until over half a century in 1919 with the construction of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway BC Rail and now CN Rail. In July 2017, the province of British Columbia declared a state of emergency with more than 200 fires burning in the central region of the province. Residents from Williams Lake along with other communities in central British Columbia such as Ashcroft and 100 Mile House were given evacuation orders and most of those affected went to either Prince George or Kamloops. Below is the ethnic origin of people from Williams Lake. Note that percentages total more than 100% due to multiple responses e.g. German-East Indian, Norwegian-Irish-Polish; the primary industries in Williams Lake are forestry, sawmilling and ranching. Williams Lake has a humid continental climate with warm summers. Spring is the driest time of year, summer and winter are the wettest seasons respectively. Williams Lake receives about 2,000 hours of bright sunshine per year, more than most of the province.
It is located in the rain shadow of the coastal mountains. The lowest temperature recorded in Williams Lake was −42.8 °C on 22 January 1943, the highest temperature recorded was 41.1 °C on 16 & 17 July 1941. Williams Lake – along with Billings, nearby McLeese Lake – holds the record for the highest maximum temperature recorded in the province during the month of September; this occurred on September 4, 1988. The Williams Lake Airport weather station is at an elevation of 939.7 m while the Williams Lake River weather station is at 585.2 m, a difference of 354.5 m. Thus the average temperature is warmer in the city proper than the table below displays. Williams Lake is served by Cariboo-Chilcotin School District 27, it has five public elementary schools teaching up to three StrongStart BC centres. These are Cataline Elementary, Chilcotin Road Elementary, Marie Sharpe Elementary, Mountview Elementary, Nesika Elementary. There is SD 27 OR#1 Wildwood, a StrongStart Outreach Centre. One secondary school, Lake City Secondary School, formed by an merger of Columneetza Secondary School and Williams Lake Secondary School in 2013, teaches grade 7 to 12 students.
Alternative education provision is met by the Graduation Routes Other Ways centre and the Skyline Alternate School program. The GROW Centre offers grades 10–12 for adults. Anne Stevenson Secondary School was closed in 2003 due to falling numbers of students. There are four independent schools in Williams Lake, West Coast Adventist DL School, Sacred Heart Catholic School, Maranatha Christian School and Cariboo Adventist Academy. Thompson Rivers University has a campus in Williams Lake and offers a wide variety of programs and courses including university transfers and diploma programs and safety certification and technology, university and career preparation; the Cariboo Chilcotin Elder College is a local affiliate of Thompson Rivers University that offers programs and opportunities for people who are 50 years of age and older and interested in participating in the programs and special events run by the college. The Williams Lake Stampeders are the local ice hockey team, playing in the Central Interior Hockey League.
Bowron Lake Provincial Park
Bowron Lake Provincial Park is a provincial park located in northern British Columbia, about 117 km east of the city of Quesnel. Other nearby towns include the historic destination of Barkerville; the park is known for its rugged glaciated mountains, cold deep lakes and abundant wildlife. The main attraction is the 116 km canoe circuit through the Cariboo Mountains, which follows lakes and short portages between waterways; this trip takes about a week to complete. An alternative to this trip is the shorter Westside route, which traverses Bowron, Spectacle, Babcock and Rum lakes; this circuit takes two to four days. The park is open to a limited number of kayaks from May 15 to the end of September. Bowron Lakes was named after the Gold Commissioner in Barkerville. Frank Kibbee began to set up trap lines and built a home on the shores of Bowron Lake in 1907. In 1925, the Bowron Lakes area was classified as a game reserve by the Canadian Ministry of Environment. In 1961, the Ministry of Environment classified the area as a provincial park.
Kibbee Lake Indianpoint Lake Isaac Lake Lanezi Lake Sandy Lake Spectacle Lake Babcock Lake Swan Lake Bowron Lake Unna Lake Cariboo River Bowron River List of British Columbia Provincial Parks Harris, 1991. British Columbia's Wilderness Canoe Circuit. Gordon Soules Book Publishers Wright, 1997. Bowron Lake Provincial Park: Canoe Country British Columbia, Heritage House Pub Co Ltd. 128p Wright, Richard Thomas. The Bowron Lakes, a year-round guide. Maclean Hunter, Vancouver. ISBN 0-88896-148-0. B. C. Parks: Bowron Lake Bowron Lakes trip description and pictorial essay at westcoastpaddler.com
Barkerville, British Columbia
Barkerville was the main town of the Cariboo Gold Rush in British Columbia, Canada and is preserved as a historic town. It is located on the north slope of the Cariboo Plateau near the Cariboo Mountains 80 kilometres east of Quesnel. BC Highway 26, which follows the route of the Cariboo Wagon Road, the original access to Barkerville, goes through it. Barkerville is situated on the western edge of the Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia, it was named after Billy Barker from Cambridgeshire, among those who first struck gold at the location in 1861. His claim was the most famous. Barkerville was built up overnight, was a case of "growth via word of mouth", it grew as fast as word of Barker's strike spread. His claim would yield 37,500 ounces of gold. Before the construction of the Cariboo Wagon Road, people hauled their own supplies to Barkerville, either on their backs or in a pack train; because supplies were scarce, the prices of the most everyday items were high. High prices for goods in Barkerville did not ease up until the Cariboo Road had been finished, when goods could be transported by huge freight wagons.
Soon, movers of freight boasted that they could pack and carry a set of champagne glasses without any breakage - for a price, of course. More women came to Barkerville after the construction of the Cariboo Road. Cattle were driven north up the Okanagan valley via what is now Highway 97 into Canada to provide meat for the miners and residents of Barkerville. At first, the town consisted only of makeshift tents. By the mid-1860s, Barkerville had a population of 5,000, 3,000 of them were Chinese operated by Kwong Lee Company of Victoria. Though its population was transient and dependent on mining, Barkerville was becoming more of a real community, it had several general stores and boarding houses, a drugstore that sold newspapers and cigars, a barbershop that cut women's as well as men's hair, the "Wake-Up Jake Restaurant and Coffee Salon", a theatre, a literary society. Horse racing and prize fighting were common entertainments. Among the so-called "sober set," church services were well attended.
The general stores were the most profitable of the merchants. As they had the only source of food, the store owners could increase the price of foods and supplies. In the height of the gold rush, the stores sold flour for as high as $1.25 per pound. Beans and dried fruit were sold for a dollar a pound, but as the gold rush ended, the stores went bankrupt and out of business. People of Chinese descent were an important part of Barkerville life for a hundred years, they established a number of businesses, including the Kwong Lee Company, a general store that sold groceries, clothing and mining tools. The company had stores in other parts of British Columbia, but the Barkerville store was one of the most impressive in town; the Chinese community built cabins and Tai Ping, the equivalent of a modern nursing home. Chinese benevolent associations provided social services to the Chinese community, resolved disputes within the Chinese community without the use of BC courts. On September 16, 1868, Barkerville was destroyed by a fire that spread through the wooden buildings.
Rebuilding began and at an impressive pace. Within six weeks, ninety buildings had been rebuilt. Boardwalks were improved, the narrow and winding main street was widened and straightened. By 1880, there were enough children in the area to build the Barkerville School, it had one piece of school equipment - a chalkboard. So, Barkerville's population was declining by the end of the 19th century and it had only a few people resident, it had a revival in the 1930s, when the Great Depression caused widespread unemployment, the price of gold skyrocketed. But as the depression turned for the better, Barkerville declined to a small village. In 1957, the government of British Columbia decided that the town should be restored and operated as a tourist attraction. Today, Barkerville appears as it is referred to as Barkerville Historic Town; the history of each building has been documented. No residents remain. In 2008, Barkerville's Chee Kung Tong Building was designated a National Historic Sites of Canada; the two-storey board and batten structure was completed in 1877 and used by the Chee Kung Tong organization, a benevolent association for recent arrivals.
It is representative of the community building among immigrant Chinese labourers and merchants in new settlements throughout Canada. Barkerville has a subarctic climate, resulting in long and snowy winters, accompanied by short and cool summers due to its high altitude. Bert Sincock - Major League Baseball pitcher Cariboo Gold Rush Cariboo Road Old Cariboo Road British Columbia gold rushes Billy Barker Official website Stories of the British Columbia gold rush Rudimentary map of the area Biography of William Barker The Great Fire of Barkerville – 1868 An eyewitness account by the photographer Frederick Dally; the Cariboo Trail An article by E. Pauline Johnson which includes description of a visit to Barkerville Barkerville city directory, 1887
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle. In British English, the term "canoe" can refer to a kayak, while canoes are called Canadian canoes to distinguish them from kayaks. Canoes are used for competition and pleasure, such as racing, whitewater and camping, general recreation. Canoeing has been part of the Olympics since 1936; the intended use of the canoe dictates its hull length and construction material. Canoes were dugouts or made of bark on a wood frame, but construction materials evolved to canvas on a wood frame to aluminum. Most modern canoes are made of molded plastic or composites such as fiberglass. Canoes were developed by cultures all over the world, including some designed for use with sails or outriggers; until the mid-1800s the canoe was an important means of transport for exploration and trade, in some places it still is used as such with the addition of an outboard motor.
Where the canoe played a key role in history, such as the northern United States and New Zealand, it remains an important theme in popular culture. The word canoe comes via the Spanish canoa. Constructed between 8200 and 7600 BC, found in the Netherlands, the Pesse canoe may be the oldest known canoe. Excavations in Denmark reveal the use of paddles during the Ertebølle period. Australian Aboriginal people made canoes using a variety of materials, including bark and hollowed out tree trunks; the indigenous people of the Amazon used Hymenaea trees. The Pacific Northwest canoes are a dugouts made of red cedar. Many indigenous peoples of the Americas built bark canoes, they were skinned with birch bark over a light wooden frame, but other types could be used if birch was scarce. At a typical length of 4.3 m and weight of 23 kg, the canoes were light enough to be portaged, yet could carry a lot of cargo in shallow water. Although susceptible to damage from rocks, they are repaired, their performance qualities were soon recognized by early European immigrants, canoes played a key role in the exploration of North America, with Samuel de Champlain canoeing as far as the Georgian Bay in 1615.
René de Bréhant de Galinée a French missionary who explored the Great Lakes in 1669 declared: "The convenience of these canoes is great in these waters, full of cataracts or waterfalls, rapids through which it is impossible to take any boat. When you reach them you load canoe and baggage upon your shoulders and go overland until the navigation is good. American painter and traveler George Catlin wrote that the bark canoe was "the most beautiful and light model of all the water crafts that were invented." Native American groups of the north Pacific coast made dugout canoes in a number of styles for different purposes, from western red-cedar or yellow-cedar, depending on availability. Different styles were required for ocean-going vessels versus river boats, for whale-hunting versus seal-hunting versus salmon-fishing; the Quinault of Washington State built shovel-nose canoes, with double bows, for river travel that could slide over a logjam without portaging. The Kootenai of British Columbia province made sturgeon-nosed canoes from pine bark, designed to be stable in windy conditions on Kootenay Lake.
The first explorer to cross the North American continent, Alexander Mackenzie, used canoes extensively, as did David Thompson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In the North American fur trade the Hudson's Bay Company's voyageurs used three types of canoe: The rabaska or canot du maître was designed for the long haul from the St. Lawrence River to western Lake Superior, its dimensions were: length 11 m, beam 1.2 to 1.8 m, height about 76 cm. It could carry 60 packs weighing 41 kg, 910 kg of provisions. With a crew of eight or ten, they could make three knots over calm waters. Four to six men could portage it, bottom up. Henry Schoolcraft declared it "altogether one of the most eligible modes of conveyance that can be employed upon the lakes." Archibald McDonald of the Hudson's Bay Company wrote: "I never heard of such a canoe being wrecked, or upset, or swamped... they swam like ducks." The canot du nord, a craft specially made and adapted for speedy travel, was the workhorse of the fur trade transportation system.
About one-half the size of the Montreal canoe, it could carry about 35 packs weighing 41 kg and was manned by four to eight men. It was portaged in the upright position; the express canoe or canot léger, was about 4.6 m long and were used to carry people and news. The birch bark canoe was used in a 6,500-kilometre supply route from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean and the Mackenzie River, continued to be used up to the end of the 19th century. Popular for hauling freight on inland waterways in 19th Century North America were the York boat and the batteau. In 19th-century North America, the birch-on-frame construction technique evolved into the wood-and-canvas canoes made by fastening an external waterproofed canvas shell to planks and ribs by boat builders Old Town Canoe, E. M. White Canoe, Peterborough Canoe Company and at the Chestnut Canoe Company in New Brunswick. Although canoes were once a means of transport, with industrialization they became popular as recreational or sporting watercraft.
A volcanic plateau is a plateau produced by volcanic activity. There are two main types: pyroclastic plateaus. Lava plateaus are formed by fluid basaltic lava during numerous successive eruptions through numerous vents without violent explosions; these eruptions are quiet because of low viscosity of lava, so that it is fluid and contains a small amount of trapped gases. The resulting sheet lava flows may be extruded from linear fissures or rifts or gigantic volcanic eruptions through multiple vents characteristic of the prehistoric era which produced giant flood basalts. Multiple successive and extensive lava flows cover the original landscape to form a plateau, which may contain lava fields, cinder cones, shield volcanoes and other volcanic landforms. In some cases, a lava plateau may be part of a single volcano. An example is the massive Level Mountain shield volcano in northern British Columbia, which covers an area of 1,800 km2 and a volume of 860 km3; the most extensive of all the subaerial basaltic plateaus existed during the Paleogene and extended over 1,800,000 km2 of the northern Atlantic Ocean region.
This region, known as the Thulean Plateau, is believed to have been broken up by foundering of the Earth's crust to form the present ocean basin. The Earth features numerous subaerial and submarine volcanic plateaus such as the Columbia River Plateau and the vast Ontong Java Plateau. Pyroclastic plateaus are produced by massive pyroclastic flows and they are underlain by pyroclastic rocks: agglomerates, volcanic ashes cemented into tuffs, mafic or felsic. Pyroclastic plateaus are called ignimbrite plateaus. Examples include Shirasu-Daichi which covers all of Southern Kyūshū, Japan and the North Island Volcanic Plateau in New Zealand. Lava field