The interurban is a type of electric railway, with streetcar-like light electric self-propelled railcars which run within and between cities or towns. They were prevalent in North America between 1900 and 1925 and were used for passenger travel between cities and their surrounding suburban and rural communities. Limited examples existed in Asia. Interurban as a term encompassed the companies, their infrastructure, the cars that ran on the rails; the interurban in the United States, was a valuable cultural institution. Most roads and town streets were unpaved, transportation was by horse-drawn carriages and carts; the interurban provided vital transportation links between the countryside. In 1915, 15,500 miles of interurban railways were operating in the United States. For a time, interurban railways were the fifth-largest industry in the United States. By 1930, most interurbans were gone, with few surviving into the 1950s. Oliver Jensen, author of American Heritage History of Railroads in America, commented that "...the automobile doomed the interurban whose private tax paying tracks could never compete with the highways that a generous government provided for the motorist."
The term "interurban" was coined by a state senator in Indiana. The Latin, inter urbes, means "between cities"; the interurban fit on a continuum between full-fledged railroads. George W. Hilton and John F. Due identified four characteristics of an interurban: Electric power for propulsion. Passenger service as the primary business. Equipment heavier and faster than urban streetcars. Operation on tracks in city streets, in rural areas on roadside tracks or private right-of-way; the definition of "interurban" is blurry. Some town streetcar lines evolved into interurban systems by extending streetcar track from town into the countryside to link adjacent towns together, sometimes by the acquisition of a nearby interurban system. There was a large amount of consolidation of lines following initial construction. Other interurban lines became light rail systems with no street running whatsoever, or they became freight-hauling railroads due to a progressive loss of their initial passenger service over the years.
In 1905 the United States Census Bureau defined an interurban as "a street railway having more than half its trackage outside municipal limits." It drew a distinction between "interurban" and "suburban" railroads. A suburban system was oriented toward a city center in a single urban area and served commuter traffic. A regular railroad moved riders from one city center to another city center and moved a substantial amount of freight; the typical interurban served more than one city, but it served a smaller region and made more frequent stops, it was oriented to passenger rather than freight service. The development of interurbans in the late nineteenth century resulted from the convergence of two trends: improvements in electric traction, an untapped demand for transportation in rural areas in the Midwestern United States; the 1880s saw the first successful deployments of electric traction in streetcar systems. Most of these built on the pioneering work of Frank J. Sprague, who developed an improved method for mounting an electric traction motor and using a trolley pole for pickup.
Sprague's work led to widespread acceptance of electric traction for streetcar operations and end of horse-drawn trams. The late nineteenth century United States witnessed a boom in agriculture which lasted through the First World War, but transportation in rural areas was inadequate. Conventional steam railroads made limited stops in towns; these were supplemented by horse and buggies and steamboats, both of which were slow and the latter of, restricted to navigable rivers. The increased capacity and profitability of the city street railroads offered the possibility of extending them into the countryside to reach new markets linking to other towns; the first interurban to emerge in the United States was the Newark and Granville Street Railway in Ohio, which opened in 1889. It was not a major success; the development of the automobile was in its infancy, to many investors interurbans appeared to be future of local transportation. From 1900 to 1916, a large network of interurban lines was constructed in the United States in the states of Indiana, Pennsylvania, Iowa and California.
In 1900, 2,107 miles of interurban track existed, but by 1916, this had increased to 15,580 miles, a seven-fold expansion. During this expansion, in the regions where they operated in Ohio and Indiana, "...they destroyed the local passenger service of the steam railroad." To show how exceptionally busy the interurbans radiating from Indianapolis were in 1926, the immense Indianapolis Traction Terminal scheduled 500 trains in and out daily and moved 7 million passengers that year. At their peak the interurbans were the fifth-largest industry in the United States; the fortunes of the industry declined during World War I and into the early 1920s. Many interurbans had been hastily constructed without realistic projections of income and expenses, they were financed by issuing stock and selling bonds. The sale of these financial instruments was local with salesmen going door to door aggressively pushing this new and exciting "it can't fail" form of transportation, but many of those interurbans did fail, quickly.
They struggled to raise essential further capital. Interurbans were vulnerable to acts of nature
National Register of Historic Places listings in Ohio
This is a list of properties and districts in Ohio that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are over 3,900 in total. Of these, 73 are National Historic Landmarks. There are listings in each of Ohio's 88 counties; the locations of National Register properties and districts, may be seen in an online map by clicking on "Map of all coordinates". This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019; the following are approximate tallies of current listings by county. These counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
List of National Historic Landmarks in Ohio List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Ohio
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in Dayton, United States that commemorates three important historical figures—Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright, poet Paul Laurence Dunbar—and their work in the Miami Valley. The idea for the present-day Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park was first conceived by Jerry Sharkey. Much of the Dayton neighborhood where Orville and Wilbur Wright had lived and worked had been destroyed by the 1970s. Neglect, riots during the 1960s, a highway project through the city had leveled much of the neighborhood. Decades earlier, Henry Ford had relocated one of the Wrights' bicycle shops from Dayton to its present location in Greenfield Village, for display. Sharkey's quest to preserve the Wright brothers' legacy began when he purchased their last surviving bicycle shop in Dayton for just $10,000, which saved the building from demolition, he founded the Aviation Trail Inc. a nonprofit group dedicated to the creation of a potential national park or historic district encompassing the Wright brothers' buildings.
Sharkey enlisted the help of local political and media figures to lobby for the creation of the park. Notable figures who supported its creation included the descendants of the Wright brothers, aviation historian Tom Crouch, U. S. District Judge Walter H. Rice, then-U. S. Rep. Dave Hobson, Dayton Daily News publisher Brad Tillson, Michael Gessel, an aide to former U. S. Rep. Tony P. Hall; the group lobbied federal officials and the National Park Service to incorporate the landmarks related to the Wright brothers, which are scattered throughout the city, into a new historic trail. The U. S. Congress passed legislation to establish the new park. In 1992, President George H. W. Bush signed the bill which created the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park into law. In addition to the Wright brothers' sites, the new park preserved the home of Paul Laurence Dunbar, an acclaimed African-American poet and friend of the Wright brothers. Jerry Sharkey donated the Wright brothers' bicycle shop, which he had saved from demolition, to the National Park Service as part of the agreement to create the park.
A new visitor center was constructed in 2003 in time for the centennial of the Wright brothers' first flight. Jerry Sharkey, who had first conceived of the future historic park, died in April 2014. Through the invention of powered flight and Orville Wright made significant contributions to human history. In their Dayton, bicycle shops, the Wright brothers, who self-trained in the science and art of aviation and built the world's first power-driven, heavier-than-air machine capable of free and sustained flight; the Wrights perfected their invention during 1904 and 1905 at the Huffman Prairie Flying Field near their hometown of Dayton. Paul Laurence Dunbar achieved national and international acclaim in a literary world, exclusively reserved for whites, producing a body of work that included novels, short stories and over 400 published poems, his work, which reflected much of the African American experience in the United States, contributed to a growing social consciousness and cultural identity for African Americans.
Although he died in 1906, his writings contributed to developments in African American history, such as the Harlem Renaissance and the early Civil Rights Movement. He was a neighbor and lifelong friend of Orville Wright; the park is a cooperative effort between several partners. The sites are: The Wright Cycle Company Complex in Dayton, which includes the Wright Cycle Company building, the Wright-Dunbar Interpretive Center and the Aviation Trail Visitor Center and Museum Huffman Prairie Flying Field and the Huffman Prairie Flying Field Interpretive Center, both located within Wright-Patterson Air Force Base just northeast of Dayton in Fairborn, but operated by the National Park Service and open to the public; the Wright Brothers Aviation Center at Carillon Historical Park in Dayton, operated by Dayton History The Paul Laurence Dunbar State Memorial in Dayton, operated by Dayton History on behalf of the Ohio Historical Society Hawthorn Hill, the 1914-1948 residence of Orville Wright, located just south of Dayton in Oakwood, Ohio.
Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park is located within the National Aviation Heritage Area, an eight-county region in Ohio established as a National Heritage Area by Congress in 2004. The U. S. Department of the Interior listed three units of the park on the 2008 U. S. World Heritage Tentative List as part of the Dayton Aviation Sites listing; the park is a central component of the National Aviation Heritage Area. Wright Brothers National Memorial in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina Official NPS Site 2008 U. S. World Heritage Tentative List Report, with section on the Dayton Aviation Sites Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park: Where the Wright Brothers Conquered the Air, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Carillon Park - home of the 1905 Wright Flyer III Ohio Historical Society site for the Paul Laurence Dunbar State Memorial
The Henry Ford
The Henry Ford is a large indoor and outdoor history museum complex and a National Historic Landmark in the Detroit suburb of Dearborn, United States. The museum collection contains the presidential limousine of John F. Kennedy, Abraham Lincoln's chair from Ford's Theatre, Thomas Edison's laboratory, the Wright Brothers' bicycle shop, the Rosa Parks bus, many other historical exhibits, it is the largest indoor-outdoor museum complex in the United States and is visited by over 1.7 million people each year. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969 as Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1981 as "Edison Institute". Named for its founder, the automobile industrialist Henry Ford, based on his efforts to preserve items of historical interest and portray the Industrial Revolution, the property houses homes, machinery and Americana of significant items as well as common memorabilia, both of which help to capture the history of life in early America.
It is one of the largest such collections in the nation. Henry Ford said of his museum: I am collecting the history of our people as written into things their hands made and used.... When we are through, we shall have reproduced American life as lived, that, I think, is the best way of preserving at least a part of our history and tradition... Architect Robert O. Derrick designed the museum with a 523,000 square feet exhibit hall that extends 400 feet behind the main façade; the façade spans 800 feet and incorporates facsimiles of three structures from Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia — Old City Hall, Independence Hall and Congress Hall. The Edison Institute was dedicated by President Herbert Hoover to Ford's longtime friend Thomas Edison on October 21, 1929 – the 50th anniversary of the first successful incandescent light bulb; the attendees included Marie Curie, George Eastman, John D. Rockefeller, Will Rogers, Orville Wright, about 250 others; the dedication was broadcast on radio with listeners encouraged to turn off their electric lights until the switch was flipped at the Museum.
The Edison Institute was, at first, a private site for educational purposes only, but after numerous inquiries about the complex, it was opened as a museum to the general public on June 22, 1933. It was composed of the Henry Ford Museum, Greenfield Village, the Greenfield Village Schools. Greenfield Village and the Henry Ford Museum were owned by the Ford Motor Company, a sponsor of the school and cooperates with the Henry Ford to provide the Ford Rouge Factory Tour; the Henry Ford is sited between the Ford Dearborn Development Center and several Ford engineering buildings with which it shares the same style gates and brick fences. In 1970, the museum purchased what it believed to be a 17th-century Brewster Chair, created for one of the Pilgrim settlers in the Plymouth Colony, for $9,000. In September 1977, the chair was determined to be a modern forgery created in 1969 by Rhode Island sculptor Armand LaMontagne; the museum retains the piece as an educational tool on forgeries. In the early 2000s, the museum added an auditorium to the building's south corner.
This housed an IMAX theater until January 2016 when museum management decided to change formats for the facility to better fit with its mission. The renovated theater reopened in April of that year; the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation began as Henry Ford's personal collection of historic objects, which he began collecting as far back as 1906. Today, the 12 acre site is a collection of antique machinery, pop culture items, locomotives and other items: The museum features a 4K digital projection theater, which shows scientific, natural, or historical documentaries, as well as major feature films. An Oscar Mayer Wienermobile The 1961 Lincoln Continental, SS-100-X that President John F. Kennedy was riding in when he was assassinated; the rocking chair from Ford's Theatre in which President Abraham Lincoln was sitting when he was shot. George Washington's camp bed. A collection of several fine 17th- and 18th-century violins including a Stradivarius. Thomas Edison's alleged last breath in a sealed tube.
Buckminster Fuller's prototype Dymaxion house. The bus on which Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat, leading to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Igor Sikorsky's prototype helicopter. Fokker Trimotor airplane. Bill Elliott's record-breaking race car clocking in at over 212 MPH at Talladega in 1987 Fairbottom Bobs, the Newcomen engine A steam engine from Cobb's Engine House in England. A working fragment of the original Holiday Inn "Great Sign" A Chesapeake & Ohio Railway 2-6-6-6 "Allegheny"-class steam locomotive built by Lima Locomotive Works in Lima, Ohio; the Allegheny was the most powerful steam locomotive built. Behind the scenes, the Benson Ford Research Center uses the resources of The Henry Ford the photographic and archival material, displayed, to allow visitors to gain a deeper understanding of American people, places and things; the Research Center contains the Ford Motor Archives. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, the Henry Ford Museum exhibited a vast array of artifacts and media documenting the Titanic's voyage and demise.
The exhibit was hosted from 31 March to 30 September 2012. Greenfield Village, the outdoor living history museum section of the Henry Ford complex, was dedicated in 192
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated
A cyclecar was a type of small and inexpensive car manufactured in Europe and the United States between 1910 and the early 1920s. The purpose of cyclecars was to fill a gap in the market between the car; the demise of cyclecars was due to larger cars – such as the Citroën 5CV, Austin 7 and Morris Cowley – becoming more affordable. Small, inexpensive vehicles reappeared after World War II, were known as microcars. Cyclecars were propelled by engines with a single cylinder or V-twin configuration, which were air-cooled. Sometimes motorcycle engines were used, in which case the motorcycle gearbox was used. All cyclecars were required to have variable gears; this requirement could be fulfilled by the simplest devices such as provision for slipping the belt on the pulley to act as a clutch, varying of the pulley diameter to change the gear ratio. Methods such as belt drive or chain drive were used to transmit power to the drive wheel to one wheel only, so that a differential was not required; the bodies sometimes offered minimal weather protection or comfort features.
The rise of cyclecars was a direct result of reduced taxation both for registration and annual licences of lightweight small-engined cars. On 14 December 1912, at a meeting of the Federation Internationale des Clubs Moto Cycliste, it was formally decided that there should be an international classification of cyclecars to be accepted by the United Kingdom, United States, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany; as a result of this meeting, the following classes of cyclecars were defined: From 1898 to 1910, automobile production expanded. Light cars of that era were known as voiturettes; the smaller cyclecars appeared around 1910 with a boom shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, with Temple Press launching The Cyclecar magazine on 27 November 1912, the formation of the Cyclecar Club. From 1912, the Motor Cycle show at Olympia became Cycle Car Show; the number of cyclecar manufacturers was less than a dozen in each of the UK and France in 1911, but by 1914, there were over 100 manufacturers in each country, as well as others in Germany and other European countries.
By 1912, the A. C. Sociable was described as "one of the most popular cycle cars on the road, both for pleasure and for business", though another source states that the "Humberette" was the most popular of cycle cars at that time. Many of the numerous makes were short-lived, but several brands achieved greater longevity, including Bédélia, GN and Morgan. By the early 1920s, the days of the cyclecar were numbered. Mass producers, such as Ford, were able to reduce their prices to undercut those of the small cyclecar makers. Similar affordable cars were offered in Europe, such as Austin 7 or Morris Cowley; the cyclecar boom was over. The majority of cyclecar manufacturers closed down; some companies such as Chater-Lea survived by returning to the manufacture of motorcycles. After the Second World War, economic cars were again in demand and a new set of manufacturers appeared; the cyclecar name did not reappear however, the cars were called microcars by enthusiasts and bubble cars by the general population.
Several motor racing events for cyclecars were run between 1913 and 1920. The first race dedicated to cyclecars was organised by the Automobile Club de France in 1913, followed by a Cyclecar GP at Le Mans in 1920; the Auto Cycle Union was to have introduced cycle car racing on the Isle of Man in September 1914, but the race was abandoned due to the onset of the war. Brass Era car Microcar Voiturette Worthington-Williams, Michael. From cyclecar to microcar the story of the cyclecar movement. Beaulieu Books. ISBN 0-901564-54-0. David Thirlby. Minimal Motoring: From Cyclecar to Microcar. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2367-3
Cadillac is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors that designs and builds luxury vehicles. Its major markets are the United States and China. Cadillac vehicles are distributed in 34 additional markets worldwide. Cadillac automobiles are at the top of the luxury field within the United States. In 2017, Cadillac's U. S. sales were 156,440 vehicles and its global sales were 356,467 vehicles. Cadillac is among the first automobile brands in the world, second in the United States only to fellow GM marque Buick; the firm was founded from the remnants of the Henry Ford Company in 1902. It was named after Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, who founded Michigan; the Cadillac crest is based on his coat of arms. By the time General Motors purchased the company in 1909, Cadillac had established itself as one of America's premier luxury carmakers; the complete interchangeability of its precision parts had allowed it to lay the foundation for the modern mass production of automobiles. It was at the forefront of technological advances, introducing full electrical systems, the clashless manual transmission and the steel roof.
The brand developed three engines, with its V8 setting the standard for the American automotive industry. Cadillac had the first U. S. car to win the Royal Automobile Club of the United Kingdom's Dewar Trophy by demonstrating the interchangeability of its component parts during a reliability test in 1908. It won the trophy again in 1912 for incorporating electric starting and lighting in a production automobile. Cadillac was formed from the remnants of the Henry Ford Company. After a dispute between Henry Ford and his investors, Ford left the company along with several of his key partners in March 1902. Ford's financial backers William Murphy and Lemuel Bowen called in engineer Henry M. Leland of Leland & Faulconer Manufacturing Company to appraise the plant and equipment in preparation for liquidating the company's assets. Instead, Leland persuaded the pair to continue manufacturing automobiles using Leland's proven single-cylinder engine. A new company called the Cadillac Automobile Company was established on 22 August 1902, re-purposing the Henry Ford Company factory at Cass Street and Amsterdam Avenue.
It was named after French explorer Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, who had founded Detroit in 1701. Cadillac's first automobiles, the Runabout and Tonneau, were completed in October 1902, they were two-seat horseless carriages powered by a 10 hp single-cylinder engine. They were identical to the 1903 Ford Model A. Many sources state. Cadillac displayed the new vehicles at the New York Auto Show in January 1903, where the vehicles impressed the crowds enough to gather over 2,000 firm orders. Cadillac's biggest selling point was precision manufacturing, therefore, reliability. Runabout Rear-entrance tonneau Special bodies The Cadillac Automobile Company merged with Leland & Faulconer Manufacturing, forming The Cadillac Motor Company in 1905. From its earliest years, Cadillac aimed for precision engineering and stylish luxury finishes, causing its cars to be ranked amongst the finest in the United States. Cadillac was the first volume manufacturer of a enclosed car, in 1906. Cadillac participated in the 1908 interchangeability test in the United Kingdom, was awarded the Dewar Trophy for the most important advancement of the year in the automobile industry.
In 1909, Cadillac was purchased by the General Motors conglomerate. Cadillac became General Motors' prestige division, devoted to the production of large luxury vehicles; the Cadillac line was GM's default marque for "commercial chassis" institutional vehicles, such as limousines, ambulances and funeral home flower cars, the last three of which were custom-built by aftermarket manufacturers. It became positioned at the top of GM's vehicle hierarchy, above Buick, Oldsmobile and Chevrolet. In 1912, Cadillac was the first automobile manufacturer to incorporate an electrical system enabling starting and lighting. In 1915, Cadillac introduced a 90-degree flathead V8 engine with 70 horsepower at 2400 rpm and 180 pound force-feet of torque, allowing its cars to attain 65 miles per hour; this was faster. Cadillac pioneered the dual-plane V8 crankshaft in 1918. In 1928 Cadillac introduced the first clashless Synchro-Mesh manual transmission, utilizing constant mesh gears. In 1930 Cadillac implemented the first V-16 engine, with a 45-degree overhead valve, 452 cubic inches, 165 horsepower, one of the most powerful and quietest engines in the United States.
The development and introduction of the V8, V16 and V-12 helped to make Cadillac the "Standard of the World". A model of the V8 engine, with overhead valves, set the standard for the entire American automotive industry in 1949. In July 1917, the United States Army needed a dependable staff car and chose the Cadillac Type 55 Touring Model after exhaustive tests on the Mexican border. 2,350 of the cars were supplied for use in France by officers of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I. General Motors of Canada had built Cadillacs from 1923 until 1936 and LaSalles from 1927 until 1935. Pre-World War II Cadillacs were well-built, mass-produced luxury cars aimed at an upper-class market. In the 1930s, Cadillac added cars with V12 and V16 engines to their range, many of which were fi