A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
The Hospital Authority is a statutory body managing all the government hospitals and institutes in Hong Kong. It is under the governance of its board and is under the monitor of the Secretary for Food and Health of the Hong Kong Government, its chairman is John Leong Chi-yan. Before the establishment of the authority, all health and medical issues were under the management of the Medical and Health Department. In 1990, a new health administration system was introduced as part of the 1989 reforms; the establishment of the Authority served to rebuild state capacity amid the emergence of party politics in Hong Kong. The department became the Department of Health and in 1991, the management of all the public hospitals was passed to a new statutory body, the Hospital Authority, established in 1990 under the Hospital Authority Ordinance. In 2003, the General Outpatient Clinics of Department of Health were transferred to the authority. Hospital Authority has been providing services to the public under a cluster-based structure since 1993.
It manages 42 public hospitals and institutions, 48 specialist outpatient clinics and 73 general outpatient clinics. These facilities are organised into seven hospital clusters according to their geographical locations, as shown in the table below; each hospital cluster comprises a mix of acute and convalescent or rehabilitation hospitals to provide a full range of healthcare services. According to the Hospital Authority Ordinance, the Chief Executive of Hong Kong appoints members of the Hospital Authority Board governing the authority; the present board consists of 27 members, including the chairman. Membership of the authority comprises 23 non-public officers, three public officers and the chief executive of the authority. Apart from the chief executive of the authority, other members are not remunerated in their capacity as board members. Sir Chung Sze-yuen, GBM, GBE, JP Peter Woo Kwong-ching, GBM, GBS, JP Lo Ka-shui, GBS, JP Edward Leong Che-hung, GBM, GBS, OBE, JP Anthony Wu Ting-yuk, GBS, JP John Leong Chi-yan, SBS, JP Yeoh Eng-kiong, OBE, JP William Ho Shiu-wei, JP Ko Wing-man, JP Vivian Wong Taam Chi-woon, JP Shane Solomon Leung Pak-yin, JP To perform its roles and exercise its powers, the board has established 11 functional committees: Audit and Risk Committee Emergency Executive Committee Executive Committee Finance Committee Human Resources Committee Information Technology Services Governing Committee Main Tender Board Medical Services Development Committee Public Complaints Committee Staff Appeals Committee, Supporting Services Development Committee.
To enhance community participation and governance of public hospitals, the authority has established 31 Hospital Governing Committees in 38 hospitals and institutions. These committees received regular management reports from the hospital chief executives, monitored operational and financial performance of the hospitals, participated in human resources and procurement functions, as well as hospital and community partnership activities. To provide the authority with advice on the healthcare needs for specific regions of Hong Kong, the authority has established three Regional Advisory Committees; each of the committees meets four times a year. The authority is funded by Hong Kong Government subvention, which amounted to HK$42.5 billion for 2012–2013, equating to over 90% of the authority's total income. Its other incomes include hospital and clinic fees and charges and investment; the authority's total expenditure was HK$46.1 billion for 2012–2013, with 70% used to pay staff, 14% to pay for drugs and other supplies.
In 2003, Hong Kong suffered from the outbreak of SARS and recorded considerable number of patients and casualties. The slow and delayed response of Hospital Authority was criticized. Believing that Hong Kong was safe from infectious diseases, the HA had inadequate preparation for facilities like isolated wards and single rooms that are important for the treatment of contagious diseases. In the early phase of the outbreak, public hospitals placed SARS patients in non-quarantined rooms that increased the chance of infection. On the day when a Hong Kong girl was diagnosed as the territory's first victim of the 2008 Chinese milk scandal, anxious parents were frustrated to discover that doctors at the special unit set up at the Princess Margaret Hospital were taking the day off. Deputy Director of Health Gloria Tam said that it was "not something so urgent that it needs to be dealt with in 24 hours... They can go during office hours tomorrow". Medical sector legislator Leung Ka-lau said the lack of daily cover during the crisis was "insensitive".
While the first victim left hospital after successful treatment one day two more children were admitted to hospital on 22 September. Chow pledged. Waiting time for elective treatment is quite high; the average waiting time for cataract surgery in 2014 was 22 months. Health in Hong Kong List of hospitals in Hong Kong Fung Hong Health informatics Official website
Tsan Yuk Hospital
Tsan Yuk Hospital, located on 30 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun on Hong Kong Island, is a public hospital in Hong Kong specialising in obstetrics and gynaecology. It operates as a teaching and training hospital for the medical and nursing students of Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong; the hospital located at No. 36A Western Street, Sai Ying Pun, moved to the Hospital Road site in 1955. Tsan Yuk Hospital is run under three objectives: In addition to offering a high-standard service, the hospital aims to help women with detected gynaecological abnormalities, to provide research and training facilities for doctors, medical students of The University of Hong Kong and other professionals. Tsan Yuk Hospital was located at the cross-section of Western Street and Third Street in Hong Kong's Sai Ying Pun area; the land on which the hospital was built was donated by the government and the $94,000 construction fee was donated by Mr. H. M. H Nemazee, Sai Ying Pun Kai Fong Committee of the Fishmongers' Guild and Fruit and Vegetable Sellers' Guild.
The thirty beds were donated by Tung Wah Hospital, another government hospital located in neighbouring Sheung Wan. The hospital was opened by the English missionary group London Missionary Society on 17 October 1922, it was opened as a maternity hospital, with the intention to meet society's increasing demand for neonatal services, including the training of midwives and obstetricians. The London Missionary Society recruited the first foreign female doctor in Hong Kong, Dr. Alice D. Hickling, appointed her as the director of Tsan Yuk. In her development of obstetric services, she recognised the abundance of women eager to become professional midwives in Hong Kong, had the notion to provide such training through the hospital, she suggested this to Dr. S. W. Tso, Chairman of the Chinese Public Dispensary Committee, he supported her proposal, thus forward, Tsan Yuk became one of Hong Kong's foremost maternity teaching hospitals. In 1925, Professor Tottenham was appointed as the first obstetric professor in The University of Hong Kong.
Professor Tottenham recognised Tsan Yuk's potential as an educational hospital for teaching Obstetrics and Gynecology. In 1937, most of the teaching activities of these fields were transferred to Tsan Yuk Hospital, until the opening of Queen Mary Hospital a few years later; such teaching endeavours included training for medical students and post-graduates, research facilities for doctors, obstetric training for student nurses. Tsan Yuk's obstetric professional training was recognised by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Tsan Yuk Hospital was closed in 1944, during the Japanese colonial period of Hong Kong, most of the furniture and equipment was moved to Nethersole Hospital. By 1955, Tsan Yuk was experiencing limited places for patients; the Hong Kong Jockey Club donated $3,570,000 to build a new hospital. The chosen site was on nearby Hospital Road, on 28 October 1952 The Duchess of Kent laid the first foundation for the new hospital. Three years on 13 June, Sir Alexander William George Herder Grantham held the opening ceremony for the new Tsan Yuk Hospital.
In 1969, the Mrs Wu Chung Prenatal Diagnostic laboratory was established. Funded by donations from Mrs Wu Chung and the government, the laboratory was set up to screen pregnant women for possible congenital diseases or abnormalities in their babies, it provides counselling services to women at risk if giving birth to babies with congenital defects. To ensure that the laboratory's testing procedures and results meet international standards, the centre was enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australia Quality Assurance Programme in Cytogenetics. During the 1970s, Tsan Yuk experienced the demand for further expansion, and part of the roof was renovated into 19 single rooms, 8 double rooms and a pantry, a living room and an air-conditioned reading room, construction of, subsidised again by the Hong Kong Jockey Club. In 1975 the hospital set up a place to centralise the modulation of babies' milk products to combat the occurrence of infant gastrointestinal conditions. In March 2000, the Integrated Clinic of Hong Kong West Cluster commenced operation in Tsan Yuk Hospital providing comprehensive and holistic care for patients with stable chronic illnesses.
On the first of January 2005, the Clinic was relocated to the Sai Ying Pun Jockey Club Clinic located on Queen's Road West, renamed Sai Ying Pun Family Medicine Specialist Clinic. In the interests of quality and cost effectiveness, the obstetric and newborn inpatient services provided by Tsan Yuk were relocated to Queen Mary Hospital in November 2001. Tsan Yuk Hospital operates as a day centre providing outpatient services. In co-operation with the Maternal Child and Health Centres of the Department of Health, it provides shared antenatal care for low risk obstetric patients, including ambulatory care. Tsan Yuk Hospital conducts a variety of health education programmes for their patients, including such areas as care of newborns, dietary requirements of pregnant women, family planning. On 1 July 2007, Tsan Yuk Hospital's General Gynaecological Clinic was moved to Queen Mary Hospital. In 1996, the Lady Helen Woo Women's Diagnostic and Treatment Centre was established to provide comprehensive health screening and treatment services for women, including counselling and community education.
In line with this mission, a Breast Screening Referral Centre was established in 1999 to provide mammography services to women. The centre has been managed by The University of Hong Kong's Department of Obstet
Role of Christianity in civilization
The role of Christianity in civilization has been intricately intertwined with the history and formation of Western society. Throughout its long history, the Church has been a major source of social services like schooling and medical care. In various ways it has sought to affect Western attitudes to virtue in diverse fields. Festivals like Easter and Christmas are marked as public holidays; the cultural influence of the Church has been vast. Church scholars preserved literacy in Western Europe following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, the Church rose to replace the Roman Empire as the unifying force in Europe; the cathedrals of that age remain among the most iconic feats of architecture produced by Western civilization. Many of Europe's universities were founded by the church at that time. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries; the university is regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting, born from Cathedral schools.
The Reformation brought an end to religious unity in the West, but the Renaissance masterpieces produced by Catholic artists like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at that time remain among the most celebrated works of art produced. Christian sacred music by composers like Pachelbel, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Mendelssohn and Verdi is among the most admired classical music in the Western canon; the Bible and Christian theology have strongly influenced Western philosophers and political activists. The teachings of Jesus, such as the Parable of the Good Samaritan, are among the important sources for modern notions of Human Rights and the welfare measures provided by governments in the West. Long held Christian teachings on sexuality and marriage and family life have been both influential and, in recent times, controversial. Christianity played a role in ending practices such as human sacrifice, slavery and polygamy. Christianity in general affected the status of women by condemning marital infidelity, incest, birth control and abortion.
While official Church teaching considers women and men to be complementary, some modern "advocates of ordination of women and other feminists" argue that teachings attributed to St. Paul and those of the Fathers of the Church and Scholastic theologians advanced the notion of a divinely ordained female inferiority. Women have played prominent roles in Western history through and as part of the church in education and healthcare, but as influential theologians and mystics. Christians have made a myriad contributions to human progress in a broad and diverse range of fields, both and in modern times, including the science and technology, fine arts and architecture, literatures, philanthropy, ethics and business. According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes a review of Nobel prizes award between 1901 and 2000 reveals that of Nobel Prizes Laureates, have identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference. Eastern Christians have contributed to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Ummayad and the Abbasid periods by translating works of Greek philosophers to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.
They excelled in philosophy, science and medicine. Some of the things that Christianity is criticized for include the oppression of women, condemnation of homosexuality and various other cases of violence. Christian ideas have been used both to end slavery as an institution; the criticism of Christianity has come from the various religious and non-religious groups around the world, some of whom were themselves Christians. Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century arising out of the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth; the life of Jesus is recounted in the New Testament of the Bible, one of the bedrock texts of Western Civilization and inspiration for countless works of Western art. Jesus' birth is commemorated in the festival of Christmas, his death during the Paschal Triduum, what Christians believe to be his resurrection during Easter. Christmas and Easter remain holidays in many Western nations. Jesus learned the texts of the Hebrew Bible, with its Ten Commandments and became an influential wandering preacher.
He was a persuasive teller of parables and moral philosopher who urged followers to worship God, act without violence or prejudice and care for the sick and poor. These teachings have been influential in Western culture. Jesus criticized the privilege and hypocrisy of the religious establishment which drew the ire of the authorities, who persuaded the Roman Governor of the province of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, to have him executed; the Talmud says Jesus was executed for leading the people into apostacy. In Jerusalem, around 30AD, Jesus was crucified; the early followers of Jesus, including Saints Paul and Peter carried this new theology concerning Jesus throughout the Roman Empire and beyond, sowing the seeds for the development of the Catholic Church, of which Saint Peter is remembered as the first Pope. Catholicism, as we know it, emerged slowly. Christians faced persecution during these early centuries for their r
Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word pathology refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease through analysis of tissue and body fluid samples. Idiomatically, "a pathology" may refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases, the affix path is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment and psychological conditions. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist; as a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development, structural alterations of cells, the consequences of changes.
In common medical practice, general pathology is concerned with analyzing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types and physiological systems, as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination. Pathology is a significant field in medical research; the study of pathology, including the detailed examination of the body, including dissection and inquiry into specific maladies, dates back to antiquity. Rudimentary understanding of many conditions was present in most early societies and is attested to in the records of the earliest historical societies, including those of the Middle East and China. By the Hellenic period of ancient Greece, a concerted causal study of disease was underway, with many notable early physicians having developed methods of diagnosis and prognosis for a number of diseases.
The medical practices of the Romans and those of the Byzantines continued from these Greek roots, but, as with many areas of scientific inquiry, growth in understanding of medicine stagnated some after the Classical Era, but continued to develop throughout numerous cultures. Notably, many advances were made in the medieval era of Islam, during which numerous texts of complex pathologies were developed based on the Greek tradition. So, growth in complex understanding of disease languished until knowledge and experimentation again began to proliferate in the Renaissance and Baroque eras, following the resurgence of the empirical method at new centers of scholarship. By the 17th century, the study of microscopy was underway and examination of tissues had led British Royal Society member Robert Hooke to coin the word "cell", setting the stage for germ theory. Modern pathology began to develop as a distinct field of inquiry during the 19th Century through natural philosophers and physicians that studied disease and the informal study of what they termed “pathological anatomy” or “morbid anatomy”.
However, pathology as a formal area of specialty was not developed until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the advent of detailed study of microbiology. In the 19th century, physicians had begun to understand that disease-causing pathogens, or "germs" existed and were capable of reproduction and multiplication, replacing earlier beliefs in humors or spiritual agents, that had dominated for much of the previous 1,500 years in European medicine. With the new understanding of causative agents, physicians began to compare the characteristics of one germ’s symptoms as they developed within an affected individual to another germ’s characteristics and symptoms; this realization led to the foundational understanding that diseases are able to replicate themselves, that they can have many profound and varied effects on the human host. To determine causes of diseases, medical experts used the most common and accepted assumptions or symptoms of their times, a general principal of approach that persists into modern medicine.
Modern medicine was advanced by further developments of the microscope to analyze tissues, to which Rudolf Virchow gave a significant contribution, leading to a slew of research developments. By the late 1920s to early 1930s pathology was deemed a medical specialty. Combined with developments in the understanding of general physiology, by the beginning of the 20th century, the study of pathology had begun to split into a number of rarefied fields and resulting in the development of large number of modern specialties within pathology and related disciplines of diagnostic medicine; the term pathology comes from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos, meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia, "study of". The modern practice of pathology is divided into a number of subdisciplines within the discrete but interconnected aims of biological research and medical practice. Biomedical research into disease incorporates the
Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital
Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital is a public, community hospital with 324 beds in Lok Fu, Hong Kong. It is under the Kowloon Central Cluster managed by the Hospital Authority. Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital was found by the Hong Kong Buddhist Association, it was started building in 1966 and completed in 1970. It was opened on 12 March 1971 by the Hong Kong Governor, David Trench; the hospital provided 350 beds and cost HK$14 million, HK$2 million of, donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. As of March 2013, the hospital had around 370 members of staff. For the year ended 31 March 2013, it had treated 8,631 inpatients and day-patients, 11,464 specialist outpatients, 45,432 general outpatients