Norwegian Lutheran Church (Grytviken)
Grytviken Church known as the Whalers Church, as the Norwegian Lutheran Church, was built in 1913 in Grytviken, South Georgia. The church was part of the Church of Norway for a century from 1913 to 2013, it was formally handed over to the United Kingdom in 2013, is now part of the Anglican Communion Diocese of the Falkland Islands. The church had a cameo appearance in the 2006 animated film Happy Feet; the Neo-Gothic church was pre-built in Norway and erected in Grytviken by whalers led by Carl Anton Larsen around 1912–1913 and consecrated on Christmas Day 1913. The church consists of a single nave leading to a small altar. A small library is attached to the side near the altar. Inside, worshippers are seated on long wood benches; the floor's dark wood planks contrast with the white walls and celling. The church, one of the most southern churches on earth, was consecrated on Christmas Day in 1913. In 1922, a funeral service for Sir Ernest Shackleton was conducted in this church before his burial amongst 64 others in the church cemetery.
The cemetery, located 700 metres to the south on the other end of Grytviken Harbour holds empty graves for lost whalers at sea. The church was led by Kristen Løken, from 1913 to 1914. Løken was born in 1885 in Lillehammer and was made Pastor of South Georgia and arrived in 1912 to take his post, he was responsible for supervising the building of the church building as well. Løken was the only pastor for this church. Løken died in 1975; the Grytviken Cemetery, associated with the church, is located about 700 metres away to the south. It predates the church, first accepting whalers' graves before 1902, it holds 64 graves, including nine victims of a 1912 typhoid epidemic, Ernest Shackleton, the ashes of fellow polar explorer Frank Wild which were interred in 2011, Félix Artuso, an Argentinian submarine officer, killed in the 1982 British recapture of South Georgia from Argentina. In April 1982, during the invasion of South Georgia by Argentinian military forces, members of a British Antarctic Survey team were invited by British marines to take shelter in the church.
After years of abandonment and weathering the harsh elements of the region, the church was renovated by the keepers of South Georgia Museum and volunteers in 1996-1998, now serves for occasional church services and marriage ceremonies. Trinity Church located south of Grytviken in Antarctica South Georgia Museum – one of a few active structures in town Løken Pond – named for the church's only pastor Grytviken Cemetery
Whaling is the hunting of whales for their usable products such as meat and blubber, which can be turned into a type of oil which became important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as an organized industry as early as 875 AD. By the 16th century, it had risen to be the principle industry in the coastal regions of Spain and France; the industry spread throughout the world, became profitable in terms of trade and resources. Some regions of the world's oceans, along the animals' migration routes, had a dense whale population, became the targets for large concentrations of whaling ships, the industry continued to grow well into the 20th century; the depletion of some whale species to near extinction led to the banning of whaling in many countries by 1969, to a worldwide cessation of whaling as an industry in the late 1980s. The earliest forms of whaling date to at least circa 3000 BC. Coastal communities around the world have long histories of subsistence use of cetaceans, by dolphin drive hunting and by harvesting drift whales.
Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets of whaleships in the 17th century. By the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission banned commercial whaling because of the extreme depletion of most of the whale stocks. Contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Countries that support commercial whaling, notably Iceland and Norway, wish to lift the ban on certain whale stocks for hunting. Anti-whaling countries and environmental groups oppose lifting the ban. Under the terms of the IWC moratorium, aboriginal whaling is allowed to continue on a subsistence basis. Over the past few decades, whale watching has become a significant industry in many parts of the world; the live capture of cetaceans for display in aquaria continues. Whaling began in prehistoric times in coastal waters; the earliest depictions of whaling are the Neolithic Bangudae Petroglyphs in Korea, which may date back to 6000 BC. These images are the earliest evidence for whaling.
Although prehistoric hunting and gathering is considered to have had little ecological impact, early whaling in the Arctic may have altered freshwater ecology. Early whaling affected the development of disparate cultures – such as Norway and Japan, both of which continue to hunt in the 21st century; the Basques were the first to catch whales commercially, dominated the trade for five centuries, spreading to the far corners of the North Atlantic and reaching the South Atlantic. The development of modern whaling techniques was spurred in the 19th century by the increase in demand for whale oil, sometimes known as "train oil", in the 20th century by a demand for margarine and whale meat. Many countries which once had significant industries, such as the Netherlands and Argentina, ceased whaling long ago, so are not covered in this article; the primary species hunted are minke whales,belugas and pilot whales. Which are some of the smallest species of whales. There are smaller numbers killed of gray whales, sei whales, fin whales, bowhead whales, Bryde's whales, sperm whales and humpback whales.
Recent scientific surveys estimate a population of 103,000 minkes in the northeast Atlantic. With respect to the populations of Antarctic minke whales, as of January 2010, the IWC states that it is "unable to provide reliable estimates at the present time" and that a "major review is underway by the Scientific Committee."Whale oil is used little today and modern whaling is done for food: for pets, fur farms, sled dogs and humans, for making carvings of tusks and vertebrae. Both meat and blubber are eaten from narwhals and bowheads. From commercially hunted minkes, meat is eaten by humans or animals, blubber is rendered down to cheap industrial products such as animal feed or, in Iceland, as a fuel supplement for whaling ships. International cooperation on whaling regulation began in 1931 and culminated in the signing of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, its aim is to: provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry.
The International Whaling Commission was set up under the ICRW to decide hunting quotas and other relevant matters based on the findings of its Scientific Committee. Non-member countries conduct their own management programs, it regulates hunting of 13 species of great whales, has not reached consensus on whether it may regulate smaller species. The IWC voted on July 23, 1982, to establish a moratorium on commercial whaling of great whales beginning in the 1985–86 season. Since 1992, the IWC's Scientific Committee has requested that it be allowed to give quota proposals for some whale stocks, but this has so far been refused by the Plenary Committee. At the 2010 meeting of the International Whaling Commission in Morocco, representatives of the 88 member states discussed whether or not to lift the 24-year ban on commercial whaling. Japan and Iceland have urged the organisation to lift the ban. A coalition of anti-whaling nations has offered a compromise plan that would allow these countries to continue whaling, but with smaller catches and under close supervision.
Their plan would completely ban whaling in the Southern Ocean. More than 200 scientists and experts have
Snow Hill Island
Snow Hill Island is an completely snowcapped island, 33 km long and 12 km wide, lying off the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. It is separated from James Ross Island to the north-east by Admiralty Sound and from Seymour Island to the north by Picnic Passage, it is one of several islands around the peninsula known as Graham Land, closer to South America than any other part of the Antarctic continent. The island was discovered on 6 January 1843 by a British expedition under James Clark Ross who, uncertain of its connection with the mainland, named it Snow Hill because its snow cover stood out in contrast to the bare ground of nearby Seymour Island, its insular character was determined in 1902 by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition in the ship Antarctic, under Otto Nordenskiöld, who spent the winters of 1901, 1902, 1903 there, using it as a base to explore the neighbouring islands and the Nordenskjold Coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The wooden hut built by the main party of the Swedish Expedition in February 1902 known as Nordenskiöld House, has been designated a Historic Site or Monument, following a proposal by Argentina and the United Kingdom to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.
Ice-free Spath Peninsula, 4.0 mi long, forms the island's northeast extremity. The northernmost point of Snow Hill Island is Cape Lázara; the cape was named "Cabo Costa Lázara" by the command of the Argentine ship Chiriguano of the Argentine Antarctic Expedition, 1953–54, after Teniente Costa Lázara, an Argentine navy pilot, killed in a flying accident at the Espora Naval Air Base. Haslum Crag is a prominent rock crag close to the island's north coast, it stands 2 nautical miles northeast of ice-free Station Nunatak. They were first seen by members of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1901–04, under Otto Nordenskiöld, surveyed by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey in 1952. Nordenskiöld named Station Nunatak because of its proximity to the expedition's winter station, he gave Haslum Crag its original name, "Basaltspitze". Concerned that "Basaltspitze" could be mistaken for descriptive information, the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee changed it to Haslum Crag, honoring H. J. Haslum, second mate on the Antarctic, the ship of the Swedish expedition.
This area of the northeast coast consists of Cretaceous sedimentary rocks with abundant fossils of ammonites and bivalves. There are numerous basalt dikes that project up through the sedimentary rocks near the station Nunatak. Day Nunatak and Dingle Nunatak appear within the main ice cap of the island. Both were named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1995. Day Ninatak was named for Crispin Mark Jeremy Day, a long-serving British Antarctic Survey General Field Assistant, he was at Rothera Station, 1986–89, 1991–92, 1993–94. Dingle Nunatak was named after Richard Vernon Dingle, Senior BAS geologist, a member of the BAS field party in the James Ross Island area from 1994–95. Sanctuary Cliffs is a rock cliffs at the north edge of the island's central ice cap, it was first surveyed by the SAE, which named them "Mittelnunatak," because of their position near the middle of the north coast of the island. Following survey by FIDS in 1952, it was reported that the term "cliffs" was more suitable than "nunatak" for this feature.
UK-APC recommended an new and more distinctive name be approved, it was dubbed Sanctuary Cliffs in recognition of the way the cliffs provide shelter from the prevailing southwesterly winds. A site at the south-western extremity of the island, comprising 263 ha of sea ice adjacent to the coast, has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because it supports a breeding colony of about 4000 pairs of emperor penguins, it is one of only two such colonies on land in the Antarctic Peninsula region, the other being that at the Dion Islands. List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Geological Survey
Grytviken was the largest whaling station on South Georgia, part of the British Overseas Territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic. The settlement, located at the head of King Edward Cove within the larger Cumberland East Bay, was considered the best harbour on South Georgia Island, it was founded on November 1904, by Carl Anton Larsen of Sandefjord, Norway. Despite being founded by a Norwegian, the settlement's name, was named by Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson and means "the Pot Bay"; the name was coined in 1902 by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition and documented by the surveyor Johan Gunnar Andersson, after the expedition found old English try pots used to render seal oil at the site. Grytviken is built on a substantial area of sheltered, flat land and has a good supply of fresh water. Although it was the largest settlement on South Georgia, the island's capital and administration was based at the British Antarctic Survey research station at King Edward Point.
The station closed in December 1966. Grytviken no longer has permanent residents, it is temporarily inhabited during the summer months by a few staff who manage the South Georgia Museum. The settlement has become a popular attraction for Antarctic cruise lines, with many tourists visiting the resting places of polar explorers Ernest Shackleton and Frank Wild in Grytviken's graveyard; the settlement at Grytviken was established on 16 November 1904 by the Norwegian sea captain Carl Anton Larsen, as a whaling station for his Compañía Argentina de Pesca. It was successful, with 195 whales taken in the first season; the whalers used every part of the animals – the blubber, meat and viscera were rendered to extract the oil, the bones and meat were turned into fertiliser and fodder. Elephant seals were hunted for their blubber. Around 300 men worked at the station during its heyday, operating during the southern summer from October to March. A few remained over the winter to maintain factory; every few months a transport ship would bring essential supplies to the station and take away the oil and other produce.
The following year the Argentine Government established a meteorological station. Carl Anton Larsen, the founder of Grytviken, was a naturalised Briton born in Norway. In his application for British citizenship, filed with the magistrate of South Georgia and granted in 1910, Captain Larsen wrote: "I have given up my Norwegian citizen's rights and have resided here since I started whaling in this colony on the 16 November 1904 and have no reason to be of any other citizenship than British, as I have had and intend to have my residence here still for a long time." His family in Grytviken included three daughters and two sons. As the manager of Compañía Argentina de Pesca, Larsen organised the construction of Grytviken, a remarkable undertaking accomplished by a team of sixty Norwegians between their arrival on 16 November and commencement of production at the newly built whale-oil factory on 24 December 1904. Larsen chose the whaling station's site during his 1902 visit while in command of the ship Antarctic of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition led by Otto Nordenskjöld.
On that occasion, the name Grytviken was given by the Swedish archaeologist and geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson who surveyed part of Thatcher Peninsula and found numerous artefacts and features from sealers’ habitation and industry, including a shallop and several try-pots used to boil seal oil. One of those try-pots, having the inscription ‘Johnson and Sons, Wapping Dock, London’ is preserved at the South Georgia Museum in Grytviken. Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations had their families living together with them. Among them was Fridthjof Jacobsen whose wife Klara Olette Jacobsen gave birth to two of their children in Grytviken. Several more children have been born on South Georgia: even aboard visiting private yachts; the whale population in the seas around the island was reduced over the following sixty years until the station closed in December 1966, by which time the whale stocks were so low that their continued exploitation was unviable. Now, the shore around Grytviken is littered with whale bones and the rusting remains of whale oil processing plants and abandoned whaling ships.
Grytviken is associated with the explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton. Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition set out from London on 1 August 1914, to reach the Weddell Sea on 10 January 1915, where the pack ice closed in on their ship, Endurance; the ship was broken by the ice on 27 October 1915. The 28 crew members managed to flee to Elephant Island off Antarctica, bringing three small boats with them. Shackleton and five other men managed to reach the southern coast of South Georgia in the James Caird, they arrived at Cave Cove, camped at Peggotty Bluff, from where they trekked to Stromness on the northeast coast. From Grytviken, Shackleton organised a rescue operation to bring home the remaining men, he again posthumously. In 1922 he had died unexpectedly from a heart attack at the beginning of another Antarctic expedition, his widow chose South Georgia as his final resting place. His grave is located south of Grytviken, alongside those of whalers. On 27 November 2011, the ashes of Frank Wild, Shackleton’s “right-hand man”, were interred on the right side of Shackleton’s grave-site.
The inscription on the rough-hewn granite block set to mark the spot reads “Frank Wild 1873–1939, Shac
Graham Land is the portion of the Antarctic Peninsula that lies north of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz. This description of Graham Land is consistent with the 1964 agreement between the British Antarctic Place-names Committee and the US Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names, in which the name "Antarctic Peninsula" was approved for the major peninsula of Antarctica, the names Graham Land and Palmer Land for the northern and southern portions, respectively; the line dividing them is 69 degrees south. Graham Land is named after Sir James R. G. Graham, First Lord of the Admiralty at the time of John Biscoe's exploration of the west side of Graham Land in 1832, it is claimed by Argentina and Chile. Graham Land is the closest part of Antarctica to South America, thus it is the usual destination for small ships taking paying visitors on Antarctic trips from South America. Until the discoveries of the British Graham Land Expedition of 1934–1937, it was supposed to be an archipelago rather than a peninsula.
The mountains of Graham Land are the last range of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. Mount Brading, 4 nautical miles east of the northeast corner of Larsen Inlet; the interior of Graham Land is occupied by a series of plateaus, namely Laclavère Plateau, Louis Philippe Plateau, Detroit Plateau, Herbert Plateau, Foster Plateau, Forbidden Plateau, Bruce Plateau, Avery Plateau and Hemimont Plateau. Argentina calls the area Tierra de San Martín and calls the northern peninsula Península Trinidad or Tierra de la Trinidad. Chile calls the entire Antarctic Peninsula Tierra de O'Higgins. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. British Graham Land Expedition Moyes Nunatak U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Graham Land Media related to Graham Land at Wikimedia Commons
A sea captain, ship's captain, master, or shipmaster, is a high-grade licensed mariner who holds ultimate command and responsibility of a merchant vessel. The captain is responsible for the safe and efficient operation of the ship and its people and cargo, including its seaworthiness and security, cargo operations, crew management, legal compliance; the captain ensures that the ship complies with local and international laws and complies with company and flag state policies. The captain is responsible, under the law, for aspects of operation such as the safe navigation of the ship, its cleanliness and seaworthiness, safe handling of all cargo, management of all personnel, inventory of ship's cash and stores, maintaining the ship's certificates and documentation. One of a shipmaster's important duties is to ensure compliance with the vessel's security plan, as required by the International Maritime Organization's ISPS Code; the plan, customized to meet the needs of each individual ship, spells out duties including conducting searches and inspections, maintaining restricted spaces, responding to threats from terrorists, hijackers and stowaways.
The security plan covers topics such as refugees and asylum seekers and saboteurs. On ships without a purser, the captain is in charge of the ship's accounting; this includes ensuring an adequate amount of cash on board, coordinating the ship's payroll, managing the ship's slop chest. On international voyages, the captain is responsible for satisfying requirements of the local immigration and customs officials. Immigration issues can include situations such as embarking and disembarking passengers, handling crew members who desert the ship, making crew changes in port, making accommodations for foreign crew members. Customs requirements can include the master providing a cargo declaration, a ship's stores declaration, a declaration of crew members' personal effects, crew lists and passenger lists; the captain has special responsibilities when the ship or its cargo are damaged, when the ship causes damage to other vessels or facilities. The master acts as a liaison to local investigators and is responsible for providing complete and accurate logbooks, reports and evidence to document an incident.
Specific examples of the ship causing external damage include collisions with other ships or with fixed objects, grounding the vessel, dragging anchor. Some common causes of cargo damage include heavy weather, water damage and damage caused during loading/unloading by the stevedores. All persons on board including public authorities and passengers are under the captain's authority and are his or her ultimate responsibility during navigation. In the case of injury or death of a crew member or passenger, the master is responsible to address any medical issues affecting the passengers and crew by providing medical care as possible, cooperating with shore-side medical personnel, and, if necessary, evacuating those who need more assistance than can be provided on board the ship. There is a common belief that ship captains have been, are, able to perform marriages; this depends on the country of registry, however most do not permit performance of a marriage by the master of a ship at sea. In the United States Navy, a captain’s powers are defined by its 1913 Code of Regulations stating: "The commanding officer shall not perform a marriage ceremony on board his ship or aircraft.
He shall not permit a marriage ceremony to be performed on board when the ship or aircraft is outside the territory of the United States." However, there may be exceptions "in accordance with local laws and the laws of the state, territory, or district in which the parties are domiciled" and "in the presence of a diplomatic or consular official of the United States, who has consented to issue the certificates and make the returns required by the consular regulations." Furthermore, in the United States, there have been a few contradictory legal precedents: courts did not recognize a shipboard marriage in California's 1898 Norman v. Norman but did in New York's 1929 Fisher v. Fisher and in 1933's Johnson v. Baker, an Oregon court ordered the payment of death benefits to a widow because she had established that her marriage at sea was lawful. However, in Fisher v. Fisher the involvement of the ship's captain was irrelevant to the outcome. New Jersey's 1919 Bolmer v. Edsall said a shipboard marriage ceremony is governed by the laws of the nation where ownership of the vessel lies.
In the United Kingdom, the captain of a merchant ship has never been permitted to perform marriages, although from 1854 any which took place had to be reported in the ship's log. Filipino and Spanish law, as narrow exceptions, recognise a marriage in articulo mortis solemnized by the captain of a ship or chief of an aeroplane during a voyage, or by the commanding officer of a military unit. Japan allows ship captains to perform a marriage ceremony at sea, but only for Japanese citizens. Malta and Bermuda permit captains of ships registered in their jurisdictions to perform marriages at sea. Princess Cruises, whose ships are registered in Bermuda, has used this as a selling point for their cruises, while Cunard moved the registration of its ships Queen Mary 2, Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth from Southampton to Bermuda in 2011 to allow marriages to be conducted on their ships; some captains obtain other credentials, which allow them to perform marriages in some jurisdictions where they would otherwise not be permitted to do so.
Jason was a Norwegian whaling vessel laid down in 1881 by Rødsverven in Sandefjord, the same shipyard which built Ernest Shackleton's ship Endurance. The ship, financed by Christen Christensen, an entrepreneur from Sandefjord, was noted for her participation in an 1892-1893 Antarctic expedition led by Carl Anton Larsen; the vessel reached 68°10'S, set a new record for distance travelled south along the eastern Antarctic Peninsula. The ship's first mate during the expedition was Søren Andersen of Sandefjord. Jason was rechristened Stella Polare. In 1888, Fridtjof Nansen captained Jason to Greenland in order to attempt the first documented crossing of the island. From 1892 to 1894, the ship was used on scientific whaling expeditions to the Antarctic, funded by A/S Oceana; the purpose of these expeditions were to map the presence of seals in the area. During this mission, Jason achieved a record of going the longest south in the area, reaching 68°10'S. Jason Peninsula Jason Harbour 54°12′S 36°35′W South Georgia Jason Island 54°11′S 36°29.5′W South Georgia Jason Peak 54°11.5′S 36°37′W South Georgia Cape Framnes Christensen Island: 65°5'S, 58°40'W Foyn's Land Larsen Ice Shelf Mount Jason: 65°44'S, 60°45'W Norway Sound Robertson Island: 65°10′S 59°37′W Seal Islands Veier Head: 66°26'S, 60°45'W In 1898 the Italian prince and explorer Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi wanted to do polar expeditions.
He travelled to Norway and consulted the famous polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen that had sailed the furthest north with the Colin Archer built polar ship Fram in 1893-96. In 1899 Amedo renamed her Stella Polare and took her to Colin Archer's shipyard; the interior was stripped out and beams and knees strengthened the ship. At the same time, Colin Archer fitted out Southern Cross for polar expeditions and the two ships lay side by side at the yard in Larvik. Amedeo gathered an expeditionary crew of Italian and Norwegian civilians and sailed from Christiana on 12 June of that year. By the 30th, they had reached Russia to load sled dogs onto the ship. Leaving Russia, they headed for Franz Josef Land, they landed in Teplitz Bay in Rudolf Island, with a hope to establish a winter camp for the expedition. From here, they established a string of camps designed to supply each other with food and men. During the expedition, Amedeo lost two fingers to frostbite, had to hand command of the voyage over to Captain Umberto Cagni.
On 25 April 1900, Cagni planted the Italian flag at 86°34'N, claiming the title of "Farthest North." Amedo's uncle was murdered and the widow made a silver replica of Stella Polare at a cost of 12.000 lire and placed it at the virgin Marias wonder working picture in the cathedral of Torino, Italy. In July 1909 the Stella Polare was given as training ship for an association in Rome, she was taken under tow from the arsenal in Spezia and anchored at Ripa Grande in river Tiber, a little upstream of the Aventinerhights. There she caught fire. Larsen, C. A. "The Voyage of the "Jason" to the Antarctic Regions." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4. Pp. 333–344