Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to
A rare-earth element or rare-earth metal, as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare-earth elements because they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. A broader definition that includes actinides may be used, since the actinides share some mineralogical and physical characteristics; the 17 rare-earth elements are cerium, erbium, gadolinium, lanthanum, neodymium, promethium, scandium, thulium and yttrium. Despite their name, rare-earth elements are – with the exception of the radioactive promethium – plentiful in Earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million, more abundant than copper. However, because of their geochemical properties, rare-earth elements are dispersed and not found concentrated in rare-earth minerals; the first rare-earth mineral discovered was gadolinite, a mineral composed of cerium, iron and other elements.
This mineral was extracted from a mine in the village of Ytterby in Sweden. A table listing the 17 rare-earth elements, their atomic number and symbol, the etymology of their names, their main usages is provided here; some of the rare-earth elements are named after the scientists who discovered or elucidated their elemental properties, some after their geographical discovery. The following abbreviations are used: RE = rare earth REM = rare-earth metals REE = rare-earth elements REO = rare-earth oxides REY = rare-earth elements and yttrium LREE = light rare-earth elements HREE = heavy rare-earth elements The first rare-earth element discovered was the black mineral "ytterbite", it was discovered by Lieutenant Carl Axel Arrhenius in 1787 at a quarry in the village of Ytterby, Sweden. Arrhenius's "ytterbite" reached Johan Gadolin, a Royal Academy of Turku professor, his analysis yielded an unknown oxide that he called yttria. Anders Gustav Ekeberg isolated beryllium from the gadolinite but failed to recognize other elements that the ore contained.
After this discovery in 1794 a mineral from Bastnäs near Riddarhyttan, believed to be an iron–tungsten mineral, was re-examined by Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Wilhelm Hisinger. In 1803 they called it ceria. Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently called it ochroia, thus by 1803 there were two known rare-earth elements and cerium, although it took another 30 years for researchers to determine that other elements were contained in the two ores ceria and yttria. In 1839 Carl Gustav Mosander, an assistant of Berzelius, separated ceria by heating the nitrate and dissolving the product in nitric acid, he called the oxide of the soluble salt lanthana. It took him three more years to separate the lanthana further into pure lanthana. Didymia, although not further separable by Mosander's techniques, was a mixture of oxides. In 1842 Mosander separated the yttria into three oxides: pure yttria and erbia; the earth giving pink salts he called terbium. So in 1842 the number of known rare-earth elements had reached six: yttrium, lanthanum, didymium and terbium.
Nils Johan Berlin and Marc Delafontaine tried to separate the crude yttria and found the same substances that Mosander obtained, but Berlin named the substance giving pink salts erbium, Delafontaine named the substance with the yellow peroxide terbium. This confusion led to several false claims of new elements, such as the mosandrium of J. Lawrence Smith, or the philippium and decipium of Delafontaine. Due to the difficulty in separating the metals, the total number of false discoveries was dozens, with some putting the total number of discoveries at over a hundred. There were no further discoveries for 30 years, the element didymium was listed in the periodic table of elements with a molecular mass of 138. In 1879 Delafontaine used the new physical process of optical flame spectroscopy and found several new spectral lines in didymia. In 1879, the new element samarium was isolated by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran from the mineral samarskite; the samaria earth was further separated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886, a similar result was obtained by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac by direct isolation from samarskite.
They named the element gadolinium after Johan Gadolin, its oxide was named "gadolinia". Further spectroscopic analysis between 1886 and 1901 of samaria and samarskite by William Crookes, Lecoq de Boisbaudran and Eugène-Anatole Demarçay yielded several new spectroscopic lines that indicated the existence of an unknown element; the fractional crystallization of the oxides yielded europium in 1901. In 1839 the third source for rare earths became available; this is a mineral similar to uranotantalum. This mineral from Miass in the southern Ural Mountains was documented by Gustav Rose; the Russian chemist R. Harmann proposed that a new eleme
A fire striker is a piece of carbon steel from which sparks are struck by the sharp edge of flint, chert or similar rock. It is a specific tool used in firemaking. In early times, percussion firemaking was used to start fires. Before the advent of steel, a variety of iron pyrite or marcasite was used with flint and other stones to produce a high-temperature spark that could be used to create fire. There are indications. From the Iron Age forward, until the invention of the friction match, the use of flint and steel was a common method of firelighting. Percussion fire-starting was prevalent in Europe during ancient times, the Middle Ages and the Viking Age; when flint and steel were used, the fire steel was kept in a metal tinderbox together with flint and tinder. In Tibet and Mongolia they were instead carried in a leather pouch called a chuckmuck. In Japan, percussion firemaking was performed using quartz, it was used as a ritual to bring good luck or ward off evil. The type and hardness of steel used is important.
High carbon steels generate. Iron and alloys generates less sparks; the steel must be hardened but softer than the flint-like material scraping off the spark. Old files and coil springs, rusty gardening tools are common, re-purposed sources of strikers. Besides flint, many other hard, non-porous rocks can be used, that can take a sharp edge, such as chert, agate, jasper or chalcedony; the sharp edge of the flint is used to violently strike the fire steel at an acute angle in order to cleave or shave off small particles of metal. The pyrophoricity of the steel results in the shavings oxidising in the air; the molten, oxidizing sparks ignite the fine tinder. Tinder is best held next to the flint and the steel striker slid down against the flint, casting sparks into the tinder. Charcloth or amadou is used to catch the low-temperature sparks, which can can be brought to other, heavier tinder and blown into flame. Fire piston Ferrocerium Coat of arms of Serbia Viking Age Fire-Steels and Strike-A-Lights Flint and Marcasite
For the theater, see Theater in der Josefstadt. Josefstadt is the eighth district of Vienna, it is near the center of Vienna and was established as a district in 1850, but borders changed later. Josefstadt is a populated urban area with many workers and residential homes, it has a population of 24,279 people. With an area of 1.08 km², Josefstadt is the smallest district in Vienna, was named after the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I. It consists of the former Vorstädte of Josefstadt, Breitenfeld and Alt-Lerchenfeld, as well as parts of St. Ulrich and Alservorstadt; the district borders are formed by Alser Straße, Lerchenfelderstraße, Hernalsergürtel and Lerchenfeldergürtel in the west, Auerspergstraße and Landesgerichtsstraße in the east. Josefstadt has developed into a middle-class neighbourhood. Most mayors of Vienna have lived here. Due to its proximity to the University of Vienna, Josefstadt is the home of many students. On the basis of the 2005 municipal elections, Josefstadt became Vienna's second district to have a Green district director.
Josefstadt is located in the center of the city of Vienna. Covering an area of 1.08 km2, it is the smallest district of Vienna, where Josefstadt occupies only 0.26% of the area of Vienna. The district lies between the Vienna belt and the so-called two-line, it is one of the most densely built districts of Vienna. Only 2% of the district accounted for pasture land; the Josefstadt district lies on a plateau between two streams now channeled Wienerwald, with Josefstadt not quite where the streams can reach. The Alser Bach and the Ottakringer Bach, before the construction, had dug deep valleys with a strong gap in the area, resulting in significant differences in height within the district areas; the western border on Lerchenfelder belt lies at an altitude of 204.5 meters, while on the eastern edge of the district, the Friedrich-Schmidt Square reached a height of 180 meters. Between the north and south of the county area, there are differences in altitude. Thus, the intersection Kochgasse/Alserstraße, in the north, reached to 185 meters in height, the plateau Florianigasse-Skodagasse to 198 meters in height, the intersection of Lerchenfelder Street with Kaiserstrasse to 196 meters in height.
Josefstadt was formed from the former suburbs Altlerchenfeld, Josef city and Strozzigrund. Added to this was the proportion of the Alser southern suburb and a small part of St. Ulrich. In the northeast area of the district, between High Street and Florianigasse and Feldgasse, lies Alservorstadt, where the northern part of the district is called Alsergrund. In parts, the Alservorstadt section includes the Municipal District, the Regional Court, the Museum for Ethnology, as well as the largest park in the district, the Schoenborn Park. In the north-west of the district, Breitenfelder Kirche lies between the belts Florianigasse and Feldgasse of Breitenfeld; the north of the Josefstädter Street and the southeastern area of the territory belongs to the sub-district Josefstadt. The most important buildings are the Theater of Josefstadt and the church Piaristenkirche "Maria Treu." Around Strozzigasse, there is the small district-section Strozzigrund, with the tax office. Included is the Strozzigrund in the west and east of Altlerchenfeld, where in the Pfeilgasse, several student residences are located.
In the southeast area of the district, in the southern area of Piaristengasse, a small part of St. Ulrich is located, whose largest part is located in the adjacent district Neubau. A breakdown of the district area is in the Zählbezirken of official statistics, in which the district census of each municipality are combined; the three Zählbezirke in Josefstadt are Josefstädter Straße and Bennoplatz. Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt Anton Wildgans Karl von Frisch Heinz Fischer Kurt Gödel Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach Ödön von Horvath Milo Dor H. C. Artmann Ignaz Semmelweis "Wien - 8. Bezirk/Josefstadt", Wien.gv.at, 2008, webpage: Wien.gv.at-josefstadt. "BezirksvorsteherInnen und deren StellvertreterInnen im 8. Bezirk seit 1945", Wien.gv.at, 2012, webpage:. Felix Czeike: Wiener Bezirkskulturführer: VIII. Josefstadt. Jugend und Volk, Vienna 1980, ISBN 3-7141-6226-7. Elfriede Faber: Zeitsprünge Wien-Josefstadt. Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2006, ISBN 978-3-89702-875-3. Christine Klusacek: Josefstadt. Beiseln, Bühnen, Beamte.
Mohl, Vienna 1991, ISBN 3-900272-40-9. Carola Leitner: Josefstadt: Wiens 8. Bezirk in alten Fotografien. Ueberreuter, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-8000-7204-1
Heidelberg University is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germany's oldest university and one of the world's oldest surviving universities, it was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire. Heidelberg has been a coeducational institution since 1899; the university consists of twelve faculties and offers degree programmes at undergraduate and postdoctoral levels in some 100 disciplines. Heidelberg comprises three major campuses: the humanities are predominantly located in Heidelberg's Old Town, the natural sciences and medicine in the Neuenheimer Feld quarter, the social sciences within the inner-city suburb Bergheim; the language of instruction is German, while a considerable number of graduate degrees are offered in English. As of 2017, 56 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university. Modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology, psychiatric genetics, environmental physics, modern sociology were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty.
1,000 doctorates are completed every year, with more than one third of the doctoral students coming from abroad. International students from some 130 countries account for more than 20 percent of the entire student body. Internationally renowned and ranked among Europe's top universities, Heidelberg is one of the most prestigious universities in the world, a German Excellence University, part of the U15, as well as a founding member of the League of European Research Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university's noted alumni include eleven domestic and foreign Heads of State or Heads of Government. The Great Schism of 1378 made it possible for Heidelberg, a small city and capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, to gain its own university; the Great Schism was initiated by the election of two popes after the death of Pope Gregory XI in the same year. One successor the other in Rome; the German secular and spiritual leaders voiced their support for the successor in Rome, which had far-reaching consequences for the German students and teachers in Paris: they lost their stipends and had to leave.
Rupert I recognized the opportunity and initiated talks with the Curia, which led to a Papal Bull for foundation of a university. After having received, on 23 October 1385, permission from pope Urban VI to create a school of general studies, the final decision to found the university was taken on 26 June 1386 at the behest of Rupert I, Count Palatine of the Rhine; as specified in the papal charter, the university was modelled after University of Paris and included four faculties: philosophy, theology and medicine. On 18 October 1386 a special Pontifical High Mass in the Heiliggeistkirche was the ceremony that established the university. On 19 October 1386 the first lecture was held. In November 1386, Marsilius of Inghen was elected first rector of the university; the rector seal motto was semper apertus—i.e. "the book of learning is always open." The university grew and in March 1390, 185 students were enrolled at the university. Between 1414 and 1418, theology and jurisprudence professors of the university took part in the Council of Constance and acted as counselors for Louis III, who attended this council as representative of the emperor and chief magistrate of the realm.
This resulted in establishing a good reputation for its professors. Due to the influence of Marsilius, the university taught the nominalism or via moderna. In 1412, both realism and the teachings of John Wycliffe were forbidden at the university but around 1454, the university decided that realism or via antique would be taught, thus introducing two parallel ways; the transition from scholastic to humanistic culture was effected by the chancellor and bishop Johann von Dalberg in the late 15th century. Humanism was represented at Heidelberg University by the founder of the older German Humanistic School Rudolph Agricola, Conrad Celtes, Jakob Wimpfeling, Johann Reuchlin. Æneas Silvius Piccolomini was chancellor of the university in his capacity of provost of Worms, always favored it with his friendship and good-will as Pope Pius II. In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV permitted laymen and married men to be appointed professors in the ordinary of medicine through a papal dispensation. In 1553, Pope Julius III sanctioned the allotment of ecclesiastical benefice to secular professors.
Martin Luther's disputation at Heidelberg in April 1518 made a lasting impact, his adherents among the masters and scholars soon became leading Reformationists in Southwest Germany. With the Electorate of the Palatinate turn to the Reformed faith, Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, converted the university into a calvinistic institution. In 1563, the Heidelberg Catechism was created under collaboration of members of the university's divinity school; as the 16th century was passing, the late humanism stepped beside Calvinism as a predominant school of thought. It developed into a cultural and academic center. However, with the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in 1618, the intellectual and fiscal wealth of the university declined. In 1622, the then-world-famous Bibliotheca Palatina was stolen from the University Cathedral and taken to Rome; the reconstruction e
Natural rubber called India rubber or caoutchouc, as produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. Thailand and Indonesia are two of the leading rubber producers. Forms of polyisoprene that are used as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Rubber is harvested in the form of the latex from the rubber tree or others; the latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions in the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called "tapping". The latex is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. In major areas, latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup; the coagulated lumps are processed into dry forms for marketing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio and high resilience, is waterproof; the major commercial source of natural rubber latex is the Pará rubber tree, a member of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
This species is preferred. A properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber a major source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia. Dandelion milk contains latex; the latex exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content varies greatly. In Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed. In 2013, by inhibiting one key enzyme and using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology in Germany developed a cultivar, suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. In collaboration with Continental Tires, IME began a pilot facility. Many other plants produce forms of latex rich in isoprene polymers, though not all produce usable forms of polymer as as the Pará; some of them require more elaborate processing to produce anything like usable rubber, most are more difficult to tap.
Some produce other desirable materials, for example chicle from Manilkara species. Others that have been commercially exploited, or at least showed promise as rubber sources, include the rubber fig, Panama rubber tree, various spurges, the related Scorzonera tau-saghyz, various Taraxacum species, including common dandelion and Russian dandelion, most for its hypoallergenic properties, guayule; the term gum rubber is sometimes applied to the tree-obtained version of natural rubber in order to distinguish it from the synthetic version. The first use of rubber was by the indigenous cultures of Mesoamerica; the earliest archeological evidence of the use of natural latex from the Hevea tree comes from the Olmec culture, in which rubber was first used for making balls for the Mesoamerican ballgame. Rubber was used by the Maya and Aztec cultures – in addition to making balls Aztecs used rubber for other purposes such as making containers and to make textiles waterproof by impregnating them with the latex sap.
The Pará rubber tree is indigenous to South America. Charles Marie de La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736. In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie that described many of rubber's properties; this has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber. In England, Joseph Priestley, in 1770, observed that a piece of the material was good for rubbing off pencil marks on paper, hence the name "rubber", it made its way around England. In 1764 François Fresnau discovered. Giovanni Fabbroni is credited with the discovery of naphtha as a rubber solvent in 1779. South America remained the main source of latex rubber used during much of the 19th century; the rubber trade was controlled by business interests but no laws expressly prohibited the export of seeds or plants. In 1876, Henry Wickham smuggled 70,000 Pará rubber tree seeds from Brazil and delivered them to Kew Gardens, England. Only 2,400 of these germinated.
Seedlings were sent to India, British Ceylon, Dutch East Indies and British Malaya. Malaya was to become the biggest producer of rubber. In the early 1900s, the Congo Free State in Africa was a significant source of natural rubber latex gathered by forced labor. King Leopold II's colonial state brutally enforced production quotas. Tactics to enforce the rubber quotas included removing the hands of victims to prove they had been killed. Soldiers came back from raids with baskets full of chopped-off hands. Villages that resisted were razed to encourage better compliance locally. See Atrocities in the Congo Free State for more information on the rubber trade in the Congo Free State in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Liberia and Nigeria started production. In India, commercial cultivation was introduced by British planters, although the experimental efforts to grow rubber on a commercial scale were initiated as early as 1873 at the Calcutta Botanical Gardens; the first commercial Hevea plantations were established at Thattekadu in Kerala in 1902.
In years the plantation expanded to Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. India today is the
The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, the Royal Hungarian Honvéd. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being, it existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" units were poorly trained and had limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k.
Regiments had four. The long-standing white infantry uniforms were replaced in the half of the 19th century with dark blue tunics, which in turn were replaced by a pike grey uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform colour; the last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107. The major decisions 1867-1895 were made by Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, the nephew of the Emperor Franz Joseph and his leading advisor in military affairs. According to historians John Keegan and Andrew Wheatcroft: He was a firm conservative in all matters and civil, took to writing pamphlets lamenting the state of the Army’s morale as well as fighting a fierce rearguard action against all forms of innovation…. Much of the Austrian failure in the First World War can be traced back to his long period of power…, his power was that of the bureaucrat, not the fighting soldier, his thirty years of command over the peacetime Habsburg Army made it a flabby instrument of war.
Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. The general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers Italy and Russia. By contrast, the main enemies Russia and Serbia had engaged in large scale warfare in the decade before the First World War. In the late 19th century the army was used to suppress unrest in urban areas of the empire: in 1882 and 1887 in Vienna and notably against German nationalists at Graz and Czech nationalists in Prague in November 1897. Soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902; the most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1878. When troops under the command of Josip Filipović and Stjepan Jovanović entered the provinces expecting little or no resistance, they were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there.
Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders. In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 355,000, the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany, 0.35% in Russia and 0.75% in France. The 1889 army law was not revised until 1912; the ethnic make-up of the enlisted ranks reflected the diversity of the empire. From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics.
In 1896, out of 1000 officers, 791 were Roman Catholics, 86 Protestants, 84 Jews, 39 Greek-Orthodox, one Uniate. Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy 4.4% including Bosnia-Herzegovna), Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. There were no official barriers to military service for Jews, but in years this tolerance eroded to some extent, as important figures such as Conrad von Hötzendorf and Archduke Franz Ferdinand sometimes expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. Franz Ferdinand was accused of discriminating against Protestant officers. Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség.
In 1867 the military budget accounte