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Carl Charlier

Carl Vilhelm Ludwig Charlier was a Swedish astronomer. His parents were Aurora Kristina Charlier. Charlier was born in Östersund, he received his Ph. D. from Uppsala University in 1887 worked there and at the Stockholm Observatory and was Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory at Lund University from 1897. He made extensive statistical studies of the stars in our galaxy and their positions and motions, tried to develop a model of the galaxy based on this, he proposed the siriometer as a unit of stellar distance. Charlier was interested in pure statistics and played a role in the development of statistics in Swedish academia. Several of his pupils became statisticians, working in government and companies. Related to his work on galactic structure, he developed a cosmological theory based on the work of Johann Heinrich Lambert. In the resulting Lambert-Charlier Hierarchical Cosmology large areas of space contain decreasing densities of matter, the principle being introduced to avoid the observational inconsistency that would otherwise emerge from Olbers Paradox.

Late in his career, he translated Isaac Newton's Principia into Swedish. He died in Lund, aged 72. James Craig Watson Medal Bruce Medal Named after him Charlier Charlier on Mars Asteroid 8677 Charlier Charlier polynomials Carl Ludwig Charlier: Die Mechanik des Himmels, 1902–1907, Leipzig: Veit, Lectures on Stellar Statistics. Charlier. 1921 MNRAS 95 339 Gustav Holmberg, Reaching for the Stars: Studies in the History of Swedish Stellar and Nebular Astronomy, 1860-1940 Gustav Holmberg, "C. V. L. Charlier", in Hockey, Thomas; the Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. Retrieved August 22, 2012. Bruce Medal page Awarding of Bruce Medal: PASP 45 5 Gustav Holmberg: Astronomy in Sweden 1860-1940 Works by Carl Vilhelm Ludwig Charlier at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Carl Charlier at Internet Archive

Esther Olavarria

Esther Olavarria is an American government official and attorney. She is Deputy Assistant Secretary of the United States Department of Homeland Security. Born in Cuba, she emigrated to the United States at age 5 with her parents, she graduated cum laude from the University of Florida in 1983 and received her law degree from the University of Florida Levin College of Law in 1986. Olavarria was featured in the documentary series. Olavarria has spent years working on the issue of immigration. Between 1986 and 1998 she was a staff attorney for the Haitian Refugee Center, co-founder and managing attorney of the Florida Immigrant Advocacy Center, on staff with Legal Services of Greater Miami as directing attorney with the American Immigration Lawyer Pro Bono Project. From 1998-2007 she was counsel to Sen. Ted Kennedy and the United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, Refugees and from 2007-8 Senior Advisor for Government and External Relations to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

From August 2008 until her appointment to the Department of Homeland Security in February 2009 she was Senior Fellow and Director of Immigration Policy at the Center for American Progress. According to its website FIAC was founded in 1996 as a response to budget cuts that no longer allowed government agencies to service illegal immigrants, it is "a not-for-profit legal assistance organization dedicated to protecting and promoting the basic human rights of immigrants of all nationalities at the local and national levels." According to her biography on the Center for American Progress website she was a co founder of this organization. Her co-founder, Cheryl Little thinks that Olavarria will "fight nail" for immigrants, she "knows her way around immigration laws... and... is aware of the challenges that immigrants face on a daily basis." Interested parties on both sides of the immigration debate think that her appointment gives insight into what to expect from the Obama administration on this issue.

"Observers on both sides of the aisle credit her with drafting the 2007 immigration reform bill sponsored by Kennedy and Sen. John McCain of Arizona."Mark Krikorian of the Center for Immigration Studies confirms this, "She wrote the bill. She was Kennedy's main immigration person, she was driving that bus.""The fact that they chose her signals to me that the Obama administration is serious about looking at the immigration system, finally coming up with a viable solution for redress," said Marleine Bastien, executive director of Haitian Women of Miami. Krikorian claims that "Olavarria's appointment can be seen as a sign Obama will work toward some sort of amnesty for undocumented migrants -- viewed as the third rail of immigration policy.'He has to give the pro-amnesty side something,' Krikorian said." She was featured in the documentary film "Last Best Chance", Story Twelve of the series How Democracy Works Now, from filmmakers Shari Robertson and Michael Camerini. A version of the film premiered on HBO in March 2010, under the title "The Senator's Bargain".

Other films she appears in through the series include: Story 5: "The Kids Across the Hill" Story 7: "Ain't the AFL for Nothin'" Story 8: "The Road to Miami" Story 11: "The Senate Speaks" United States immigration debate How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories How Democracy Works Now: Twelve Stories - Series page

57th Infantry Division Lombardia

The 57th Infantry Division Lombardia was a regular infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. It was formed on 24 May 1939 in Pula and disbanded on 8 September 1943. By 10 June 1940, Lombardia was entrenched on the eastern border in the mountains flanking Ilirska Bistrica, with headquarters in Pula; the Lombardia Division took part in the Invasion of Yugoslavia as part of the Italian V Corps, starting combat on 8 April 1941. On 11 April 1941 it broke opposing Yugoslavian forces and crossed the border at the Sora river valley. On 12 April 1941, the Lombardia division captured Podkilavac, Grobnik (near Čavle and Jelenje. By 13 April 1941 it reached Krasica and Škrljevo, at which point the Yugoslavian army ceased to offer resistance. On 15 April 1941, garrisons in coastal towns of Novi Vinodolski, Crikvenica, as far south as Žuta Lokva were established; the Lombardia division participated in Operation Uzice on the Serbian-Croatian border from 9 October 1941 to 9 November 1941. By 1942, garrisons were in Gerovo, Delnice and other places.

It took part in the Battle of the Neretva in early 1943. Partisan activity had grown in frequency and scale, by September 1943 partisans performed battalion-sized attacks on Italian checkpoints and railways. After the Italian surrender to the Allies on 8 September 1943, the Lombardia division was disbanded by the Germans. 73. Lombardia Infantry Regiment 74. Lombardia Infantry Regiment 57. Artillery Regiment 137. CCNN Legion 57. Mortar Battalion 57. Anti-Tank Company 57. Signal Company 37. Pioneer Company 57. Medical Section 40. Supply Section 40. Field Bakery 134. Field Hospital 135. Field Hospital The names of 14 men attached to the Lombardia Division can be found in the CROWCASS List established by the Anglo-American Allies of the individuals wanted by Yugoslavia for war crimes: ALZETTA - 146104 - Lt. Italian Army, Lombardia-Div. Slovenia Croatia 1943 - Murder - Yugo. BERANI - 149618 - Lt. Army, Lombardia-Div. 73 Regt. 3 Bn. 1943 - Murder - Yugo. BESTA Fabio - 149613 - Col. Army, Lombardia-Div. 73. Inf. Regt.

43 - Murder - Yugo. D'ORO - 150890 - Capt. Italian Army, Div. Lombardia, Fuzine 1942 - Murder - Yugo. FACCIN - 148316 - Col. Commander, Inf. Regt. 73, Lombardia-Div. 41-43 - Murder - Yugo. FERRONI - 148310 - Col. Commander, Army, 74 Inf. Rgt. "Lombardia" Div. 43 - Murder - Yugo. FLORENTINI - 148307 - Major, "Lombardia"-Div. 73 Rgt. 3 Bn. - Murder - Yugo. GALLINI - 147285 - Major, Italian Army, 73 Inf. Rgt. "Lombardia" Div. 43 - Murder - Yugo. GAROLFO - 147281 - Lt. Italian Army, Lombardia Div. 73 Rgt. 1 Bn. 43 - Murder - Yugo. LUZENTE - 145419 - Major, Lombardia Div. 73. Rgt. 1 Bn. Slovenia Croatia 43 - Murder - Yugo. PALPINELLI - 179073 - Lt. Italian Army, "Lombardia" Div. 73 Rgt. 3 Bn. Slovenia Croatia - Murder - Yugo. PITAU - 149087 - Lt. General, Ital. Army, "Lombardia"-Div. 43 - Murder - Yugo. VILIERO - 148388 - Chief, Lt. Col. Staff, "Lombardia"-Div. 43 - Murder - Yugo. ZATTI - 144988 - Lt. General, Italian Army, Lomardia-Div. Fuzine 1943 - Murder - Yugo. Footnotes Citations Paoletti, Ciro. A Military History of Italy.

Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98505-9. Jowett, Phillip; the Italian Army 1040–45: Italy 1943–45. Osprey Publishing, Westminster. ISBN 978-1-85532-866-2

Caorle

Caorle is a coastal town in the Metropolitan City of Venice, northern Italy, located between the estuaries of the Livenza and Lemene rivers. It is situated on the Adriatic Sea between two other tourist towns and Bibione; the ancient name of the city was Caprulae. Many archeological findings confirm this attribution, for instance the sacrificial altar called Ara Licovia, today housed in the cathedral. A safe zone between the estuaries of the Livenza and Lemene rivers, Caorle gained importance when people from Concordia Sagittaria arrived as refugees during the Barbarian Invasions. In that period was built a Paleo-Christian church, some remains of which are today kept in the cathedral's museum. In the 11th century the cathedral was built, it was once the seat of a bishopric. During the following centuries, Caorle became one of the nine important cities of the Republic of Venice. At the end of the Republic of Venice, with the Napoleonic invasions, Caorle went into decline. No longer a residential bishopric, Caorle/Caprulae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Caorle was an important strategic location during World War I, until the Italian Army started its counteroffensive from the Piave. Since the beginning of the 20th century the territory around Caorle has been modified. Most of the woods of the "Selva Lupanica" were cut to give room to fields for cultivation, rivers were embanked, marshes were reclaimed; this brought a landscape of wide flat areas, with no trees along the rivers course. Along the coast and erosion modify the scenery; the landscape is still rather wild, with the fishing valleys. The Cathedral of St. Stephen was built in 1038, an example of Romanesque and of the Byzantine-Ravennate style, its façade is simple. It contains many masterpieces of the Venetian school of art, the most important of, The Last Supper, painted by Gregorio Lazzarini; the central apse has the remains of a 17th-century fresco. It is made up of a set of six panels, two for the Annunciation and the other four for the prophets and Christ. From the roof, a 15th-century crucifix hangs above the modern high altar.

Outside, the characteristic bell tower, dating to 1048, rises to a height of 48 meters. It is a typical example of Romanesque style, but it has a cylindrical structure, it is surmounted by a cone-shaped cusp, that makes it unique in the world; the cathedral owns a liturgical museum, inaugurated on September 13, 1975 by Patriarch Albino Luciani in the old bishops' chapel. When he became Pope, his servants were two Caprulan brothers. In the museum, there are a precious silver "Capitular Cross", six icons of the apostles, painted by Venetian school of art in the 12th - 13th centuries, a silver-gold reliquary, said of "the most precious Blood", according to tradition, contains some of the ground on which the bleeding Jesus Christ passed before he was crucified. Another important piece of the museum is the St Stephen reliquary, which contains the skull of Saint Stephen, Patron of Caorle; the Church of Blessed Virgin of the Angel is built on a little promontory on the sea. In ancient times, the church had three naves, but the sea destroyed one of them, so in the 18th century the church was rebuilt, with the structure that it has today.

The legend says. The bishop and the townspeople tried to carry the statue to the cathedral but it was heavy. Devotion to the "Virgin of the sea" is important to the Caprulans. Being the Church at the end of the waterfront promenade the bell tower is used as lighthouse. Caorle is frequented by tourists in all seasons; the old town centre is still structured as a little Venetian corner, with its coloured houses, its "calli"

Sydney Ducks

The Sydney Ducks was the name given to a gang of criminal immigrants from Australia in San Francisco, during the mid-19th century. Because many of these criminals came from the well-known British penal colonies in Australia, were known to commit arson, they were blamed for an 1849 fire that devastated the heart of San Francisco, as well as the rampant crime in the city at the time; the Sydney Ducks were criminals who operated as a gang, in a community that included sailors, teamsters, shipwrights, saloon keepers, domestic servants, dressmakers. The largest proportion were born in Ireland and migrated during the Great Irish Famine, first to Australia as laborers and to California as part of the Gold Rush; the criminality of the Sydney Ducks was the catalyst for the formation of the first Committee of Vigilance of 1851. The vigilantes usurped political power from the corrupt or incompetent officials in the city, conducted secret trials and deportations, which decimated the Sydney Ducks; the area where the Sydney Ducks clustered at the base of Telegraph Hill was known as "Sydney-Town," but by the 1860s was called by its better-known name, the Barbary Coast.

On December 19, 1854, five members of the gang were involved in the Jonathan R. Davis fight. Anti-Australian sentiment "The Sydney Ducks,""The Sydney Ducks," from Barbary Coast by Herbert Asbury recovered http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hbtbc3.htm with https://archive.org/index.php, April 28, 2011. The Vigilance Committee Tremendous Excitement! Samuel Whittaker and Robert McKenzie rescued from the authorities, hung by the Vigilance Committee, on Sunday August 24th. At 3 o’clock P. M. in the presence of Fifteen thousand People. | Lith. & Publ. by Justh, Quirot & Co. Calif. corner Montg. Sts. S. F. Crowd in foreground. From www.dsloan.com accessed Jan. 7,2011

Bushranger (Irish horse)

Bushranger is an Irish Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He showed his best form as a two-year-old in 2008 when he won four of his seven races including the Anglesey Stakes in Ireland, the Prix Morny in France and the Middle Park Stakes in England as well as finishing second in the Phoenix Stakes, he was rated the second-best juvenile of the year in Europe. Bushranger failed to recapture his form in three starts as a three-year-old and was retired to stud at the end of 2009, he has had some success as a sire of winners. Bushranger is a bay horse with no white markings bred in Ireland by the County Westmeath-based Tally-Ho Stud; as a foal, Bushranger was offered for sale at Goffs on 15 November 2006 and bought for 15,000 euros by the Oaks Farm. In August 2007 the yearling returned to the sales ring at Doncaster and was bought for 100,000 guineas by John O'Byrne, acting on behalf of John Magnier's Coolmore Stud; the colt was sent into training with Magnier's son-in-law David Wachman in County Tipperary.

Like many Coolmore horses, the official details of his ownership changed from race to race: he was sometimes listed as being the property of either Derrick Smith, or Michael Tabor whilst on other occasions he was described as being owned by a partnership of Smith and Susan Magnier. Bushranger was sired by Danetime, a high-class sprinter who recorded his biggest win when taking the Stewards' Cup as a three-year-old in 1997; as a breeding stallion he sired several other good winners including Myboycharlie, Utmost Respect, Baltic King, Vital Equine and Look Busy. Bushranger's dam Danz Danz was an unraced daughter of Efisio, she was a grand-daughter of Docklands, a half-sister of the 1000 Guineas winner Night Off. On his racecourse debut Bushranger contested a five furlong maiden race at Tipperary Racecourse on 5 June and started third favourite behind the Aidan O'Brien-trained Navajo and the filly Nubar Lady in a field of twelve. Ridden by Wayne Lordan he raced close behind the leaders before overtaking Nubar Lady in the final strides and winning by a neck.

The colt was sent to England and stepped up in class for the Listed Windsor Castle Stakes at Royal Ascot on 17 June. He started the 4/1 but after being hampered at half way he was beaten half a length by the 100/1 outsider Flashmans Papers; the colt returned to Ireland for the Group Three Anglesey Stakes over six and a half furlongs at the Curragh on 13 July. With Lordan again in the saddle he started the 7/2 second favourite behind the O'Brien-trained Westphalia whilst the other five runners included Intense Focus and Heart of Fire, the winner of the Listed Rochestown Stakes. After being restrained just behind the leaders he took the lead a furlong out and won "comfortably" by two and a half lengths from Westphalia. Two weeks after his win in the Anglesey Stakes, Bushranger started the 2/1 second favourite in a five-runner field for the Group One Phoenix Stakes over six furlongs at the Curragh but never looked to win and finished third behind Mastercraftsman and the British-trained favourite Art Connoisseur.

The colt was sent to France for the Prix Morny over 1200 metres at Deauville Racecourse on 24 August in which he was ridden by Johnny Murtagh. He was made the 4.5/1 favourite ahead of the Italian-trained Lui Rei whilst the other twelve runners included Classic Blade, Silver Frost and Lord Shanakill. After tracking the leaders, Bushranger began to make progress 300 metres out, took the lead 150 metres from the finish and won by half a length from Gallagher. Wachman commented "It was great. We have always thought a lot of him, Johnny gave him a good ride, it all went to plan, he got a lead and took it up late" before adding "He'll get seven furlongs the way he stayed today. The owners have a lot of horses and we'll have to see what fits in with their plans". Murtagh again took the ride when Bushranger started the 15/8 favourite for the Group One Middle Park Stakes over six furlong at Newmarket Racecourse on 2 October. Gallagher and Classic Blade were again in opposition whilst the other six runners included Prolific, Finjaan and the highly-regarded maiden winner Huntdown.

Bushranger raced down the centre of the wide, straight course, tracking the leader Sayil whilst most of the other runners raced on the far side. He overtook Sayil inside the final furlong and stayed on to win by one and a quarter lengths with a gap of two and a half lengths back to Huntdown in third. After the race Murtagh said "He's a grand little horse and I'm learning a lot about him. He's a strong two-year-old who's professional and just keeps on winning."On his final race of the year Bushranger was sent to California for the Breeders' Cup Juvenile on the synthetic Pro-Ride surface at Santa Anita Park and was made the 5.5/1 fourth choice in the betting. Drawn on the outside he was forced to race wide throughout the race and finished eleventh of the twelve runners; the only horse who finished behind him was the subsequent Kentucky Derby winner Mine That Bird. In 2009 Bushranger was matched against older horses in major sprint races but made little impact in three starts. On his seasonal debut he contested the Greenlands Stakes over six furlongs at the Curragh and finished fourth behind the five-year-old gelding Utmost Respect.

In his two remaining races Bushranger failed to reach the frame in British Group One races, finishing eleventh behind Art Connoisseur in the Golden Jubilee Stakes at