National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts called the Royal Academy, is located in Stockholm, Sweden. An independent organization that promotes the development of painting, sculpture and other fine arts, it is one of several Swedish Royal Academies; the Royal Institute of Art, an art school, once an integral part of the Academy, was broken out in 1978 as an independent entity directly under the supervision of the Ministry of Education. In 1735, Carl Gustaf Tessin set up a drawing school at Stockholm Castle, naming it the Royal Drawing Academy, it was modeled after French academies of the day as a gathering place for established artists and art connoisseurs. The painters Guillaume Taraval, Johan Henrik Scheffel, Olof Arenius and the architect Carl Hårleman taught there, the first group of students included Johan Pasch. In 1766, the academy expanded its activities following a parliamentary decree. In 1768, its name was changed to the Royal Academy of Sculpture. In 1773, King Gustav III wrote the first statutes for the academy's organization.
At the time, the curriculum spanned architecture, anatomy, theory of perspective, cultural history. The late 18th century is considered the first golden age of the Royal Academy, when great artists of the time such as Johan Tobias Sergel were elected as members and taught there. In 1810, it was renamed again to Royal Swedish Academy of the name it still bears today. By the 1830s, there was beginning to be opposition to the Royal Academy's commitment to traditional academic art. In addition, while both men and women could be elected as members of the academy, at the time women could only study art by special permission before 1864, when women students where accepted; the Stockholm Art Association was formed to offer exhibition alternatives, an Impressionist artist's group known as "The Opponents" arose as well. In 1780, the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture moved from Stockholm Castle into a 17th palace designed by the architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder on Fredsgatan street in the city center.
In the years 1842–46 it was redesigned by the architect Fredrik Blom and an extension was added in 1893–96. List of Swedish artists The Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
A crayon is a stick of colored wax, chalk or other material used for writing or drawing. A crayon made of pigment with a dry binder is a pastel. A grease pencil or Chinese marker is made of colored hardened grease. There are watercolor crayons, sometimes called water-soluble crayons. Crayons are easy to work with, they are less messy than most paints and markers, blunt nontoxic, available in a wide variety of colors. These characteristics make them good instruments for teaching small children to draw in addition to being used by student and professional artists. In the modern English-speaking world, the term crayon is associated with the standard wax crayon, such as those available for use by children; such crayons are approximately 3.5 inches in length and made of paraffin wax. Paraffin wax is heated and cooled to achieve the correct temperature at which a usable wax substance can be dyed and manufactured and shipped for use around the world. Paraffin waxes are used for cosmetics, for the preparation of printing ink, fruit preserving, in the pharmaceutical industry, for lubricating purposes, crayons.
Colin Snedeker, a chemist for Binney & Smith, developed the first washable crayons in response to consumer complaints regarding stained fabrics and walls. A patent for the washable solid marking composition utilized in the washable crayons was awarded to Snedeker in 1990; the history of the crayon is not clear. The word "crayon" dates to 1644, coming from the Latin word creta; the notion to combine a form of wax with pigment goes back thousands of years. Encaustic painting is a technique that uses hot beeswax combined with colored pigment to bind color into stone. A heat source was used to "burn in" and fix the image in place. Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar, was thought to describe the first techniques of wax crayon drawings; this method, employed by the Egyptians, Romans and indigenous people in the Philippines, is still used today. However, the process wasn't used to make crayons into a form intended to be held and colored with and was therefore ineffective to use in a classroom or as crafts for children.
Contemporary crayons are purported to have originated in Europe, where some of the first cylinder-shaped crayons were made with charcoal and oil. Pastels are an art medium having roots with the modern crayon and stem back to Leonardo da Vinci in 1495. Conté crayons, out of Paris, are a hybrid between a pastel and a conventional crayon, used since the late 1790s as a drawing crayon for artists. Various hues of powdered pigment replaced the primary charcoal ingredient found in most early 19th century products. References to crayons in literature appear as early as 1813 in Prejudice. Joseph Lemercier, considered by some of his contemporaries to be "the soul of lithography", was one of the founders of the modern crayon. Through his Paris business circa 1828 he produced a variety of crayon and color related products, but as those in Europe were discovering that substituting wax for the oil strengthened the crayon, various efforts in the United States were developing. The initial era of wax crayons saw a number of companies and products competing for the lucrative education and artist markets.
In addition to the giants such as Binney & Smith/Crayola and American Crayon/Dixon Ticonderoga, other companies popped up in the industry at various times from the late 19th century to the early 1910s. Crayola developed their line of wax crayons beginning on June 10, 1903. Edwin Binney and C. Harold Smith had been long established in the coloring marketplace through Binney's Peekskill, NY chemical works factory making lampblack by burning whale and carbon black and instrumental in the coloring of automobile tires. In 1902 they introduced the Staonal marking crayon. Edwin Binney, working with his wife, Alice Stead Binney, who coined the name Crayola by combining the French word for chalk, with the first part of oleaginous, the oily paraffin wax used to make the crayon. Binney and Smith were quick to capitalize on their creation by offering 19 boxes with 30 colors, including the Crayola No 51, with 28, featured their largest selection of colors; the Rubens Crayola line started in 1903 as well was for artists and designed to compete with the Raphael brand of crayons from Europe.
Rubens were featured in everything from the small 6-color box to the No. 500 with 24 colors. They made many other crayon lines including Anti-Roll, Art-Toy, Boston, Cerola, Chic'ago, Doo Zee, Easy-Off, Liquitex, Munsell Crayola, Pooh, Rubens, Tiny Tots and Widstrok. By far the most recognizable brand was their Crayola "Gold Medal" line in the familiar yellow boxes; the Gold Medal referred to one the company earned with their An-du-Septic dustless chalk during the March 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Over 39,000 awards were given out using the medals designed by Adolph A. Weinman. Receiving a medal at an Exposition was and still is something of importance with many companies featuring their medal on their products. Two companies to use the 1904 medal were Binney & Smith, they used the award to design a new line of crayons featuring the medal on the front of thei
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
The Cemetery is an 1877 painting by Swedish artist Carl Fredrik Hill. The painting is on display at the Malmö Art Museum in Sweden. In the late fall of 1877 Hill suffered from a tense situation where he hovered between arrogance and deepest despair; the contact with the outside world, with his comrades, became less. His studio door in Paris was shut. In his Christmas letters to his family in Sweden from 1877 Hill recounts the motifs that had occupied him, as well as those he wanted to paint in the future, including a cemetery with a man standing in front of a cross adorned with a wreath. A picture of the deepest sorrow and desolation; the lone figure's total isolation from the outside world is a desperate moment. The painting was painted shortly before the artist's collapse, it belonged to one of the 18 paintings that Hill wanted to show at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1878