Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Brzeg is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,110 inhabitants and the capital of Brzeg County. It is situated in Silesia in the Opole Voivodeship on the left bank of the Oder; the town of Brzeg was first mentioned as a trading and fishing settlement in the year 1234. In 1248, Silesian Duke Henry III the White granted the settlement German town rights and by the late 13th century the city became fortified. Sometimes referred to as “the garden town”, the town's size expanded after the construction of dwelling houses which were located on the city outskirts. Towards the end of World War II, on 6 February 1945, the Soviet army captured Brzeg, which resulted in moderate destruction of the town's buildings and infrastructure. In accordance with the Yalta and Potsdam agreements, the area was assigned to Poland. Subsequently, the town's native German population was deported and replaced with Polish settlers from the Eastern Borderlands and Central Poland, thereby completely exchanging the town's population.
Since 1950 the reconstructed town has been a part of the Opole Voivodeship. Brzeg was in earlier documents referred to as Civitas Altae Ripae, meaning "city at high banks" of the Oder river; the historian Konstanty Darmot, in his book of the etymology of Silesian localities, states that in a Latin document from 1234, the settlement's name was Visoke breg. The locality in and around present-day Brzeg has been settled by people since the Mesolithic era, with the earliest signs of settlement between 8000–4200 BC, as concluded from archaeological findings in Myślibórz, Kościerzyce and Lipki; the early human populous left behind traces of lithic flakes, flint flakes and other flint related tools. The earliest signs of agriculture come around during the Neolithic Era; the Neolithic culture developed agriculture and domesticated farm animals. The era saw the development of weaving and mining in the Brzeg Plain, with archaeological finds in Brzeg, Buszyce, Prędocin, Lewin Brzeski, Małujowice, Lipki, Myśliborze, Mąkoszyce and Obórki.
The time period of 1300–700 BC bears the existence of the Lusatian culture of the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. The culture settled in the region and in large continued to develop agriculture and the domestication of farm animals; the natural economy of the culture was based on weaving and metal works. The Lusatian culture's populous that inhabited the Brzeg Lands was identified by archaeological excavations, revealing 17 individual localities, including 3 hamlets and 8 burial sites, namely a fortified wooden settlement in Rybna and an open-pit crematory in Pisarzowice. To follow the Lusatian culture, which witnessed its declension around 500 BC, were the Celts, around 400–300 BC in Silesia, as identified with archaeological findings in Lubsza and Pawłów. Around 100 BC, the peoples of Silesia began trading with the Roman Empire, as evidenced through the findings of Roman currency in the locality. In the 7th century Slavic peoples started settling in the region. At the same time Iron tools and blacksmith-based hamlets found in Kantorowice and Pępice are evidenced for the first time in this region.
The ages of AD 500–1000 saw the establishment of the early feudal system in Silesia. The era was characteristic of the establishment of gord settlements and the continued development of trade and crafts, it is believed. The first mention of the Silesian tribes is made in the mid-ninth-century document known as the Bavarian Geographer, which included the Silesian gord of Ryczyn, located 8.3 kilometres north-west of Brzeg, in the eastern Oława County. The Ryczyn gords became the main line of defence for the Silesians, namely to protect the river trade routes along the River Oder and the land trade route between Ryczyn and Brzeg; the importance of the Ryczyn gords is demonstrated by Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire's army halting their advancement before the gords in 1109. Between the ninth and early-tenth century, the Brzeg Lands, together with that of Silesia, were part of the Kingdom of Great Moravia until its demise in AD 906, after which, until 990 the region was under the rule of the Przemyslids.
Around the year 990, Silesia was annexed into Mieszko I's Poland. During the Fragmentation of Poland, the area of the Brzeg Lands, together with Silesia, came under the control of King of Poland, Bolesław III Wrymouth's oldest son, Władysław II the Exile; the most favourable area for the settlement of Brzeg is located between the Castle Square, with elevated ground extending south-east towards the Square of the American Polonia. Before the town's foundation, three separate settlements existed in its modern-day territory, with "Wysoki Brzeg" bearing the main administrative role in the region. Between the late-twelfth and early-thirteen century, the Dukes of Wrocław set up a curia, led by a claviger. In 1235, Henry the Bearded occupied the area around Oława, by which Walloons had to turn over a tribute of 1 scale of grain and of oat to the settlement of Brzeg, suggesting the existence of a granary and other outbuildings in the curia's established headquarters; some two-hundred m south-west from the curia was the former location, on what was to be called Mary's Hill
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Merano or Meran is a town and comune in South Tyrol, northern Italy. Best known for its spa resorts, it is located within a basin, surrounded by mountains standing up to 3,335 metres above sea level, at the entrance to the Passeier Valley and the Vinschgau. In the past, the town has been a popular place of residence for several scientists, literary people, artists, including Franz Kafka, Ezra Pound, Paul Lazarsfeld, Empress Elisabeth of Austria, who appreciated its mild climate. Meran is the German name for the town. Both are used in English; the Ladin form of the name is Maran. The official name of the municipality is Stadtgemeinde Meran in German and Comune di Merano in Italian. In 17th-century Latin, the town was called Meranum. Other archaic names are an der Meran; the area has been inhabited since the 3rd millennium BC, as shown by the presence of menhirs and other findings. The story of the city proper began in 15 BC when the Romans occupied the Adige valley founding a road station, Statio Maiensis.
The settlement was first mentioned in an 857 deed as Mairania. The Counts at Castle Tyrol elevated Meran to the status of a city during the 13th century and made it the capital of their County of Tyrol. After the county had been handed over to the Habsburg dynasty in 1363 upon the abdication of Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, in 1420, Duke Friedrich IV of Austria moved the Tyrolean court to Innsbruck. Though Meran remained the official capital until 1848, it subsequently lost its predominant position and all its importance as an economic hub across the roads connecting Italy and Germany; the important mint was moved to Hall in 1477. The Tyrolean Rebellion of 1809 against the French occupation drew attention again to Meran. In that year, on the Küchelberg above the city, a peasants' army eked out a victory against the united French and Bavarian forces, before their revolt was crushed. After World War I, under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye Meran became part of the Kingdom of Italy with the rest of the southern part of the former Cisleithanian crown land of Tyrol.
The town's coat of arms depicts the red Tyrolean eagle sitting on a wall with four pieces of Ghibelline battlements and three arches that symbolize the city. The arms is known from 14th century and the oldest seal dates from 1353, while the coloured one since 1390. In a 1759 image, the eagle is represented with a green wreath of honour. After World War I and the annexation of the town from Austria-Hungary to Italy was a new coat of arms given in 1928, which looked similar to the old one, but with five parts of the battlements and the arches with the gates opened on a lawn of shamrock. A mural crown was placed above the shield; the five parts of the battlement represented the districts of Untermais, Meran and Gratsch and Hafling, which were incorporated into the town by the Italian fascists. After World War II, Hafling became independent again and the historical coat of arms was restored. Among the town's landmarks are the medieval city gates such as the Vinschgauer Tor, Passeirer Tor, the Bozener Tor.
Belonging to the fortifications is the medieval Ortenstein tower, popularly called Pulverturm. The main churches are the Gothic St. Nicholas' Church and the St. Barbara's Chapel, both dating to the 15th century. Dating to this period is the Princely Castle, a residence of Archduke Sigismund of Austria; the Steinerner Steg stone bridge dates to the 17th century. The town saw further development as it became popular as a spa resort after Empress Elisabeth of Austria started visiting. Dating from the 19th century are civic theatre, the Kurhaus and the Empress Elisabeth Park. Famous are the arched Wandelhalle promenades along the river. After the annexation of the town to Italy in 1919, the Fascist authorities constructed the new town hall in the 1920s. Outside the town is its gardens. Located there is the Museum of Tourism, opened in the spring of 2003 and shows the historical development of tourism in the province. Tirol Castle is close-by; the average daily temperatures in summer in Meran lie between 27 and 30 °C, while at night temperatures drop to between 12 and 15 °C.
The average daily temperatures in winter lie between 6 and 10 °C, while at night temperatures drop to between -4 and -2 °C. The wettest month is August with 96 mm; this data was measured at the weather station Meran/Gratsch at an altitude of 333 metres between 1983 and 2017. The area is well known for its wines, both white and red, vineyards extend right into the town; the local wine, Meraner Leiten, is best drunk young. There are extensive orchards, apples are exported throughout Europe; the Forst Brewery on the edge of the town produces a popular range of beers, sold throughout northern Italy. Merano organizes the following events every year. Asfaltart Festival MeranJazz Meraner Musikwochen Christmas market Merano Merano WineFestival Hans Andersag, discovered Chloroquine, a malaria drug Ferdinand Behrens and city portraitist Arbeo of Freising, early medieval author and bishop Franciszka Arnsztajnowa and playwright Franco D'Andrea, jazz pianist Arnaldo Di Benedetto, literary critic and professor Ludwig Bemelmans, author Irène Galter, actress Ferdinand Gamper, serial killer Gloria Guida, It
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or beta-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. They are found in pairs and do not form spores and are nonmotile; as a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers colonizing the respiratory tract and nasal cavity. However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may become pathogenic and spread to other locations to cause disease, it spreads by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria in their upper respiratory tracts. It can be a cause of neonatal infections. S. Pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, of septicemia in those infected with HIV.
The organism causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than pneumonia. These invasive pneumococcal diseases include bronchitis, acute sinusitis, otitis media, meningitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, peritonitis, pericarditis and brain abscess. S. Pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive. S. pneumoniae can be distinguished based on its sensitivity to lysis by bile, the so-called "bile solubility test". The encapsulated, Gram-positive, coccoid bacteria have a distinctive morphology on Gram stain, lancet-shaped diplococci, they have a polysaccharide capsule. In 1881, the organism, known in 1886 as the pneumococcus for its role as a cause of pneumonia, was first isolated and independently by the U. S. Army physician the French chemist Louis Pasteur; the organism was termed Diplococcus pneumoniae from 1920 because of its characteristic appearance in Gram-stained sputum.
It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was similar to streptococci. S. Pneumoniae played a central role in demonstrating that genetic material consists of DNA. In 1928, Frederick Griffith demonstrated transformation of life turning harmless pneumococcus into a lethal form by co-inoculating the live pneumococci into a mouse along with heat-killed virulent pneumococci. In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was believed at the time, but DNA. Avery's work marked the birth of the molecular era of genetics; the genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending on the strain. It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a noninvasive phenotype. Genetic information can vary up to 10% between strains. Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium.
Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. In S. pneumoniae, at least 23 genes are required for transformation. For a bacterium to bind, take up, recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state called competence. Competence in S. pneumoniae is induced by DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, topoisomerase inhibitors. Transformation protects S. pneumoniae against the bactericidal effect of mitomycin C. Michod et al. summarized evidence that induction of competence in S. pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key component of the recombinational repair machinery for removing DNA damages. On the basis of these findings, they suggested that transformation is an adaptation for repairing oxidative DNA damages. S. pneumoniae infection stimulates polymorphonuclear leukocytes to produce an oxidative burst, lethal to the bacteria.
The ability of S. pneumoniae to repair the oxidative DNA damages in its genome, caused by this host defense contributes to this pathogen’s virulence. Consistent with this premise, Li et al. reported that, among different transformable S. pneumoniae isolates, nasal colonization fitness and virulence depend on an intact competence system. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As with many natural flora, it can become pathogenic under the right conditions when the immune system of the host is suppressed. Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, immunogenic cell wall components are all major virulence factors. After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, the body responds by stimulating the inflammatory response, causing plasma and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia, it is susceptible to clindamycin. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms such as fever and chills, rapid breathing, difficulty breathing, chest pain.
For the elderly, they may include confusion, low alertness, the former listed symptoms to a lesser degree. Pneumococcal me
An ampoule is a small sealed vial, used to contain and preserve a sample a solid or liquid. Ampoules are made of glass, although plastic ampoules do exist. Modern ampoules are most used to contain pharmaceuticals and chemicals that must be protected from air and contaminants, they are hermetically sealed by melting the thin top with an open flame, opened by snapping off the neck. If properly done, this last operation creates a clean break without any extra glass shards or slivers. Glass particle contamination is of ongoing concern, with patients who receive medication parenterally, such as intravenously under hospital care, at greater risk of receiving glass particulates when medication is aspirated; the space above the chemical may be filled with an inert gas before sealing. The walls of glass ampoules are sufficiently strong to be brought into a glovebox without any difficulty. Glass ampoules are more expensive than bottles and other simple containers, but there are many situations where their superior imperviousness to gases and liquids and all-glass interior surface are worth the extra cost.
Examples of chemicals sold in ampoules are injectable pharmaceuticals, air-sensitive reagents like tetrakispalladium, hygroscopic materials like deuterated solvents and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, analytical standards. Ampoules were used to contain a small sample of a person's blood after death, entombed alongside them in many Christian catacombs, it was believed that only martyrs were given this burial treatment, though it is suspected to have been a practiced tradition. An ampoule dating back to the year 305 and filled with the blood of Saint Januarius, bishop of Benevento, has been kept for centuries in the Cathedral at Naples; every year on 19 September the town celebrates the Feast of San Gennaro, when the solid reddish-brown contents of the ampoule liquifies after being taken out of a safe, carried in procession and placed on the Cathedral's altar. Another well-known ampoule is the Holy Ampulla which held the anointing oil for the coronation of the French monarchs; the oil was passed down from the time of Clovis I.
It was used in coronation of Charles X. Modern glass ampoules are produced industrially from short lengths of glass tubing, shaped by heating with gas torches and gravity in automated production lines. Computer vision techniques are employed for quality control; the filling and sealing of ampoules may be done by automated machinery on an industrial scale, or by hand in small-scale industries and laboratory. Blank ampoules can be purchased from scientific glass supply houses and sealed with a small gas torch; this forms a membrane allowing someone to turn the open ampule upside down without spilling. A Schlenk line may be used for sealing under inert atmospheres. There is procedure of purging nitrogen before and after filling liquid into ampoules in order to remove atmospheric air available inside the ampoules. Ampoule filling machines can be categorized in three categories called automatic machine, semi automatic machine and manual machines. Ampoules are common practice as containers of low frequency RFID tags.
These are used for tagging animals, such as dogs for identification. Ampoules have colored rings of paint or enamel around their necks. Color coding of modern ampoules is done during the manufacturing process. A machine paints colored rings on the ampoule shortly; the rings are made of a substance, readable by other machines. These color codes identify the substance inside the ampoule so that it does not need to be tested to verify the contents; the machine-readable color codes allow for accurate handling of the substance for the purposes of storage and secondary packaging. The dot above the neck identifies the location of a small cut in the glass to help breaking/opening the ampoule. Ampulla Hans-Jürgen Bässler und Frank Lehmann: Containment Technology: Progress in the Pharmaceutical and Food Processing Industry. Springer, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3642392917