Carl Gustaf Pilo
Carl Gustaf Pilo was a Swedish-born artist and painter. Pilo worked extensively in Denmark as a painter to the Danish Royal Court and as professor and director at the Royal Danish Academy of Art, as well as in his native Sweden, his prolific output in Denmark consisted of portraits of royalty and the nobility, but included genre paintings in the Dutch style. For over two decades, he was acknowledged as the foremost portrait painter in Denmark. In addition to Peder Als, other students of his were Lorens Pasch. Pilo is most famous for his masterly painting, "The Coronation of Gustaf III" commissioned by King Gustav III of Sweden, he was born on the farm Göksäter in Runtuna Parish near Nyköping, Södermanland, Sweden to painter Olof Pilo and Beata Jönsdotter Sahlstedt. Early information about his career contains many inconsistencies, due to disagreement between two sources contemporary with his life, he received his early training from his father, who had earned his living as a young man as a decorative painter at Drottningholm and Stockholm Palace, although other indications say that he was trained by a painter named Crisman in Stockholm.
Training for Pilo would have begun in Stockholm as early as 1723. Pilo’s career began as a craft painter, he became an apprentice in 1731. According to Anton Friedrich Büsching Pilo traveled through Germany to Vienna 1734-36, he worked as a craft painter between 1733 and 1738. He lived 1738-1741 in Scania where he may have worked as a craft painter for two Scanian noble families. Pastoral drawings from this time indicate, he was reputed to be a competent portraitist, is reported to have painted a large family picture for the widow Countess Lewenhaupt. During these years in Skåne he made portraits, although it is not evident from the quality of his work that he received professional instruction at this point in his career. In early 1741, Pilo left Skåne, moved to Copenhagen, Denmark, he brought with him to Denmark a letter of introduction from Charlotte Amélie Dorothée Desmarez, governess at the Ramel residence and his future wife, to her brother-in-law C. G. Almer, language teacher at the National Cadet Academy in Copenhagen.
He started working as drawing teacher at the Academy on 4 April 1741, teaching the sons of Danish nobility, the royal pages and cadets. He continued his career as a portraitist in Denmark, he painted an enthusiastically received portrait of Crown Princess Louise of Great Britain, the wife of the future King Frederick V of Denmark, one of centenarian Christian Jacobsen Drakenberg in 1742 and another of Christian Lerche in 1743. He concentrated on developing his craft during the 1740s, drew from model in 1744, his duties soon expanded at the Academy. In the years 1745-1747 he began to introduce rococo into his artwork, as seen in his portraits of Countess Louise Sophie of Danneskiold-Samsøe and Adam Gottlob Moltke. In 1747 he was named painter to the royal court under the newly crowned King Frederik V, whose duties included the supervision and restoration of paintings at the royal residences. After several years development he became employed by the court and paintings streamed out of his studio.
In 1748 Pilo was named professor at the Drawing and Painting Academy, predecessor to the Royal Danish Academy of Art, along with Marcus Tuscher and Johann Friedrich Gerhard. The Academy was located in the Post Office building behind the Stock Exchange, was managed and supervised by Nicolai Eigtved and royal building master. In late summer 1748 the Academy moved to the floor above the Crown Prince's stables at Christiansborg Palace, where Eigtved had his offices, while the model school continued on Gammelstrand, where Hieronimo Miani, former leader of the Academy, had started the studio. Eigtved, the first Dane to exercise some control in the Academy to this point, became the Academy's first Director in 1751. Pilo painted a full figure portrait of the king, "Frederik V in Coronation Outfit" in 1751, now in the collection of the Danish National Gallery; the Academy moved to Charlottenborg, became dedicated as the Royal Danish Academy of Art on 30 March 1754, after inspiration from the French Académie française.
Pilo gave the welcoming speech to King Frederick V, not Eigtved. Eigtved was removed from the Director's position a few days and the directorship went to a Frenchman, Jacques Francis Joseph Saly. Pilo became a member of the Academy that same year. During the early years of the Academy most of the artists and architects who served in leading positions, both managerial and educational, were not Danish, it would be some time. Eigtved died two months on 7 June 1754. Around 1757 neoclassicism began to replace rococo as the popular style, his works became more romantic and dramatic with focus on shadow and light effects, with more attention paid to depicting the models. Another inspiration for his changing style was the possibility to study first-hand the works of Rembrandt and other great Dutch Masters from the 17th century, works that in these years were being collected by Moltke and the royal painting
Carl Gustaf Ekman
Carl Gustaf Ekman was a Swedish politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 1911 to 1932, leader of the Freeminded People's Party between 1924 and 1932, served as Prime Minister from 1926 to 1928 and again from 1930 to 1932. Carl Gustaf Ekman was born in Munktorp in Västmanland County, to farmer and soldier Carl Ekman and Josefina Säfström, he began working at the age of twelve as a farmhand, read everything he could get his hands on, was entrusted with duties inside the temperance movement, where he became a functionary. He was promoted to director of the Friends of the Temperance Movement's disability and burial fund in the industrial town of Eskilstuna. In 1908 he was appointed as chief editor of the liberal newspaper Eskiltuna-Kuriren, his attempt to be elected to the Riksdag failed because of the domination of the Social Democrats in Eskiltuna, but in 1911 the Liberal Party gave him a seat in the upper house for the county of Gävleborg. He established himself as the country's leading proponent of total prohibition of alcohol.
In 1913 he moved to Stockholm, won a seat representing the city in the Riksdag. Ekman became the most controversial politician of the 1920s. Among Social Democrats he was regarded as a "class traitor", having come from a working-class background, but having become a member of a non-socialist party, he was in fact behind the downfall of several Social Democrat governments: Hjalmar Branting's in 1923, Rickard Sandler's in 1926, but that of Arvid Lindman in 1930. In 1924 Ekman became the leader of the newly formed Freeminded People's Party, after those Liberals opposed to prohibition had departed to form the Liberal Party of Sweden; as party leader he worked to strengthen the party's influence by cooperating with both the right and left. His strategy for power was based on controlling the political center in order to'control the game', this being predicated upon no one bloc having a clear majority in the Riksdag. After Sandler's fall from power in 1926, Ekman became Prime Minister for the first time.
He was able to play the right off against the left by appealing to both and by doing so he became more successful than expected. He resolved an old debate on local taxes with a law on proportional taxation, still in effect to this day, he concluded a sweeping reform of the school system. In the 1928 elections the conservative General Electoral League won, he was forced to give up power to Arvid Lindman. Ekman returned as Prime Minister in 1930, when he and Per Albin Hansson defeated the government's proposal to raise tariffs on grain, his second period as Prime Minister was difficult. Ekman's traditional attitude of thriftiness made it difficult for him to accept economic-stimulation programs that would involve heavy public spending. In addition to this, a debate began after the Kreuger Crash about political contributions from Ivar Kreuger which Ekman had accepted on behalf of his party. At first Ekman denied having received any such money, but in the end the public debate forced him to resign from office a month before the Riksdag election of 1932, which resulted in a great defeat for the Freeminded People's Party.
Ekman never returned to politics. Less than two years after his resignation, his party was gone. Not his enemies thought that he had taken money for himself. Ekman's legacy has been colored to a great extent by his political maneuvering as well as by the scandal leading to his resignation, he died in Stockholm on 15 June 1945. He was married to Laura Ekman, with whom he had four children
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim was a Finnish military leader and statesman. Mannerheim served as the military leader of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War, Regent of Finland, commander-in-chief of Finland's defence forces during World War II, Marshal of Finland, the sixth president of Finland. Mannerheim made a career in the Imperial Russian Army, he had a prominent place in the ceremonies for Tsar Nicholas II's coronation and had several private meetings with the Russian Tsar. After the Bolshevik revolution, Finland declared its independence but was soon embroiled in civil war between the pro-Bolshevik "Reds" and the "Whites", who were the troops of the Senate of Finland, supported by troops of the German Empire. Mannerheim was appointed the military chief of the Whites. Twenty years when Finland was twice at war with the Soviet Union from November 1939 until September 1944, Mannerheim led the defence of Finland as commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces. In 1944, when the prospect of Germany's defeat in World War II became clear, Mannerheim was elected President of Finland and oversaw peace negotiations with the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom.
He resigned the presidency in 1946 and died in 1951. In a Finnish survey 53 years after his death, Mannerheim was voted the greatest Finn of all time. Given the broad recognition in Finland and elsewhere of his unparalleled role in establishing and preserving Finland's independence from Russia, Mannerheim has long been referred to as the father of modern Finland, the Finnish capital Helsinki's Mannerheim Museum memorializing the leader's life and times has been called "the closest thing there is to a national shrine". In addition, he is the only Finn to have held the rank of field marshal, an honorary rank bestowed upon distinguished generals; the Mannerheims from Germany, became Swedish noblemen in 1693. In the latter part of the 18th century they moved to Finland, an integral part of Sweden. After Sweden lost Finland to the Russian Empire in 1809, Mannerheim's great-grandfather, Count Carl Erik Mannerheim, became the first prime minister of the newly-autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. His grandfather, Count Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, was an jurist.
His father, Carl Robert, Count Mannerheim, was both a playwright and industrialist, with modest success in both endeavors. Mannerheim's mother, Hedvig Charlotta Helena von Julin, was the daughter of a wealthy industrialist. After Mannerheim's father left the family for his mistress in 1880, his mother and her seven children went to live with her aunt Louise, but she died the following year. Mannerheim's maternal uncle, Albert von Julin became his legal guardian. The third child of the family, Mannerheim inherited the title of Baron, he was sent to the Hamina Cadet School, a state school educating aristocrats for the Imperial Russian Army, in 1882. The handsome young Baron towered over his classmates, he was expelled in 1886 when he left without permission. Next he attended the Helsinki Private Lyceum, where he passed the university entrance examinations in June 1887. Besides his Swedish mother tongue, Mannerheim learned to speak Russian, German and some Finnish. From 1887 to 1889, Mannerheim attended the Nicholas Cavalry School in St. Petersburg.
In January 1891, he joined the Chevalier Guard Regiment in St Petersburg. In 1892, he married a wealthy and beautiful noble lady of Russian-Serbian heritage, Anastasia Arapova. They had two daughters and Sophie. The parents separated in 1902 and divorced in 1919. Mannerheim served in the Imperial Chevalier Guard until 1904. An expert rider, one of his duties was buying horses for the army. In 1903, he was put in charge of the model squadron in the Imperial Chevalier Guard and became a member of the equestrian training board of the cavalry regiments. Mannerheim volunteered for active service with the Imperial Russian Army in the Russo-Japanese war in 1904. He was transferred to the 52nd Nezhin Dragoon Regiment in Manchuria, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, he was promoted to Colonel for bravery in the Battle of Mukden in 1905 and commanded an irregular unit of Hong Huzi, a local militia, on an exploratory mission into Inner Mongolia. When Mannerheim returned to St. Petersburg, he was asked to undertake a journey through Turkestan to Beijing as a secret intelligence-officer.
The Russian General Staff wanted accurate, on-the-ground intelligence about the reforms and activities by the Qing dynasty, as well as the military feasibility of invading Western China: a possible move in their struggle with Britain for control of inner Asia. Disguised as an ethnographic collector, he joined the French archeologist Paul Pelliot's expedition at Samarkand in Russian Turkestan, they started from the terminus of the Trans-Caspian Railway in Andijan in July 1906, but Mannerheim quarreled with Pelliot, so he made the greater part of the expedition on his own. With a small caravan, including a Cossack guide, Chinese interpreter, Uyghur cook, Mannerheim first trekked to Khotan in search of British and Japanese spies. After returning to Kashgar, he headed north into the Tian Shan range, surveying passes and gauging the stances of the tribes towards the Han Chinese. Mannerheim arrived in the provincial capital of Urumqi, headed east into Gansu province, he followed the Great Wall of China, investigated a mysterious tribe known as Yugurs.
From Lanzhou, the provincial capital, Mannerheim headed south i
Carl Gustav m/45
The Kulsprutepistol m/45 known as the Carl Gustav M/45 and the Swedish K SMG, is a 9×19mm Swedish submachine gun designed by Gunnar Johnsson, adopted in 1945, manufactured at the Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfaktori in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The m/45 was the standard submachine gun of the Swedish Army from 1945 to 1965, it was replaced in Swedish service by updated Ak 4 battle rifles and Ak 5 assault rifles. The last official user of the m/45, the Swedish Home Guard, retired it from service in 2007; the m/45 SMG was developed in 1944–45, with a design borrowing from and improving on many design elements of earlier submachine guns. The sheet metal stamping techniques used in making the German MP 40, the British Sten, the Soviet PPSh-41 and PPS-43 were studied in detail. Two designs were tested in 1944, one from Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfaktori and one from Husqvarna Vapenfabrik AB and the prototype from Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfaktori was chosen for further development; the first production version was adopted in 1945 as the Kpist m/45.
The Danish Hovea M/49 SMG, although similar in appearance, is not a version derived from the m/45. The Hovea was a development of the failed test contender from Husqvarna Vapenfabrik AB; the standard m/45 is a fully-automatic-only weapon without any option for semi-automatic fire. It weighs 3.3 kg unloaded, 4.2 kg loaded with a 36-round box magazine. It is 808 mm long with the stock extended, 550 mm long with the stock folded; the m/45 is an open bolt design with a fixed firing pin. The slow cyclic rate of fire and low recoil of the bolt-mechanism actuation makes it easy to control during full automatic fire. Single shots are easy to achieve by letting go of the trigger before another round is cycled; the m/45 is accurate up to 200 meters. Accessories include a special sub-caliber barrel for firing blanks and low-powered gallery ammunition; when firing blanks, a cone shaped blank firing adapter must be attached to the threaded muzzle of the sub-caliber barrel to ensure the mechanism has adequate pressure for its blowback operation.
Other accessories include night sights that attach to the fixed day sights, a brass catcher for collecting spent cartridges, a quick-detachable ejection port cover for guard duty which secures the bolt from accidental firing, a speedloader that loads the 36-round magazine in seconds. The m/45 was issued with a standard cleaning kit containing a threaded cleaning rod, threaded jag and a container for the jag and cleaning patches; the standard sling issued was made of leather, attached to the rear left receiver and left barrel-sleeve sling bars. The 36-round straight detachable staggered row box magazine is wider at the rear than at the front, the extra space allows the 9mm Parabellum cartridges to feed more efficiently in dusty environments and sub-zero temperatures; the trapezium design makes the magazine reliable, because magazines of parallel-side design are more to jam under adverse conditions. The magazine was used post-war by Finland in the m/31 Suomi under the designation m/54, a distinguishing feature of the variation m/55 is a steel wire carrying loop mounted at the bottom front edge.
The basic design idea of the m/45 magazine was used for the magazines of the Czech model 23 and model 25 and the French MAS submachine guns. The m/45 has no safety switch. Instead the m/45 is put in "safe" by sliding the cocking handle into a short side-slot above the main slot. In the example US Army photograph, this short safety side-slot is visible behind the rear L-sight; this design feature results in a somewhat longer time to ready the weapon for firing, because the soldier must remove his right hand from the pistol grip and trigger, as if operating a bolt-action rifle. When the m/45 is unloaded the bolt is locked in place in the bolt-forward position by pushing the cocking handle inwards, engaging a hole in the lower left receiver wall. First production: the SMG models Kpist m/45 and Kpist m/45S featured a detachable magazine support, it accepted the m/37-39 50-round "coffin" magazine and the standard 36-round box magazine. Over time, most first production m/45's were converted by permanently riveting the magazine support to the receiver.
The m/45 had a dark gun metal finish. General production: the m/45B model features a fixed magazine support, smaller holes in the barrel shroud, a strengthened bolt buffer, a hook securing the buffer cap in place. Early m/45B models had the same metal finish as the m/45 but most had a grey-green lacquer finish. Ceremonial and in UN/ONU: the m/45C is an m/45B with a bayonet mount on the barrel sleeve, used for parade and guard duties. During the Congo Crisis in the 1960s, the Swedish UN forces used the C version extensively; the standard m/45 and m/45B have no bayonet mount. Police: The Swedish police had the m/45 as a reinforcement weapon in their organization, but it was unlike the military model equipped with a switch for automatic or single shot; the police model designation was m/45BE and BET. The BET model become escrow to the switch so that only single shot could be fired; the Police model had, unlike the military versions, a black. In mid or late 70's, the BE received a modified stock with a removable upper cheekpiece that allows the operator to wear a
Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi
Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, differential equations, number theory. His name is written as Carolus Gustavus Iacobus Iacobi in his Latin books, his first name is sometimes given as Karl. Jacobi was the first Jewish mathematician to be appointed professor at a German university. Jacobi was born of Ashkenazi Jewish parentage in Potsdam on 10 December 1804, he was the second of four children of banker Simon Jacobi. His elder brother Moritz von Jacobi would become known as an engineer and physicist, he was home schooled by his uncle Lehman, who instructed him in the classical languages and elements of mathematics. In 1816, the twelve-year-old Jacobi went to the Potsdam Gymnasium, where students were being taught classical languages, German history as well as mathematics; as a result of the good education received from his uncle, as well as his own remarkable abilities, after less than half a year Jacobi was moved to the senior year despite his young age.
However, as the University was not accepting students younger than 16 years old, he had to remain in the senior class until 1821. He used this time to advance his knowledge, showing interest in all subjects, including Latin and Greek, philology and mathematics. During this period he made the first attempts at research trying to solve the quintic equation by radicals. In 1821 Jacobi went to study at the Berlin University, where he divided his attention between his passions for philology and mathematics. In philology he participated in the seminars of Böckh, drawing the professor's attention with his talent. Jacobi did not follow a lot of mathematics classes at the University, as the low level of mathematics in Germany at the time rendered them too elementary for him. However, he continued with his private study of the more advanced works of Euler and Laplace. By 1823 he understood that he needed to make a decision between his competing interests and he chose to devote all his attention to mathematics.
In the same year he became qualified to teach secondary school and was offered a position at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin. Jacobi decided instead to continue to work towards a University position. In 1825 he obtained the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with a dissertation on the partial fraction decomposition of rational fractions defended before a commission led by Enno Dirksen, he followed with his Habilitation and at the same time converted to Christianity. Now qualifying for teaching University classes, the 21-year-old Jacobi lectured in 1825/26 on the theory of curves and surfaces at the University of Berlin. In 1827 he became a professor and in 1829, a tenured professor of mathematics at Königsberg University, held the chair until 1842. Jacobi suffered a breakdown from overwork in 1843, he visited Italy for a few months to regain his health. On his return he moved to Berlin. During the Revolution of 1848 Jacobi was politically involved and unsuccessfully presented his parliamentary candidature on behalf of a Liberal club.
This led, after the suppression of the revolution, to his royal grant being cut off – but his fame and reputation were such that it was soon resumed. In 1836, he had been elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Jacobi died in 1851 from a smallpox infection, his grave is preserved at a cemetery in the Kreuzberg section of Berlin, the Friedhof I der Dreifaltigkeits-Kirchengemeinde. His grave is close to that of the astronomer; the crater Jacobi on the Moon is named after him. One of Jacobi's greatest accomplishments was his theory of elliptic functions and their relation to the elliptic theta function; this was developed in his great treatise Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum, in papers in Crelle's Journal. Theta functions are of great importance in mathematical physics because of their role in the inverse problem for periodic and quasi-periodic flows; the equations of motion are integrable in terms of Jacobi's elliptic functions in the well-known cases of the pendulum, the Euler top, the symmetric Lagrange top in a gravitational field and the Kepler problem.
He made fundamental contributions in the study of differential equations and to rational mechanics, notably the Hamilton–Jacobi theory. It was in algebraic development that Jacobi's peculiar power lay, he made important contributions of this kind to many areas of mathematics, as shown by his long list of papers in Crelle's Journal and elsewhere from 1826 onwards. One of his maxims was:'Invert, always invert', expressing his belief that the solution of many hard problems can be clarified by re-expressing them in inverse form. In his 1835 paper, Jacobi proved the following basic result classifying periodic functions: If a univariate single-valued function is multiply periodic such a function cannot have more than two periods, the ratio of the periods cannot be a real number, he discovered many of the fundamental properties of theta functions, including the functional equation and the Jacobi triple product formula, as well as many other results on q-series and hypergeometric series. The solution of the Jacobi inversion problem for the hyperelliptic Abel map by Weierstrass in 1854 required the introduction of the hyperelliptic theta function and the general Riemann theta function for algebraic curves of arbitrary genus.
The complex torus associated to a genus g algebraic curve, obtained by quotienting
Bofors Carl Gustaf
Bofors Carl Gustaf AB is a Swedish armaments firm, now owned by Bofors. Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfaktori was founded in 1812 as a state arsenal; the name Carl Gustaf's town was a name used intermittently for the town Eskilstuna after king Karl X Gustav gave the town city privileges. Between 1943 and 1991 the factory was run by a state agency named FFV, the whole complex was referred to as FFV-Carl Gustaf. In 1970 Husqvarna sold its small arms division to FFV. Carl Gustaf continued to manufacture the Husqvarna 1900 hunting rifles and developed them into the 2000-series. Along with Husqvarna Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfaktori has provided the Swedish Army with small arms for two centuries. There have been both foreign designs, such as the 12.17 mm Rolling Block and the 6.5 mm Mauser rifles, domestic designs such as the Ag m/42 SLR and the Kpist m/45 SMG. In addition Bofors Carl Gustaf have produced a number of other weapons such as the 20 mm Carl Gustav m/42 anti-tank rifle, the 20 mm m/45 autocannon and the famed 84 mm Carl Gustav recoilless rifle, still one of the most common anti-tank weapons in the world.
The NIVA XM1970 was an experimental combined 5.56mm Assault Rifle / 45mm Recoilless Rifle Launcher concept by what was FFV-Carl Gustaf during the early 1970s. It was abandoned. Today they build the Ak 5 assault rifle; the Ak 5 is a modified version of the Fabrique Nationale 5.56 mm carbine FN FNC, produced with a folding stock and an option to mount the SUSAT sight from the British SA80
Carl Gustaf Tessin
Carl Gustaf Tessin was a Swedish Count and politician and son of architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock. He was one of the most brilliant personages of his day, the most prominent representative of French culture in Sweden, he was a fine orator. Tessin's art collection became the original core of the collection of Sweden's Nationalmuseum. Carl Gustaf Tessin was born in Stockholm, his father's family were burghers. This genealogy led some to regard him as a social climber compared to real aristocracy. On the other hand, members of his paternal line had shown high talent artistically and aesthetically, he married Ulrika Sparre in 1727. He began his public career in 1723, at which time he was a member of the Holstein faction, which promoted the claims of the young Duke Carl Frederick of Holstein to the Swedish throne. In 1725 Tessin was appointed ambassador at Vienna, in that capacity counteracted the plans of the Swedish chancellor, Count Arvid Horn, for joining the anti-Russian Hanoverian Alliance.
During the riksdags of 1726–27 and 1731, Tessin fiercely opposed the government, his wit and imposing presence made him one of the foremost protagonists of the party subsequently known as "The Hats". From 1735 to 1736 he was again Swedish ambassador at Vienna. During the riksdag of 1738 he was elected marshal of the Riksdag of the Estates and contributed more than anyone else to the overthrow of the Horn administration the same year. Count On the division of the spoil of patronage he chose for himself the post of ambassador extraordinary at Paris, from 1739 to 1742 delighted Versailles with his brilliant qualities of grand seigneur, at the same time renewing the traditional alliance between France and Sweden, interrupted for more than sixty years, his political ability, was by no means commensurate with his splendid social qualities. It was his sanguine credulity which committed the Hats to their rash and unconsidered war with Russia in 1741–42, though in fairness it must be added that Tessin helped them out of their difficulties again by his adroitness as party leader and his stirring eloquence.
He gained his seat in the senate as a reward for his services on this occasion. In 1743 Tessin attempted to reconcile the long outstanding differences between Sweden and Denmark in a special mission to Copenhagen. In 1744 he was sent at the head of an extraordinary embassade to Berlin to escort to Stockholm Frederick the Great's sister, Louisa Ulrika, the chosen bride of the Swedish crown prince, Adolphus Frederick; as överhovmarskalk of the young court, Tessin speedily captivated the royal pair. He succeeded in extricating the crown prince from the influence of the Russian Empress Elizabeth of Russia, to whom Adolphus Frederick owed his throne when he became king of Sweden in 1751, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the independence of Sweden, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1741. From 1746 to 1752 Tessin was president of the chancellery, as the Swedish prime minister was called in those days, his system aimed at a rapprochement with Denmark with the view of counterbalancing the influence of Russia in the north.
It was a dignified and prudent policy, but his endeavour to consolidate it by promoting a matrimonial alliance between the two courts alienated the Swedish crown prince, who, as a Holsteiner, nourished an ineradicable hatred of everything Danish. As, moreover, on the accession of Adolphus Frederick in 1751, Tessin refused to countenance any extension of the royal prerogative, the rupture between him and the court became final. On the occasion of the coronation he resigned the premiership, in 1754 the governorship of the young crown prince Gustavus spending the rest of his days at his estate at Åkerö Manor, where he died, he was given the L’Ordre de l’Harmonie. Carl Gustaf Tessin was an art collector. During his mission in Paris he bought many paintings and drawings, including 2000 drawings from the famous 1741 auction of the former Pierre Crozat collection. Being in debt on his return to Sweden, he was obliged to sell part of his collection to the King Fredrik I, who gave them to Queen Louisa Ulrika.
Part of his art collection is now in the Swedish Nationalmuseum. The collection was on display in New York at the Morgan Library & Museum, "Treasures from the Nationalmuseum of Sweden: The Collections of Count Tessin." Tessin och Tessiniana, autobiographical extracts from Tessin's voluminous manuscript Memoirs in 29 volumes. K. G. Tessins Dagbok, further extracts from the same. En gammal mans bref til en ung Prins, addressed to his pupil, afterwards Gustavus III. Exhibition catalogue, Un Suédois à Paris au XVIIIe siècle - La collection Tessin, Paris, coédition Liénart/Musée du Louvre, 2016. Bellamy Charlotte, Carl Gustav Tessin and Culinary Considerations, Le Monde français du dix-huitième siècle: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, 2016. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Robert Nisbet. "Tessin, Carl Gustaf, Count". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: Robert Nisbet Bain, Gustavus III and his Contemporaries, vol. I. Bernhard von Beskow.
Minne af Grefve K. G. Tessin. Malmström, Bernhard Elis. Sveriges politiska historia från Konung Karl XIIs död till statshvälfningen 1772. "The Art Collection of Carl Gustaf Tessin", Nationalm