Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, produces and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide; the origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises founded by engineer August Horch. The modern era of Audi began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company; the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Being Ahead through Technology".
However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, have not used the slogan since 2016. Audi, along with fellow German marques BMW and Mercedes-Benz, is among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world. Automobile company Wanderer was established in 1885 becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. In 1902, he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On 10 May 1904, he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau. After troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH, his former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht in Leipzig determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.
Since August Horch was prohibited from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?" "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", "Audi" in the singular imperative form of "audire" – "to listen" – in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court; the first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year.
Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model, as well as 4,680 cc and 5,720 cc models. These cars were successful in sporting events; the first six-cylinder model Type M, 4,655 cc appeared in 1924. August Horch left the Audiwerke in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive. Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer. In August 1928, Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929.
At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, Wanderer, to form Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, it was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. However, this badge was used only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems; the technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market, while Audi held only 0.1%.
After the final few Audis were delivered in 1939 the "Audi" name disappeared from the new car market for more than two decades
DDB Worldwide Communications Group Inc. known internationally as DDB, is a worldwide marketing communications network. It is owned by one of the world's largest advertising holding companies; the international advertising networks Doyle Dane Bernbach and Needham Harper merged their worldwide agency operations to become DDB Needham in 1986. At that same time the owners of Doyle Dane Bernbach, Needham Harper and BBDO merged their shareholdings to form the worldwide holding company Omnicom. In 1996, DDB Needham became known as DDB Worldwide. Bill Bernbach and Ned Doyle worked together at Grey Advertising in New York, where Bernbach was Creative Director. In 1949, they teamed up with Mac Dane, running a tiny agency, together they started Doyle Dane Bernbach in Manhattan. Dane ran the promotional aspects of the business; the agency's first ads were for Ohrbach's department store and they typified the new "soft-sell" approach using catchy slogans and witty humour in contrast to the repetition and hard-sell advertising, in vogue until then.
The new agency was successful in winning business for clients with small budgets. As of 2013, DDB has had the Volkswagen account since 1959, their campaigns for Volkswagen throughout the 1950s and 1960s were said to have revolutionized advertising. Notable campaigns included the 1959 Think Small series of Volkswagen advertisements, voted the No. 1 campaign of all time in Advertising Age's 1999 The Century of Advertising. In 1960, the agency won the account of Avis the number-two auto rental company; the tongue-in-cheek approach, "We Try Harder Because We're Number 2," was a major success. The DDB "Daisy" ad is considered a significant factor in Lyndon B. Johnson's defeat of Barry Goldwater in the 1964 presidential election and landed Mac Dane on the infamous Nixon's Enemies List. 1972's Little Mikey commercial for Quaker Oats ran continuously in the U. S for twelve years. A branch office was opened in Los Angeles in 1954. In 1961, DDB opened its first international office in West Germany to service Volkswagen.
Significant growth came in the mid-sixties after the firm signed Mobil Oil and the available budgets grew materially. Offices in London and other European locations were opened. Bernbach was appointed Chairman and Chief Executive Officer in 1968 when the agency was publicly listed; the impact of Doyle Dane Bernbach's creativity on advertising around the world, the history of management crises that led to merger in 1986, are detailed in the book Nobody's Perfect: Bill Bernbach and the Golden Age of Advertising. Written by journalist Doris Willens, who served as DDB's Director of Public Relations for 18 years, the book is based on oral histories and interviews with the three founders, the line of the agency's presidents, key creative and account people. By 1986, four years after Bernbach's death, the agency group had worldwide billings of USD $1.67B, 54 offices in 19 countries, 3,400 employees, but showed profits declining 30% on the prior year. Needham Harper Worldwide started in Chicago in 1925 as Maurice H. Needham Co. with two clients and billings totaling $270,000.
By 1934 it was named Needham and Brorby, Inc. with billings of USD $1 million, had signed the Kraft Foods account and had opened a Hollywood office to service its clients' network radio program production needs. In 1951, the agency opened a New York office to concentrate on the expanding television industry; that office merged with Doherty, Clifford and Shenfield in 1965 and changed its name to Needham, Harper & Steers. The Chicago office grew with accounts such as the Morton Company, Household Finance Corporation, General Mills and Frigidaire; the firm won the Oklahoma gasoline account after research indicated that American drivers wanted both power and play, copywriter Sandy Sulcer, working with psychologist Ernest Dichter, chose the tiger to symbolize that desire, which led to the campaign Put a Tiger in Your Tank. In 1966, the agency opened a Los Angeles office to handle the Continental Airlines business. An office was opened in Washington D. C. in 1971 to service some local McDonald's business.
Soon, this agency was winning government and media business and an "Issues and Images" division was opened to service corporate public relations. This business would become Biederman & Company; the agency worked on public service campaigns called Buckle Up for Safety as well as a traffic safety campaign entitled Watch Out For The Other Guy for the Advertising Council. Keith L. Reinhard came from Chicago to head the worldwide firm in 1982 and, by 1986, there were thirty two offices outside the US. Concerned by the swathe of hostile public company takeovers in the US the 1980s Reinhard started discussions with BBDO president Allen Rosenshine about a merger and included the fragile Doyle Dane Bernbach business in the discussions. In 1986, the three networks agreed to merge into the Omnicom Group which would act as a holding company becoming at that time the world's largest global advertising agency group. BBDO retained its network. Needham Harper had a good presence in midwest USA and was complemented by Doyle Dane Bernbach's stre
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Auto Union AG, was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, Saxony. It is the immediate predecessor of Audi; as well as acting as an umbrella firm for its four constituent brands, Auto Union is known for its racing team. The Silver Arrows of the two German teams dominated not only GP car racing from 1934 onwards but set records that would take decades to beat, such as the fastest speed attained on a public road. After being reduced to near ruin in the aftermath of World War II, Auto Union was re-founded in Ingolstadt, Bavaria in 1949 evolving into the modern day Audi company following its takeover by Volkswagen in 1964 and merger with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969; the current corporate entity which bears the Auto Union name – Auto Union GmbH – was founded in 1985 and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Audi AG. The company's distinctive logo, of four interlocking rings to represent the original four members of the Auto Union, survives as the logo of Audi.
Auto Union was formed in Germany in 1932 merging: Zschopauer Motorenwerke J. S. Rasmussen founded by Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen in 1916, it branched out into motorcycles, front-drive two-stroke cars built at Audi works in Zwickau since 1931. Horch – founded 1904 by August Horch in Zwickau, it built cars starting from straight-twin engines to luxury models with V8- and V12 engines. Audi – because of disputes with the CFO, August Horch in 1909 left his namesake enterprise and founded Audi across town, building inline-four-, six- and eight-cylinder-engined cars. In 1928 Audi became a subsidiary of Zschopauer Motorenwerke. Wanderer – founded in 1911, with small four-cylinder cars and a more luxurious straight-6 built in Siegmar In August 1928, the owner of DKW, acquired a majority ownership of Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the US automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight- and six-cylinder engines; these engines were used in Audi Audi Imperator and Audi Dresden models.
At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured. In 1930 the Saxony Regional Bank, which had financed Rasmussen's business expansion in the 1920s, installed Richard Bruhn on the board of Audiwerke AG, there followed a brutal pruning and rationalization of the various auto-businesses that Rasmussen had accumulated; the outcome was the founding in Summer 1932 of Auto Union AG with just four component businesses, being Zschopauer Motorenwerke with its brand DKW, Audi and the car producing piece of Wanderer, brought together under the umbrella of single shareholder company Auto Union. Although all four brands continued to sell cars under their own names and brands, the technological development became more centralized, with some Audi models employing engines by Horch or Wanderer. Auto Union chairman, Baron von Oertzen, wanted a showpiece project to announce the new brand. At the 1933 Berlin Motor Show, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler announced two new programs: The people's car: a project that became the KdF car A state-sponsored motor racing programme: to develop a "high speed German automotive industry," the foundation of which would be an annual sum of 500,000 Reichsmark At fellow director's Adolf Rosenberger insistence, von Oertzen met with Dr. Ferdinand Porsche, who had done work for him before, developed his own P-Wagen project racing car based on the new 750 kg formula.
German racing driver Hans Stuck Sr. had met Hitler before he became Chancellor, not being able to gain a seat at Mercedes, accepted the invitation of Rosenberger to join him, von Oertzen, Porsche in approaching the Chancellor. In a meeting in the Reich Chancellory, Hitler agreed with Porsche that for the glory of Germany, it would be better for two companies to develop the project, resulting in Hitler agreeing to pay ₤40,000 for the country's best racing car of 1934, as well as an annual stipend of 250,000 RM each for Mercedes and Auto Union; this annoyed Mercedes, who had developed their Mercedes-Benz W25, gratified, its racing program having financial difficulties since 1931. It resulted in a heated exchange both on and off the racing track between the two companies until World War II. Having garnered state funds, Auto Union bought Porsches Hochleistungsfahrzeugbau GmbH and hence the P-Wagen Project for 75,000 RM, relocating the company to Auto Unions Horch plant at Zwickau; the Auto Union racing cars types A to D were built as Grand Prix racing cars from 1934 to 1939.
They resembled the earlier Benz Tropfenwagen built in part by Rumpler engineers, The only Grand Prix racers to wear Auto Union's four-ringed logo, they were dominant in 1936. From 1935 to 1937, Auto Union cars car won 25 races, driven by Ernst von Delius, Bernd Rosemeyer, Hans Stuck Sr. and Achille Varzi. Much has been written about the difficult handling characteristics of this car, but its tremendous power and acceleration were undeniable – a driver could induce wheelspin at over 100 mph; the cars used supercharged piston engines. Rosemeyer would drive one arou
Revolutions of 1989
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond. The period is sometimes called the Fall of Nations or the Autumn of Nations, a play on the term Spring of Nations, sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848; the events of the full-blown revolution first began in Poland in 1989 and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria and Romania. One feature common to most of these developments was the extensive use of campaigns of civil resistance, demonstrating popular opposition to the continuation of one-party rule and contributing to the pressure for change. Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country. Protests in Tiananmen Square failed to stimulate major political changes in China, but influential images of courageous defiance during that protest helped to precipitate events in other parts of the globe. On 4 June 1989, the trade union Solidarity won an overwhelming victory in a free election in Poland, leading to the peaceful fall of Communism in that country in the summer of 1989.
In June 1989, Hungary began dismantling its section of the physical Iron Curtain, leading to an exodus of East Germans through Hungary, which destabilised East Germany. This led to mass demonstrations in cities such as Leipzig and subsequently to the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, which served as the symbolic gateway to German reunification in 1990; the Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991, resulting in eleven new countries, which had declared their independence from the Soviet Union in the course of the year, while the Baltic states regained their independence in September 1991. The rest of the Soviet Union, which constituted the bulk of the area, became the Russian Federation in December 1991. Albania and Yugoslavia abandoned Communism between 1990 and 1992. By 1992, Yugoslavia had split into five successor states, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed Serbia and Montenegro in 2003 and split in 2006 into two states and Montenegro.
Serbia was further split with the breakaway of the recognised state of Kosovo in 2008. Czechoslovakia dissolved three years after the end of Communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992; the impact of these events was felt in many Socialist countries. Communism was abandoned in countries such as Cambodia, Ethiopia and South Yemen. During the adoption of varying forms of market economy, there was a general decline in living standards for many former Communist countries. Political reforms were varied, but in only four countries were Communist parties able to retain a monopoly on power, namely China, Cuba and Vietnam. Many communist and socialist organisations in the West turned their guiding principles over to social democracy and democratic socialism. Communist parties in Italy and San Marino suffered and the reformation of the Italian political class took place in the early 1990s. In South America, the Pink tide swept through the early 2000s; the European political landscape changed drastically, with several former Eastern Bloc countries joining NATO and the European Union, resulting in stronger economic and social integration with Western Europe and the United States.
Socialism had been gaining momentum among working class citizens of the world since the 19th century. These culminated in the early 20th century when several states and colonies formed their own communist parties. Many of the countries involved had hierarchical structures with monarchic governments and aristocratic social structures with an established nobility. Socialism was undesirable within the circles of the ruling classes in the late 19th/early 20th century states, its champions suffered persecution. This had been the practice in states which identified as exercising a multi-party system; the Russian Revolution of 1917 saw the first communist state in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, when the Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government. During the period between the world wars, communism had been on the rise in many parts of the world in towns and cities; this led to a series of purges in many countries to stifle the movement. Violent resistance to this repression led to an increase in support for communism in Central and Eastern Europe.
In the early stages of World War II, both Nazi Germany and the USSR invaded and occupied the countries of Eastern Europe after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Germany turned against and invaded the USSR: the battles of this Eastern Front were the largest in history; the USSR joined with the Allies and in conferences at Tehran and Yalta, the Allies agreed that Central and Eastern Europe would be in the "Soviet sphere of political influence.". The USSR fought the Germans to a standstill and began driving them back, reaching Berlin before the end of the war. Nazi ideology was violently anti-communist, the Nazis brutally suppressed communist movements in the countries it occupied. Communists played a large part in the resist
Heinz Heinrich Nordhoff was a German engineer who led the Volkswagen company as it was rebuilt after World War II. Nordhoff was born in the son of a banker, he graduated from the Technical University of Berlin, where he became a member of the Roman Catholic fraternity Askania-Burgundia, in 1927, began work for BMW working on aircraft engines. In 1929 he went to work for Opel, where he gained experience of the automotive industry and, since the company had been acquired by General Motors not long before, of American practices in the field, he was promoted: in 1936 he was the Commercial-Technical director who presented the company's innovative new small car, the Kadett, to the public. In 1942, with passenger car production much diminished on account of the war, he took over from Gerd Stieler von Heydekampf as Production Director at the company's flagship truck plant at Brandenburg. After the war he was barred from working in the American-occupied sector because of a business award he had received from the Nazis.
He obtained a job as a service manager at a Hamburg garage. Hamburg was a central location for the Control Commission for Germany - British Element, who recruited him for the position of Managing Director of the Volkswagen plant at Wolfsburg at the urging of British Army Major Ivan Hirst, directing the plant. Nordhoff took up the position on 1 January 1948. During his first year in post, Nordhoff doubled production to 19,244 cars. By the end of 1961 annual production exceeded a million vehicles, he became legendary for turning the Volkswagen Beetle into a worldwide automotive phenomenon. He pioneered the idea of constant improvement while keeping the styling the same, he gave liberal benefits to increased pay scales. Within six years after taking over Volkswagen, Nordhoff reduced the number of man-hours to produce a single car by 75 percent, from 400 to 100, his commitment to improving the workmanship at Volkswagen made the Beetle famous for its bulletproof reliability. In 1955, shortly before the Wolfsburg factory celebrated its millionth Volkswagen, Nordhoff was awarded a Federal Service Cross with star.
Nordhoff's ability to sell cars and his achievement in first placing the Wolfsburg factory on a firm footing and making Volkswagen a domestic and international success have not been questioned, but he has been criticised on various bases. At Brandenburg during the war, he used slave labour, although he ensured the workers had adequate food and clothing, he has been seen as overly self-promoting. As became apparent in the 1960s, under him Volkswagen was too slow and inefficient in developing new designs. While publicly championing the Beetle, beginning in 1952 Nordhoff spent DM200 million behind the scenes seeking to develop new models, some in partnership with other manufacturers, but his indecision led to the abandonment of all such prototypes. By the late 1960s, the Beetle faced serious competition from Japanese and other European models in different markets. Nordhoff's takeover of Auto Union in 1964 to provide still more manufacturing capacity for Beetles ended up both providing the group with both what would become its performance-luxury brand - Audi - and the expertise to replace the Beetle and its 1970s stablemates.
Nordhoff had wanted Carl Hahn, head of Volkswagen of America, to succeed him on his retirement, but the Board of Directors chose Kurt Lotz. Nordhoff had a heart attack in summer 1967, although he returned to work in October, he died six months in April 1968. "Offering people an honest value appealed to me more than being driven around by a bunch of hysterical stylists trying to sell people something they don't want to have." — Heinrich Nordhoff on his automotive philosophy, from the book Volkswagen: Beetles and Beyond by James Flammang. Heidrun Edelmann, "Heinrich Nordhoff: Ein deutscher Manager in der Automobilindustrie", in: Deutsche Unternehmer zwischen Kriegswirtschaft und Wiederaufbau, ed. Paul Erker and Toni Pierenkemper, Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschchte 39, Munich: Oldenbourg, 1999. ISBN 9783486563634. Pp. 19–52 Andrea Hiott, Thinking Small: The Long Strange Trip of the Volkswagen Beetle, Penguin Random House, 2012. ISBN 978-0345521422 Hans-Jürgen Schneider. Autos und Technik.
125 Jahre Opel, Schneider+Repschläger, 1987. OCLC 907749124