Oscar Robert Themptander was a Swedish politician and public official, Prime Minister of Sweden from 1884 to 1888 during the reign of King Oscar II, Governor of Stockholm County from 1888 to 1896. He was Minister for Finance. At the age of 40 years and 92 days, Themptander is the youngest person to become Prime Minister in Swedish history, his death at the age of 52 years and 351 days makes him the youngest prime minister at his death. Robert Themptander was born in Stockholm, the son of army lieutenant Nils Themptander and wife Adolphina Laurent. After law studies in Uppsala and a successful career in the civil service he became in 1879 a member of the Second Chamber. There from the beginning he was a member of the centre party, a party loyal to incumbent government, he began move orientate towards the agrarian party. He married in 1874 with whom he had three children. In the government of Arvid Posse in 1880, he became Minister without Portfolio and, in 1881 Minister of Finance, he stayed on in this office in three years before he became Prime Minister at the age of 40.
Only Louis De Geer had become Prime Minister at a younger age. Through good contacts in different parliamentary positions he was successful in breaking the political gridlock concerning the defense question; this issue was achieved in the year of 1885. He was less successful in his goal to protect the free trade system which Louis De Geer and Minister of Finance Gripenstedt had instituted during their time in office; this political economy had with many good benefits contributed to the modernization of Sweden. As food prices on the world markets sank because of increased imports from all of North America, demand increased for high tariffs to protect Swedish interests. Themptander was constrained to retire, yet not through defeat in the 1887 election, when his resistance towards the new duty-friendly winds of opinion meant more election debate than before. Riksdag candidates were compelled to answer about which views they had, if they were Free Traders or Protectionists; this was seen by many at the time as uncommon.
Lifelong members of the Riksdag had been elected on the basis of their high personal reputation and confidence. The Free Traders gained twenty-two parliamentary seats, but it appeared that one member had not paid his taxes and therefore the whole list was declared invalid. Lifelong members of the Riksdag who were free trade supporteers were replaced with tariff supporters. Therefore, the Second Chamber returned a protectionist majority. Themptander attempted to have King Oscar II announce a new election, but the King denied the request. Themptander resigned as Prime Minister. From 1888–96 he was Stockholm County Governor and afterwards director for Trafik AB Grängesberg–Oxelösund. Robert Themptander died on 30 January 1897 in Stockholm; this article draws on the corresponding article in the Swedish-language Wikipedia, accessed in the version of November 11, 2005. Nevéus, Torgny. Ett betryggande försvar: värnplikten och arméorganisationen i svensk politik 1880-1885. Studia historica Upsaliensia, 0081-6531.
Per Albin Hansson
Per Albin Hansson was a Swedish politician, chairman of the Social Democrats from 1925 and two-time Prime Minister in four governments between 1932 and 1946, governing all that period save for a short-lived crisis in the summer of 1936, which he ended by forming a coalition government with his main adversary, Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp. During World War II, in which Sweden maintained a policy of neutrality, he presided over a government of national unity that included all major parties in the Riksdag with the exception of the Communist Party. Forging the Social Democratic grip on Swedish politics that would last throughout the century, Hansson left an astounding legacy on his party as well as creating the idea of Sweden to become "Folkhemmet", "The People's Home"; this remained intact until the early 1990s, including a strict policy of neutrality, a wide-stretching welfare state through parliamentary legislation, reformist social corporatism rather than Marxist nationalisation of the means of production.
Following the war, Hansson formed a Social Democratic cabinet enjoying absolute majority in the Riksdag before succumbing to a heart attack on his way home from work late at night on 6 October 1946. During Hansson's fourteen years as Prime Minister of Sweden, a wide range of reforms were realised, such as subsidised dental care, income-tested child allowances for invalidity pensioners and widows, maternity allowances through voluntary sickness insurance, a 1935 law that introduced state subsidies for the construction of apartment houses for families with three or more children, combined with housing allowances for families with more than two children living in these houses. Per Albin Hansson was born in Kulladal, a neighborhood in Malmö, Sweden, on 28 October 1885. One of the first professional politicians of Sweden, Hansson participated in the creation of the Swedish Social Democratic Youth in 1903 and presided over it as its chairman in 1908–09, a period in which universal suffrage and proportional representation was to be enacted for all Swedish males by Conservative Prime Minister Arvid Lindman a rival of Hansson.
Influenced by Karl Kautsky's views on socialism, Hansson succeeded Hjalmar Branting as editor of Social-Demokraten in 1917 and was appointed his Minister of Defence in Sweden's first Social Democratic cabinet in 1920, following a Liberal-Social Democratic coalition enacting equal suffrage for men and women. Per Albin Hansson held this office in all of Branting's three cabinets between 1920 and 1925, performing numerous cut-backs on the military budget. Upon Branting's death in 1925, Per Albin Hansson rose to be embraced as chairman of the party, his legitimacy remained under dispute and only in 1927 did he become the head of the Riksdag faction, before confirmed undisputedly as Branting's successor in a 1928 congress. Upon losing power to Carl Gustaf Ekman's pro-prohibition Liberals in 1926, Hansson worked from the opposition bench and, although heading what was to remain the largest party of the Riksdag to date, faced a major setback upon cooperating with the Communists in the infamous election of 1928.
The Social Democratic Party was not to run along with the Communists until the 2010 election. In opposition to the Conservative – though pragmatic and staunchly anti-Nazi – Lindman cabinet, Hansson pressed for the introduction of a welfare state rather than wide-scale nationalizations, coining his vision Folkhemmet in a Riksdag debate in 1928. Following the fall of Ekman in 1932 due to a corruption scandal involving late industrialist Ivar Kreuger, the Social Democrats made gains to possess 104 seats and 41,7% of the electorate. Though not facing a majority, the inability of the Liberal parties, the Conservatives and Agrarians to form a majority government pressed for a minority government led by Hansson, expecting support from the Farmers' League through an agriculture policy favoring the interests of the League, although stopping short of inviting it into the cabinet. In June 1936, the uneasy majority enforced Hansson's resignation, leaving League chairman Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp to form a three-month "Vacation Cabinet" until the elections in September, which saw a rise in support of the Social Democrats.
Following further negotiations, Hansson formed a proper coalition government with Pehrsson-Brahmstorp as Minister of Agriculture that enjoyed a robust majority and would last until 1939. Following the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Hansson declared strict neutrality and called for the formation of a broad coalition government involving all major parties under his leadership, realized in December except only the pro-Stalinist Communist Party and its short-lived pro-Nazi splinter faction, the Socialist Party. Alone in Europe save for Spain, Switzerland and the Vatican, Sweden maintained neutrality throughout all World War II, but like the mentioned countries and traded with both sides. Winston Churchill claimed that Sweden during World War II ignored the greater moral issues and played both sides for profit, a criticism mimicked in criticism towards Sweden's policy towards the German occupation of Denmark and Norway upheld by transportation reinforcement through Swedish territory, sanctioned by Hansson's cabinet.
The German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, Operation Barbarossa sparked an ultimatum known as the Midsommarkrisen by the government of Nazi Germany to Hansson's cabinet, demanding some military concessions, including German troop transports on Swedish railways in order to support Germany's ally Finland. Political deliberat
A Prime Minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative holds a ceremonial position, although with reserve powers. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state.
The prime minister is but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise executive powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament; as well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or posts—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, for example, is First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts. For example, during the Second World War, Winston Churchill was Minister of Defence and in the current cabinet of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu serves as Minister of Communications, Foreign Affairs, Regional Cooperation and Interior; the term prime minister in its French form, premier ministre, is attested in 17th Century sources referring to Cardinal Richelieu after he was named to head the royal council in 1624.
The title was however informal and used alongside the informal principal ministre d'État more as a job description. After 1661, Louis XIV and his descendants refused to allow one of their ministers to be more important than the others, so the term was not in use; the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. During the whole of the 18th Century, Britain was involved in a prolonged conflict with France, periodically bursting into all-out war, Britons took outspoken pride in their "Liberty" as contrasted to the "Tyranny" of French Absolute Monarchy. Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century; the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII; these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and the "prime minister".
The power of these ministers depended on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed by the monarch, the monarch presided over its meetings; when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke shared power. In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War, Parliament strengthened its position relative to the monarch gained more power through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and passage of the Bill of Rights in 1689; the monarch could no longer establish any law or impose any tax without its permission and thus the House of Commons became a part of the government.
It is at this point. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I to the throne. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government. From 1721 this was the Whig politician Robert Walpole. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public, or resign; as a prime minister, Lord Melbourne, said, "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."
Felix Teodor Hamrin was a Swedish politician. He was the leader of the liberal Freeminded People's Party and served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 6 August to 24 September 1932. Hamrin was born in Mönsterås in Kalmar County, his father was a dealer in leather. He married Elizabeth "Lizzie" Pennycock in 1900, they had seven children. After studying at a business school in Gothenburg, he ran a wholesaling business in Jönköping from 1903 to 1930, he entered the Riksdag at the young age of 37, under Carl Gustaf Ekman he served as Minister of Trade from 1926 to 1928 and as Minister of Finance from 1930 to 1932. When Ekman was forced to resign shortly before the elections in 1932 due to the Kreuger crash, Hamrin became prime minister, he resigned after the election because the Freeminded People's Party had suffered serious losses in the election. His term of office was only 50 days, giving him the record for serving the shortest amount of time as prime minister of Sweden, he served as party leader for the Freeminded People's Party after Ekman, in the newly formed People's Party until a new party leader was chosen in January 1935.
He served as the governor of Jönköping County from 1930 to 1937. His most important political tasks were to fight the economic effects of the early years of the Depression in Sweden through severe economy measures, to mitigate the effects of the Kreuger crash, he died in Jönköping on 27 November 1937
Erik Gustaf Boström
Erik Gustaf Bernhard Boström was a Swedish landowner and politician, a member of the Swedish Parliament and the longest-serving Prime Minister of Sweden of the 19th century. He served twice, first from 1891 to 1900 and again from 1902 to 1905, he was known as E. G. Boström or E. Gust. Boström. In 1871, he married Carolina "Lina" Almqvist, with whom he had one son. Brother of County Governor Filip Boström and nephew of the philosopher Christopher Jacob Boström. Boström’s governmental policy was marked by its pragmatism. Over time, Boström gained a good reputation as being a rallying national icon despite being the first prime minister to have neither an academic education nor experience with upper governmental positions, he was quite popular with King Oscar II. Boström’s eventual downfall was caused by his refusal to budge on the issue of Norway. Erik Gustaf Boström was born in Stockholm, the son of Eric Samuel Boström, chief judge of the district court and his wife Elisabet Gustava Fredenheim; the family was one branch of the Laestadius family of priests from Norrland.
His paternal grandfather Christopher Laestander, a townsman and ship carpenter in the city of Piteå, took the surname Boström. He was tutored by Kristian Claëson, whose first cousin served as the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs under Boström in 1898. In 1854, he became a student at the Uppsala Cathedral School, the year his father died, it is worth noting that five of his fellow cabinet members during his first term attended the same school: Axel Rappe, Edvard von Krusenstjerna, Ludvig Annerstedt, Gustaf Gilljam and Lars Åkerhielm. In 1861, he transferred to Uppsala University, where he studied until 1863 when his mother died and he had to take over her manor at Östanå Castle; as a youth he availed himself of the opportunity to pay to avoid conscription, last possible in 1872. Boström was quite successful as a farmer and he started to get involved in local politics. In January 1870, he became a member of the executive committee of the Agricultural Society of Stockholm County and of the county council of Stockholm County, where he served as vice-chairperson and chairperson for many years.
In 1871, he married daughter of Justice Councillor and Minister Ludvig Almqvist. In 1875, he was elected to the lower house of parliament to represent the judicial district of Södra Roslagen. In parliament, he joined the Lantmanna Party and positioned himself as a leading protectionist, supporting tariff protection, in the Standing Committees of Ways and Means and of Banking. In addition, he was interested in a strong defence, which he considered to have manifested itself as a strong marine defence, a strong opposition to the abolition of the Swedish allotment system. After he retired from his position as Prime Minister, Boström became the Chancellor of the Swedish Universities, where he tried unsuccessfully to prevent Bengt Lidforss from continuing on as associate professor at Lund University, he tendered his resignation from his position as chancellor, although he retracted it. Boström continued to be interested in politics and in a letter that he wrote to his dear old friend Carl Herslow on 4 June, he stated that it would be desirable for the retired government to have been able to stay on.
He said in a letter that Karl Staaff's government could take of social policy better than a conservative government could and that Staaff appeared to possess the ability to accomplish a lot, although he chose a different way. Boström died in his home in Stockholm on 21 February 1907. A few days the bells pealed out over Stockholm to commemorate the former Prime Minister. One brother, County Governor of Södermanland County Filip Boström. One sister Ebba Augusta. Six daughters: Hedvig, Carolina Elisabeth, Sofia Lovisa, Clara Gustafva, Ingeborg Maria and Eva Margareta. One son: Chamberlain Gustaf Samuel Boström. Married to Carolina Almqvist, daughter of Councillor of Justice and Minister Ludvig Almqvist
Knut Hjalmar Leonard Hammarskjöld was a Swedish politician, cabinet minister, Member of Parliament from 1923 to 1938, Prime Minister of Sweden from 1914 to 1917. In 1890, he married Agnes Maria Carolina Almquist; the couple had four sons: Åke, Sten and Dag. The son of Knut Vilhelm Hammarskjöld, a noble and landowner, wife Maria Lovisa Cecilia Vilhelmina Cöster, Hjalmar Hammarskjöld was born into the Hammarskjöld family in Tuna, Kalmar County, he was a versatile legal expert and prominent as a legislator. In 1891 he became a professor in Uppsala University and had a great influence on Swedish and Nordic civil law, he laid the foundation for his reputation as a great expert in international law at the same time through diligent work in international meetings, became a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 1904 at The Hague. As Minister of Justice from 1901 to 1902 in Fredrik von Otter's government he made an ambitious but unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problems concerning the right to vote, was, on his resignation, appointed president of the Göta court of appeal.
In connection with the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway, he was minister of ecclesiastical affairs in Christian Lundeberg's coalition government and negotiator in Karlstad. In 1905 he was appointed to be the Swedish ambassador to Copenhagen, he returned in 1907 to Uppsala as county governor of Uppsala, but took leave of absence for various other assignments. After the peasant armament support march and the resignation of the liberal government, he became head of a non-parliamentarian government in 1914, tasked with solving defense issues, his "courtyard government" was politically independent, but loyal to the king and rather conservative. It was created on an initiative from Arvid Lindman, the leader of the right-wing party in the second chamber, who did not want the king to appoint a cabinet under the leader of the right-wing party in the first chamber, Ernst Trygger. After the outbreak of the First World War that same year, a truce was established between the parties and the defense problem was solved to the satisfaction of the military.
Hammarskjöld was principled and inflexible in his interpretations of civil law during the height of the war. It was during this time that the term "Hunger shield" was coined, because his intractability impeded efforts to get necessary food exports into Sweden, he was seen as too friendly towards Germany when he rejected the proposal for a common trade agreement with Great Britain that Marcus Wallenberg, brother of the foreign minister Knut Wallenberg, had brought home from London in 1917. The split between the PM and the Foreign Minister became apparent and the leaders of the right-wing in the parliament revoked their support for the prime minister, forced to submit his resignation. Hammarskjöld had a dominant nature and was perceived by his opponents as authoritarian and strong-willed, but claims that he favoured Germany lack documented support, he had many prestigious assignments, for example chairman of the Nobel Foundation 1929–47 and member of parliament. He was voted into the Swedish Academy in 1918 to the same chair as Prime Minister Louis De Geer had occupied, number 17.
Hammarskjöld's son, inherited the chair, as well as the position, after his death. Hammarskjöld's investigations were a major contributing factor to the decision to establish the Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden. Hjalmar Hammarskjöld died on 12 October 1953 in Stockholm, just over 6 months after his youngest son became the 2nd Secretary General of the United Nations. T. Gihl, The history of Swedish foreign policy 4 D. Hammarskjöld, Hjalmar Hammarskjöld: entry speech in the Swedish Academy W. Carlgren, The minister Hammarskjöld S. A. Söderpalm, The big company owners and the democratic breakthrough "Hammarskjöld, Hjalmar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1922
Baron Johan Gustaf Nils Samuel Åkerhielm af Margaretelund was a politician, a baron, a landowner, member of the Riksdag from 1859 to 1866 and from 1870 to 1900, a Minister of Finance from 1874 to 1875, a Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1889, a Prime Minister from 1889 to 1891. He was married with whom he had three children. Gustaf Åkerhielm was born in Stockholm, son to Swedish cabinet member Gustaf Fredrik Åkerhielm and his wife, Elisabeth Sophia Anker. After diplomatic service in Saint Petersburg and Copenhagen, he had a successful political career, where he had a long succession of different positions in the government from a Minister of Finance from 1874 to 1875. In 1889 he was appointed to the position of Minister for Foreign Affairs by Gillis Bildt, in October of the same year, he became the new Prime Minister of Sweden. Åkerhielm sought to solve military defense issues, but his efforts were blocked because of opposition in the Lower House of the Swedish Parliament. However, he was able to remain in power due to support.
In 1891, he was forced to resign after an careless reply to a question about defense, interpreted as a war-like threat against Norway. The exact wording of his statement was unclear, but those who were present said the statement was, more or less, that "a new order for the Army will allow us to speak Swedish with Norwegians." He died on 2 April 1900 in Stockholm