Carl Friedrich Wilhelm, 1st Prince of Leiningen
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Leiningen was a German nobleman. He was the eldest son of Friedrich Magnus, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg and his wife Countess Anna Christine Eleonore von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, succeeded his father on the latter's death, 28 October 1756. On 3 July 1779, he was made a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the first Prince of Leiningen. On 24 June 1749, he married his first cousin Christiane Wilhelmine Luise, daughter of Wilhelm Carl Ludwig, Count of Solms-Rödelheim and Assenheim, by his wife Countess Maria Margareta Leopolda von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, she died on 6 January 1803, having borne him a son and three daughters: Elisabeth Christiane Marianne, born 27 October 1753, married 17 May 1768 to Count Karl Ludwig of Salm, died 16 February 1792. Charlotte Luise Polyxena, born 27 May 1755, married 1 September 1776 to Count Franz of Erbach-Erbach, died 13 January 1785. Karoline Sophie Wilhelmine, born 4 April 1757, married 21 September 1773 Count Friedrich Magnus of Solms-Wildenfels, died 18 March 1832.
Emich Carl, born 27 September 1763, succeeded his father as second Prince of Leiningen. In 1801, he was deprived of his lands on the left bank of the Rhine, namely Hardenburg and Durkheim, by France, but in 1803 received the secularized Amorbach Abbey as an ample compensation for these losses. Hitherto his titles were: Imperial Prince of Leiningen, Count palatine of Mosbach, Count of Düren, Lord of Miltenberg, Bischofsheim, Schüpf and Lauda. A few years the short-lived Principality of Leiningen at Amorbach was mediatized. Sources include: Marek, Miroslav. "leiningen/leiningen6.html". Genealogy. EU
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Army of Württemberg
The army of the German state of Württemberg was until 1918 known in Germany as the Württembergische Armee. Its troops were maintained by Württemberg for its national defence and as a unit of the Swabian Circle, the Confederation of the Rhine, the German Confederation and of the Imperial German Army. In addition in the 18th century, there were regiments that were lent to other dukes and foreign powers; this practice was criticized as "soldier trading" or "Soldatenhandel". Amalgamated within the overall Imperial German army in 1871, it was renamed the XIII Corps until 1918 comprising the 26th and 27th infantry divisions and the 26th dragoon regiment. History of Württemberg Kingdom of Württemberg
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
County of Nassau-Saarbrücken
The County of Saarbrücken was an Imperial State in the Upper Lorraine region, with its capital at Saarbrücken. From 1381 it belonged to the Walram branch of the Rhenish House of Nassau. Around the year 1080 King Henry IV of Germany vested one Count Siegbert in the Saargau with the Carolingian Kaiserpfalz at Wadgassen on the Saar River and further possessions held by the Bishops of Metz in the Bliesgau as well as in the adjacent Alsace and Palatinate regions as a fiefdom. In the course of the fierce Investiture Controversy, the rise of the comital dynasty continued with the appointment of Siegbert's son Adalbert as Archbishop of Mainz in 1111, in 1118 his elder brother Frederick was first mentioned with the title of a "Count of Saarbrücken". However, Frederick's son Simon I had to face the slighting of his Saarbrücken residence by the forces of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1168. Upon his death about 1183, the county was divided into two parts, when the Palatinate territories were separated to form the basis of the County of Zweibrücken.
The Alsatian possessions had been lost around 1120. When the comital House of Leiningen became extinct in 1212, the Counts of Saarbrücken by jure uxoris inherited their Palatinate possessions around Altleiningen Castle, where they established the younger line of the Counts of Leiningen as a cadet branch. Simon III of Saarbrücken, count from 1207, was a loyal supporter of the Imperial House of Hohenstaufen and of Philip of Swabia, he joined the Fifth Crusade and, as he had no male heirs, reached the acknowledgement of the inheritance by his daughter Laurette. His younger daughter Mathilda, who succeeded her sister in 1272, managed to secure her right of succession by marrying Count Simon of Commercy who from 1271 called himself Count of Saarbrücken-Commercy. Saarbrücken received town privileges in 1322. Count John I, liensman of the Lorraine dukes, joined the Luxembourg king Henry VII of Germany on his campaign to Italy and fought with Henry's son John of Bohemia on the French side in the Hundred Years' War.
His grandson, the last Count John II of Saarbrücken fought with the French in the 1356 Battle of Poitiers, where he and King John II of France were captured and until the 1360 Treaty of Brétigny imprisoned at Wallingford Castle. Vested with the Lordship of Vaucouleurs as well with the title of a Grand Butler of France, he had to pawn large parts of his possessions to Archbishop Baldwin of Trier. With John's death in 1381 the male line ended again; as his daughter Johanna had married Count John I of Nassau-Weilburg in 1353, their son Philipp I inherited the County of Saarbrücken. Philipp I ruled both Nassau-Saarbrücken and Nassau-Weilburg and in 1393 inherited through his wife Johanna of Hohenlohe the lordships Kirchheimbolanden and Stauf, he received half of Nassau-Ottweiler in 1393 and other territories during his reign. After his death in 1429 the territories around Saarbrücken and along the Lahn were kept united until 1442, when they were again divided among his sons into the lines Nassau-Saarbrücken and Nassau-Weilburg, the so-called Younger line of Nassau-Weilburg.
In 1507 Count John Ludwig I enlarged his territory by marrying Catharine, the daughter of the last Count of Moers-Saarwerden and in 1527 inherited the County of Saarwerden including the lordship of Lahr. Though after his death in 1544 the county was split into three parts, the three lines were all extinct in 1574 and all of Nassau-Saarbrücken was united with Nassau-Weilburg until 1629; this new division however was not executed until the Thirty Years' War was over and in 1651 three counties were established: Nassau-Idstein, Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Saarbrücken. Only eight years Nassau-Saarbrücken was again divided into: Nassau-Saarbrücken proper, fell to Nassau-Ottweiler in 1723 Nassau-Ottweiler, fell to Nassau-Usingen in 1728 Nassau-UsingenBy 1728 Nassau-Saarbrücken was united with Nassau-Usingen which had inherited Nassau-Ottweiler and Nassau-Idstein. In 1735 Nassau-Usingen was divided again into Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1797 Nassau-Usingen inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken, it was unified with Nassau-Weilburg and raised to the Duchy of Nassau in 1806.
The first Duke of Nassau was Frederick August of Nassau-Usingen who died in 1816. Wilhelm, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg inherits the Duchy of Nassau. But, territories of Nassau Saarbrücken was occupied by France in 1793 and was annexed as Sarre department in 1797. County of Nassau-Saarbrücken was part of Prussia in 1814; the coat of arms combined the lion of the counts of the Saargau with the crosses of the house of Commercy, was used when the coat of arms of Saarland was created. The Principality of Saarbrücken County of Ottweiler some villages of the Abbey Wadgassen two-thirds of the County Saarwerden House of Leiningen 1080–1105 Siegbert 1105–1135 Frederick 1135–1182 Simon I 1182–1207 Simon II 1207–1245 Simon III 1245–1271 Lauretta 1271–1274 MathildeHouse of Broyes-Commercy 1271–1308 Simon IV 1308–1342 John I 1342–1381 John II 1381–1381 JoanHouse of Nassau House of Nassau Duchy of Nassau House of Nassau-Weilburg The Dutch Nassau-Saarbrücken and the German Nassau-Saarbrücken Wikipedia articles The divisions of the House of Nassau chart Sante, Wilhelm.
Geschichte der Deutschen Länder - Territorien-Ploetz. Würzburg 1964. Köbler, Gerhard. Historisches Lexikon der Deutschen Länder. München 1988
Ernst I, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
Ernst Christian Carl, 4th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. He was the son of Prince Charles Louis of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Countess Amalie Henriette of Solms-Baruth, he married Princess Feodora of Leiningen, the only daughter of Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld on 18 February 1828 at Kensington Palace in London. She was the elder half-sister of the future British queen, he succeeded to the title of 4th Prince zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg on 4 April 1825, attained the rank of Major-General
Lippe-Biesterfeld was a countly cadet line of the House of Lippe between 1762 and 1905. In 1916, a new, cadet line was created for the wife and sons of Prince Bernhard of Lippe, it became a title of the Dutch Royal House created in 1937. The branch of Lippe-Biesterfeld was founded by Jobst Herman, youngest son of Simon VII of Lippe-Detmold. From the line Lippe-Biesterfeld the branch Lippe-Weissenfeld was separated. Both the Counties Lippe-Biesterfeld and Lippe-Weissenfeld were ceded and sold to the princely line of Lippe on 24 May 1762; the Head of the Lippe-Biesterfeld family was given the style Illustrious Highness at Detmold on 27 August and 1 October 1844. When, in 1895, the mentally ill Prince Alexander ascended the throne of the Principality of Lippe, Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe was appointed to act as regent of Lippe, this according to a secret kept decree of the predecessor Prince Woldemar. Alexander was the last male of the Lippe-Detmold line. Shortly after becoming a member state of the German Empire in 1871, the Lippe-Detmold line died out on 20 July 1895.
This resulted in an inheritance dispute between the neighboring principality of Schaumburg-Lippe and the Lippe-Biesterfeld line. The dispute was resolved by the Imperial Court in Leipzig in 1905, with the lands passing to the Lippe-Biesterfeld line who, until this point, had no territorial sovereignty. Since the Counts of Lippe-Biesterfeld were the Princes of Lippe; the current head of the House of Lippe is Prince of Lippe. Stephan is the grandson of Prince Leopold IV, a first cousin once removed of Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, the prince consort of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. On 25 October 1905 Count Leopold became the reigning Prince of Lippe as Leopold IV. On 8 February 1909, the title Countess of Biesterfeld was created for Armgard von Cramm and her descendants. Armgard was the wife of Prince Bernhard of Lippe, the brother of Prince Leopold IV. On 24 February 1916, Armgard and her two sons Bernhard and Aschwin were created Prince of Lippe-Biesterfeld with the style Serene Highness.
They returned to a more senior position in the line of succession to the Lippian throne, in which they had been the last. The suffix Biesterfeld was revived to mark the foundation of a new cadet line. By royal decree of 6 January 1937, the titles Prince of the Netherlands, with the style Royal Highness, Prince of Lippe-Biesterfeld, were created in the Kingdom of the Netherlands for Prince Bernhard and his descendants; the Lippe-Biesterfeld title hereby became a Dutch one. On 7 January 1937, Bernhard married Princess Juliana of the Netherlands. From this marriage, four daughters were born who all hold the title Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld: Beatrix Irene Margriet Christina Since the title is only inheritable in male line, with them the title will become extinct. By royal decree of 26 May 1998, the descendants of Prince Maurits of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven, eldest son of Princess Margriet, all have the newly created surname van Lippe-Biesterfeld van Vollenhoven. List of consorts of Lippe