Sebastopol or is a city in Sonoma County, in California. The population was 7,379 at the 2010 U. S. Census, but its businesses serve surrounding rural portions of Sonoma County, a region known as West County, which has a population of up to 50,000 residents, it is about a 20-minute drive from the Pacific Ocean, between Santa Rosa and Bodega Bay, is known for its liberal politics and small-town charm. It was once a plum- and apple-growing region. World-famous horticulturist Luther Burbank had gardens in this fertile region; the city hosts Gravenstein Apple Fair. The area's first known inhabitants were the native Coast Pomo peoples; the town of Sebastopol formed in the 1850s with a U. S. Post Office and as a small trade center for the farmers of the surrounding agricultural region; as California's population swelled after the westward migration and the California Gold Rush of 1848-1855, more and more settlers drifted into the fertile California valleys north of San Francisco to try their hand at farming.
There is some debate about. At one time, four other California towns were named Sebastopol: one in Napa County, renamed Yountville one in Tulare County one in Sacramento County one in Nevada CountyThe town in Sonoma County had the name Pinegrove; the original name survives in the names of two of the longer-standing downtown businesses: Pinegrove consignment store, the Pinecone restaurant. Sebastopol became known as the "Gravenstein Apple Capital of the World"; the apple industry brought a steady rural prosperity to the town. In 1890 the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad connected Sebastopol to the national rail network; the town was incorporated in 1902, with schools, hotels, mills, an opera house to its credit. The 1906 earthquake reduced most of these early buildings to rubble, but as elsewhere in the county, the town was rebuilt. In the second half of the 20th century, the apple industry struggled to compete with other apple-producing regions and declined in economic significance. With greater personal mobility and the rise of larger shopping centers in other Sonoma County communities, many residents now commute to work and shop in the neighboring towns of Rohnert Park or Santa Rosa, while Sebastopol maintains its small-town charm.
It is incorrectly claimed that Sebastopol was the last town in Northern California to have working railroad trains on Main Street. The tracks were removed in the late 1980s. Passenger service had ceased in the 1930s, regular freight service ended in the late 1970s; this was documented by Analy High School students in a 1979 video Our Train Down Main: a History of the Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railroad. The canneries and apple-processing plant are gone from downtown, vineyards and housing developments have replaced many apple orchards, reducing the demand for freight service, it is also incorrectly stated that the tracks were removed in the 1990s when the downtown area was redesigned with two one-way streets to enhance traffic along Gravenstein Highway. Main Street and Petaluma Avenue were designated one-way streets in 1985 in an attempt to deal with the town's perennial traffic problem; as of 2016 the old train station houses the Western County Museum. Sebastopol's elevation is 65 to 250 feet above sea level.
Its downtown is at the intersection of State Route 12 and State Route 116 9 mi west of U. S. Route 101. Sebastopol is situated on the edge of the Laguna de Santa Rosa, fed by Santa Rosa Creek and other tributaries, including three minor tributaries within the city limits – Zimpher Creek, Calder Creek and Witter Creek; the Laguna is a wetland area, home to many species of wildlife and vegetation, divides the town from the neighboring Santa Rosa. Nearly every winter the Laguna floods, cutting off State Route 12, flooding the low-lying businesses and homes on the eastern side of Sebastopol; the Pitkin Marsh lily and White sedge are two rare species of plants that are found in the vicinity of Sebastopol. The town sits atop several sites of Pomo Indian villages, arrowheads are found in gopher holes with some frequency in the less disturbed areas of town bordering the flood plain; the city has a total area of all land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Sebastopol had a population of 7,379.
The population density was 3,982.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Sebastopol was 6,509 White, 72 African American, 60 Native American, 120 Asian, 19 Pacific Islander, 298 from other races, 301 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 885 persons; the Census reported that 98.3% of the population lived in households and 1.7% were institutionalized. There were 3,276 households, out of which 902 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,220 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 478 had a female householder with no husband present, 156 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 206 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 52 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,132 household
Government of the United Kingdom
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is commonly referred to as the UK Government or the British Government; the government is led by the Prime Minister. The prime minister and the other most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet; the government ministers all sit in Parliament, are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation, since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new House of Commons, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government or a two-thirds vote for a snap election in the House of Commons, in which case an election may be held sooner. After an election, the monarch selects as prime minister the leader of the party most to command the confidence of the House of Commons by possessing a majority of MPs.
Under the uncodified British constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the prime minister and the cabinet. The Cabinet members advise the monarch as members of the Privy Council. In most cases they exercise power directly as leaders of the Government Departments, though some Cabinet positions are sinecures to a greater or lesser degree; the current prime minister is Theresa May, who took office on 13 July 2016. She is the leader of the Conservative Party, which won a majority of seats in the House of Commons in the general election on 7 May 2015, when David Cameron was the party leader. Prior to this and the Conservatives led a coalition from 2010 to 2015 with the Liberal Democrats, in which Cameron was prime minister; the Government is referred to with the metonym Westminster, due to that being where many of the offices of the government are situated by members in the Government of Scotland, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive in order to differentiate it from their own.
A key principle of the British Constitution is. This is called responsible government; the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy in which the reigning monarch does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by Parliament; this constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215. Parliament is split into the House of Commons; the House of Commons is the more powerful. The House of Lords is the upper house and although it can vote to amend proposed laws, the House of Commons can vote to overrule its amendments. Although the House of Lords can introduce bills, most important laws are introduced in the House of Commons – and most of those are introduced by the government, which schedules the vast majority of parliamentary time in the Commons. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law.
Prior to introducing a bill, the government may run a public consultation to solicit feedback from the public and businesses, may have introduced and discussed the policy in the Queen's Speech, or in an election manifesto or party platform. Ministers of the Crown are responsible to the House. For most senior ministers this is the elected House of Commons rather than the House of Lords. There have been some recent exceptions to this: for example, cabinet ministers Lord Mandelson and Lord Adonis sat in the Lords and were responsible to that House during the government of Gordon Brown. Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected member of Parliament and therefore directly accountable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, it would be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the Lords, with MPs unable to directly question the Chancellor now that the Lords have limited powers in relation to money bills.
The last Chancellor of the Exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim Chancellor of the Exchequer for one month in 1834. Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons, it requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a General Election is held; the support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House; the House of Commons is thus the Responsible house. The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject
Center for American Progress
The Center for American Progress is a public policy research and advocacy organization which presents a liberal viewpoint on economic and social issues. It has its headquarters in Washington, D. C; the president and chief executive officer of CAP is Neera Tanden, who worked for the Obama and Clinton administrations and for Hillary Clinton's campaigns. The first president and CEO was John Podesta, who has served as White House Chief of Staff to U. S. President Bill Clinton and as the chairman of the 2016 presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton. Podesta remained with the organization as chairman of the board until he joined the Obama White House staff in December 2013. Tom Daschle is the current chairman; the Center for American Progress has a youth-engagement organization, Generation Progress, a sister advocacy organization, the Center for American Progress Action Fund. Citing Podesta's influence in the formation of the Obama Administration, a November 2008 article in Time stated that "not since the Heritage Foundation helped guide Ronald Reagan's transition in 1981 has a single outside group held so much sway".
The Center for American Progress was created in 2003 as a left-leaning alternative to think tanks such as the Heritage Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute. Since its inception, the center has assembled a group of high-profile senior fellows, including Lawrence Korb, Assistant Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan. S. Senator from North Carolina John Edwards. Sarah Rosen Wartell, a co-founder and executive vice-president of the center, has been named President of the Urban InstituteThe center helped Congressman John Murtha develop "strategic redeployment", a comprehensive plan for the Iraq War that included a timetable and troop withdrawals. ThinkProgress is a blog edited by Judd Legum that "provide a forum that advances progressive ideas and policies." It is an outlet of the Center for American Progress. Generation Progress is CAP's youth outreach arm. According to the organization, Generation Progress partners with over a million millennials. Known as the American Progress Action Fund, the Center for American Progress Action Fund is a "sister advocacy organization" and is organizationally and financially separate from CAP, although they share many staff and a physical address.
Politico wrote in April 2011 that it "openly runs political advocacy campaigns, plays a central role in the Democratic Party’s infrastructure, the new reporting staff down the hall isn’t walled off from that message machine, nor does it keep its distance from liberal groups organizing advocacy campaigns targeting conservatives". Whereas CAP is a 501 nonprofit, CAP Action is a 501. In 2003, George Soros promised to financially support the organization by donating up to $3 million. CAP Action is headed by Neera Tanden. "The Moscow Project" is one of its initiatives. The Washington Center for Equitable Growth known as Equitable Growth, is a research and grantmaking organization founded in 2013 and "housed at the Center for American Progress". Equitable Growth funds academic research in economics and other social sciences, with a particular interest in government's role in the distribution of economic growth and the role of public perceptions of fairness in shaping government policy. Science Progress was an internet publication about progressive technology policy.
Science Progress was a project of the Center for American Progress. Its mission was "to improve the understanding of science among policymakers and other thought leaders and to develop exciting, progressive ideas about innovation in science and technology for the United States in the 21st Century." It began publication on 4 October 2007, the fiftieth anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1. Content on the web site included news, in-depth essays, text- and audio-based interviews; the Science Progress staff included Editor-In-Chief Jonathan D. Moreno. In 2017, the Center opposed Bernie Sanders' single-payer health plan. Critics said that this was because of funding from the health care industry, such as The Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, the Health Care Service Corporation and America's Health Insurance Plans, who would be eliminated under Sanders' plan. In 2018, the Center proposed an alternative to single payer that would offer patients and employers a choice between government coverage and private insurance.
In October 2016, the Intercept reported that United Arab Emirates Ambassador to the U. S. Yousef Al Otaiba praised "a CAP report released that advocates for continued cooperation with Gulf states like Saudi Arabia and the UAE."In January 2019, two CAP staffers were fired for leaking an email exchange that suggested improper influence by the United Arab Emirates over the CAP. Some open government groups, such as the Sunlight Foundation and the Campaign Legal Center, criticized the Center's failure to disclose its contributors since it was so influential in appointments to the Obama administration. CAP was criticized by several Jewish organizations after some employees "publicly used language that could be construed as anti-Israel or anti-Semitic". Bloggers associated with CAP published several posts using phrases such as "apartheid" and "Israel-firsters", causing NGO Monitor, the American Jewish Committee, the Anti-Defamation League to label them anti-Israel
USB flash drive
A USB flash drive known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, flash stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key, flash-drive, memory stick, USB key, USB stick or USB memory, is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface. It is removable and much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 1 oz. Since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with all other computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped; as of March 2016, flash drives with anywhere from 8 to 256 GB were sold, while 512 GB and 1 TB units were less frequent. As of 2018, 2TB flash drives were the largest available in terms of storage capacity; some allow up to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the exact type of memory chip used, are thought to last between 10 and 100 years under normal circumstances. USB flash drives are used for storage, data back-up and transfer of computer files. Compared with floppy disks or CDs, they are smaller, have more capacity, are more durable due to a lack of moving parts.
Additionally, they are immune to electromagnetic interference, are unharmed by surface scratches. Until about 2005, most desktop and laptop computers were supplied with floppy disk drives in addition to USB ports, but floppy disk drives became obsolete after widespread adoption of USB ports and the larger USB drive capacity compared to the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch floppy disk. USB flash drives use the USB mass storage device class standard, supported natively by modern operating systems such as Windows, macOS and other Unix-like systems, as well as many BIOS boot ROMs. USB drives with USB 2.0 support can store more data and transfer faster than much larger optical disc drives like CD-RW or DVD-RW drives and can be read by many other systems such as the Xbox One, PlayStation 4, DVD players, automobile entertainment systems, in a number of handheld devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, though the electronically similar SD card is better suited for those devices. A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit elements and a USB connector, insulated electrically and protected inside a plastic, metal, or rubberized case, which can be carried in a pocket or on a key chain, for example.
The USB connector may be protected by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive, although it is not to be damaged if unprotected. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing connection with a port on a personal computer, but drives for other interfaces exist. USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection; some devices combine the functionality of a portable media player with USB flash storage. M-Systems, an Israeli company, were granted a US patent on November 14, 2000, titled "Architecture for a -based Flash Disk", crediting the invention to Amir Ban, Dov Moran and Oron Ogdan, all M-Systems employees at the time; the patent application was filed by M-Systems in April 1999. In 1999, IBM filed an invention disclosure by one of its employees. Flash drives were sold by Trek 2000 International, a company in Singapore, which began selling in early 2000. IBM became the first to sell USB flash drives in the United States in 2000; the initial storage capacity of a flash drive was 8 MB.
Another version of the flash drive, described as a pen drive, was developed. Pua Khein-Seng from Malaysia has been credited with this invention. Patent disputes have arisen over the years, with competing companies including Singaporean company Trek Technology and Chinese company Netac Technology, attempting to enforce their patents. Trek has lost battles in other countries. Netac Technology has brought lawsuits against PNY Technologies, aigo and Taiwan's Acer and Tai Guen Enterprise Co. Flash drives are measured by the rate at which they transfer data. Transfer rates may be given in megabytes per second, megabits per second, or in optical drive multipliers such as "180X". File transfer rates vary among devices. Second generation flash drives have claimed to read at up to 30 MB/s and write at about half that rate, about 20 times faster than the theoretical transfer rate achievable by the previous model, USB 1.1, limited to 12 Mbit/s with accounted overhead. The effective transfer rate of a device is affected by the data access pattern.
By 2002, USB flash drives had USB 2.0 connectivity, which has 480 Mbit/s as the transfer rate upper bound. That same year, Intel sparked widespread use of second generation USB by including them within its laptops. Third generation USB flash drives were announced in late 2008 and became available in 2010. Like USB 2.0 before it, USB 3.0 improved data transfer rates compared to its predecessor. The USB 3.0 interface specified transfer rates up compared to USB 2.0's 480 Mbit/s. By 2010 the maximum available storage capacity for the devices had reached upwards of 128GB. USB 3.0 was slow to appear in laptops. As of 2010, the majority of laptop models still contained the 2.0. In January 2013, tech company Kingston, released a flash drive with 1TB of storage; the first USB 3.1 type-C flash drives, with read/write speeds of around 530 MB/s, were announced in March 2015. As of July 2016, flash drives within the 8 to 256 GB
The Mozilla Foundation is a not-for-profit organization that exists to support and collectively lead the open source Mozilla project. Founded in July 2003, the organization sets the policies that govern development, operates key infrastructure and controls Mozilla trademarks and copyrights, it owns a taxable subsidiary: the Mozilla Corporation, which employs many Mozilla developers and coordinates releases of the Mozilla Firefox web browser and Mozilla Thunderbird email client. The subsidiary is 100% owned by the parent, therefore follows the same non-profit principles; the Mozilla Foundation was founded by the Netscape-affiliated Mozilla Organization. The organization is based in the Silicon Valley city of Mountain View, United States; the Mozilla Foundation describes itself as "a non-profit organization that promotes openness and participation on the Internet." The Mozilla Foundation is guided by the Mozilla Manifesto, which lists 10 principles which Mozilla believes "are critical for the Internet to continue to benefit the public good as well as commercial aspects of life."
On February 23, 1998, Netscape created the Mozilla Organization to co-ordinate the development of the Mozilla Application Suite. When AOL drastically scaled back its involvement with Mozilla Organization, the Mozilla Foundation was launched on July 15, 2003 to ensure Mozilla could survive without Netscape. AOL assisted in the initial creation of the Mozilla Foundation, transferring hardware and intellectual property to the organization, employed a three-person team for the first three months of its existence to help with the transition, donated $2 million to the Foundation over two years; the remit of the Mozilla Foundation grew to become much wider than that of mozilla.org, with the organization taking on many tasks that were traditionally left to Netscape and other vendors of Mozilla technology. As part of a wider move to target end-users, the foundation made deals with commercial companies to sell CDs containing Mozilla software and provide telephone support. In both cases, the group chose the same suppliers as Netscape for these services.
The Mozilla Foundation became more assertive over its intellectual property, with policies put in place for the use of Mozilla trademarks and logos. New projects such as marketing were started. With the formation of the Mozilla Corporation, the Mozilla Foundation delegated all their development and business-related activities to the new subsidiary; the Mozilla Foundation now focuses on its Webmaker initiative as well as on governance and policy issues. The Mozilla Foundation owns the Mozilla trademarks and other intellectual property, which it licenses to the Mozilla Corporation, it controls the Mozilla source code repository and decides, allowed to check code in. On August 3, 2005, the Mozilla Foundation announced the creation of Mozilla Corporation, described as "a taxable subsidiary that serves the non-profit, public benefit goals of its parent, the Mozilla Foundation, that will be responsible for product development and distribution of Mozilla products." It handles relationships with businesses, many of which generate income.
Unlike the Mozilla Foundation, the Mozilla Corporation is a tax-paying entity, which gives it much greater freedom in the revenue and business activities it can pursue. From 2004 to 2014, the majority of revenue came from a deal with Google, the default search engine in the Firefox web browser. In November 2014, Mozilla signed a five-year partnership with Yahoo, making Yahoo Search the default search engine for Firefox in the US. Yandex Search is the default for Firefox in Russia and Baidu continues its role as the default in China. In November 2017, Mozilla terminated its agreement with Yahoo two years earlier than planned. While numerous factors were attributed to the decision to terminate the agreement, including some mention that Mozilla saw declining revenues related to the switch the impetus was related to the recent acquisition of Yahoo by Verizon and Oath. Per Mozilla Chief Business and Legal Officer Denelle Dixon, “We exercised our contractual right to terminate our agreement with Yahoo! based on a number of factors including doing what’s best for our brand, our effort to provide quality web search, the broader content experience for our users.
We believe there are opportunities to work with Oath and Verizon outside of search." After the termination, Mozilla once again made Google the default search engine for Firefox in the US. Beijing Mozilla Online Ltd, a.k.a. Mozilla China, is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Mozilla Corporation with its headquarters in Beijing; the Mozilla Foundation is funded by donations and 2% of annual net revenues from the Mozilla Corporation, amounting to over US$8.3 million in 2016. Initial funding in 2003 came from AOL, which donated US$2 million, from Mitch Kapor who donated US$300,000; the group has tax-exempt status under section 501 of the U. S. tax code, though the Mozilla Corporation subsidiary is taxable. In 2006, the Mozilla Foundation received US$66.8 million in revenues, of which US$61.5 million is attributed to "search royalties" from Google. From 2004 to 2014, the foundation had a deal with Google to make Google Search the default in the Firefox browser search bar and hence send it search referrals.
The original contract expired in November 2006. However, Google renewed the contract until November 2008 and again through 2011. On December 20, 2011, Mozilla announced that the contract was once again renewed for at least three years to November 2014, at three times the amount prev
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
Tim O'Reilly is the founder of O'Reilly Media. He popularised the terms open source and Web 2.0. Born in County Cork, Tim O'Reilly moved to San Francisco, with his family when he was a baby, he has three sisters. As a teenager, encouraged by his older brother Sean, O'Reilly became a follower of George Simon, a writer and adherent of the general semantics program. Through Simon, O'Reilly became acquainted with the work of Alfred Korzybski, which he has cited as a formative experience. In 1973, Tim O'Reilly went to Harvard College to study classics and graduated cum laude with a B. A. in 1975. During O'Reilly's first year at Harvard, George Simon died in an accident. After graduating, O'Reilly completed an edition of Simon's Notebooks, 1965–1973, he wrote a well-received book on the science fiction writer Frank Herbert and edited a collection of Herbert's essays and interviews. After graduating, Tim O'Reilly married his first wife, with whom he moved to the Boston area; the couple raised two daughters and Meara.
Arwen is married to Saul Griffith. Tim O'Reilly got started as a technical writer in 1977, he started publishing computer manuals in 1983, setting up his business in a converted barn in Newton, where about a dozen employees worked in a single open room. In 1989, Tim O'Reilly moved his company to Sebastopol and published the Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog, a best-seller in 1992. Tim O'Reilly's business known as O'Reilly & Associates grew through the 1990s, during which period it expanded from paper printed materials to web publishing. In 1993, the company's catalogue became an early web portal, the Global Network Navigator, which in 1995 was sold to America Online; the company suffered in the dotcom crash of 2000. As book sales decreased, O'Reilly had to lay off about seventy people, about a quarter of the staff, but thereafter rebuilt the company around ebook publishing and event production. In 2011 Tim O'Reilly handed over the reins of O'Reilly Media to the company's CFO, Laura Baldwin, but retained the title of CEO in recognition for the indispensable role he had in building the O'Reilly Media company and brand.
Tim O'Reilly serves on the board of directors of three companies, Safari Books Online, Maker Media, PeerJ. He served on the board of Macromedia until its 2005 merger with Adobe Systems, on the board of MySQL AB until its sale to Sun Microsystems, he serves on the board of directors for the advocacy group Code for America. In February 2012, he joined the UC Berkeley School of Information Advisory Board; as a venture capitalist, O'Reilly has invested in companies such as Blogger, Foursquare and Chumby. On 11 April 2015 Tim O'Reilly married Jennifer Pahlka, a former colleague at O'Reilly Media, a former Deputy CTO of the US, Founder and Executive Director of Code for America. In 2017, O'Reilly's book WTF? What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us was published, in which he discusses the consequences of technology and its potential to enhance the human experience. O'Reilly has worked as an activist for a number of causes and prides himself on his company's "long history of advocacy, meme-making, evangelism."
As a strategy of persuasion, he has evolved a technique of "meme engineering," which seeks to modify the terminology that people use. In 1996, O'Reilly fought against a 10-Connection Limit on TCP/IP NT Workstations, writing a letter to the United States Department of Justice, Bill Gates, CNN, concerned that the Internet is still in its infancy, that limitations could cripple the technology before it has a chance to reach its full potential. In 2001, O'Reilly was involved in a dispute with Amazon.com, against Amazon's one-click patent and Amazon's assertion of that patent against rival Barnes & Noble. The protest ended with O'Reilly and Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos visiting Washington D. C. to lobby for patent reform. In 1998, O'Reilly helped rebrand free software under the term open source. O'Reilly sees the role of open source as being inseparable from the development of the Internet, pointing to the used TCP/IP protocol, Apache, Perl and other open source platforms, he is concerned about trends towards new forms of lock-in.
In 2003, after the dot com bust, O'Reilly Media's corporate goal was to reignite enthusiasm in the computer industry. Dale Dougherty, an executive at O'Reilly, coined the phrase "Web 2.0" during a brainstorming session. Though Tim O'Reilly is described as the person who coined the phrase Web 2.0, it is well documented that the phrase was Dougherty's idea. Tim O'Reilly went on to popularise the phrase as a handle for the resurgence of the web after the dotcom crash of 2000, as a generic term for the "harnessing of collective intelligence" viewed as the hallmark of this resurgence. O'Reilly first called an "executive conference" in 2004, inviting five hundred technology and business leaders, followed by a public version of the event in 2005. Annual iterations of the event, known as the "Web 2.0 Summit" from 2006 onwards, continued until 2011. Tim O'Reilly and employees of O'Reilly Media have applied the "2.0" concept to conferences in publishing and government, amongst other things. O'Reilly envisions the Internet Operating System as consisting of various sub systems, such as media, speech recognition and identity.
He uses the analogy of the biome of the human body having more bacterial than human cells, but depending upon millions of other organisms each pursuing their own interest but weaving a co-operative web. O'Reilly has been propagating the notion of "government as platform", or "Gov 2.0"