John W. Dana
John Winchester Dana was an American businessman and Democratic politician in the U. S. state of Maine. He served as the 19th and 21st Governor of Maine and as Chargé d'affaires to Bolivia during the 19th century. Dana was born in the son of Judah and Elizabeth Dana, he studied at Fryeburg Academy before pursuing a business career. Dana served as a Democratic member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1841 to 1842, he was a member of the Maine State Senate from 1843 to 1844. and was elected president of the Maine State Senate. He became the Governor of Maine on January 3, 1844 after Acting Governor David Dunn resigned from office, he served only that day. As president of the state senate, Dana filled an unexpired term. Hugh J. Anderson became the Governor of Maine on the same day. In 1846, Dana ran against Liberty Party candidate Samuel Fessenden and Whig Party candidate Daniel Bronson. No candidate received a majority of the vote, he was successful in his re-election bid in 1847 and 1848. During his term, anti-slavery measures were endorsed.
He left office on May 8, 1850. After leaving office, Dana returned to his business pursuits, he was appointed Chargé d'affaires to Bolivia in 1853 by President Franklin Pierce. On March 10, 1859, Dana returned to Maine to run for governor, he was defeated by Israel Washburn, Jr.. After losing the election, Dana moved to South America to raise sheep. While assisting in a plague stricken area, Dana contracted cholera in Argentina and died near Buenos Aires. Years he was re-interred in the Village Cemetery in Fryeburg, Maine. Dana married Eliza Ann Osgood and they had five children. Dana's father Judah Dana was a Maine statesman and U. S. Senator. Sobel and John Raimo. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978. Greenwood Press, 1988. ISBN 0-313-28093-2 "Dana, Judah". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. National Governors Association John W. Dana Portrait John W. Dana at Find a Grave
Citizenship of the United States
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights and benefits. Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the right to freedom of expression, due process and work in the United States, to receive federal assistance; the implementation of citizenship requires attitudes including allegiance to the republic, an impulse to promote communities. Certain rights are so fundamental; these include those rights guaranteed by the first 8 Amendments. However, not all U. S. citizens, such as those living in Puerto Rico, have the right to vote in federal elections. There are two primary sources of citizenship: birthright citizenship, in which a person is presumed to be a citizen if he or she was born within the territorial limits of the United States, or—providing certain other requirements are met—born abroad to a U. S. citizen parent, naturalization, a process in which an eligible legal immigrant applies for citizenship and is accepted.
These two pathways to citizenship are specified in the Citizenship Clause of the Constitution's 1868 Fourteenth Amendment which reads: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. National citizenship signifies membership in the country as a whole. State citizenship may affect tax decisions and eligibility for some state-provided benefits such as higher education and eligibility for state political posts such as U. S. Senator. In Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a "uniform rule of naturalization" is granted explicitly to Congress. U. S. law permits multiple citizenship. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U. S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, though they must renounce allegiance to the other country. A U. S. citizen retains U. S. citizenship should that country's laws allow it. U. S. citizenship can be renounced by Americans who hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U.
S. Embassy, it can be restored. Freedom to work. United States citizens have the inalienable right to work in the United States. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. For example, they may be deported. Freedom to leave the United States. United States citizens have the right to leave the United States freely. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. Unlike permanent residents, U. S. citizens do not have an obligation to maintain residence in the U. S. – they can leave for any length of time and return at any time. Voting for federal office in all fifty states and the District of Columbia is restricted to citizens only. States are not required to extend the franchise to all citizens: for example, several states bar citizen felons from voting after they have completed any custodial sentence; the United States Constitution bars states from restricting citizens from voting on grounds of race, previous condition of servitude, failure to pay any tax, or age.
Many states and local jurisdictions have allowed non-citizens to vote. Citizens are not compelled to vote. Freedom to stand for public office; the United States Constitution requires that all members of the United States House of Representatives have been citizens for seven years, that all senators have been citizens for nine years, before taking office. Most states have similar requirements: for example California requires that legislators have been citizens for three years, the Governor have been a citizen for five years, upon taking office; the U. S. Constitution requires that one be "a natural born Citizen" and a U. S. resident for fourteen years in order to be President of the United States or Vice President of the United States. The Constitution stipulates that otherwise eligible citizens must meet certain age requirements for these offices. Right to apply for federal employment. Many federal government jobs require applicants to have U. S. citizenship. U. S. citizens can apply for federal employment within department.
Jury duty is only imposed upon citizens. Jury duty may be considered the "sole differential obligation" between citizens. Military participation is not required in the United States, but a policy of conscription of men has been in place at various times in American history, most during the Vietnam War; the United States Armed Forces are a professional all-volunteer force, although both male U. S. citizens and male non-citizen permanent residents are required to register with the Selective Service System and may be called up in the event of a future draft. Johns Hopkins University political scientist Benjamin Ginsberg writes, "The professional military has limited the need for citizen soldiers." Taxes. In the United States today, everyone except those whose income is derived from tax-exempt revenue (Sub
Bates College is a private liberal arts college in Lewiston, Maine. Anchored by the Historic Quad, the campus of Bates totals 813 acres with a small urban campus and 33 off-site Victorian Houses distributed throughout the city, it maintains 600 acres of nature preserve known as the "Bates-Morse Mountain" near Campbell Island and a coastal center on Atkins Bay. With an annual enrollment of 1,800 students, it is the smallest college in its athletic conference; as a result of its small student body, Bates retains selective admission rates and little to no transfer percentages. The nominal cost of attendance is considered high with tuition among the most expensive in the United States; the college was founded on March 16, 1855 by abolitionist statesman Oren Burbank Cheney and textile tycoon Benjamin Bates. Established as the Maine State Seminary, the college became the first coeducational college in New England and went on to confer the first female undergraduate degree in the area. Bates is the third-oldest college in Maine, succeeding Colby College.
It became a vanguard in admitting minority students before the passage of the Emancipation Proclamation. During early 1900s the college began to aggressively expand and by the mid-1940s, amassed large amounts of property, becoming a major economic power in Lewiston. Since the 1950s, the college has acquired and attempted to remedy a reputation for educating the affluent of New England. Improvements to its reputation were diminished after large losses during the 2008 financial crisis increased its tuition costs; the late 2010s saw a redoubled push for socioeconomic and cultural diversity as well as a major expansion of student financial aid. Bates provides undergraduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering and offers joint undergraduate programs with Columbia University, Dartmouth College, Washington University in St. Louis. A baccalaureate college, the undergraduate program requires all students to complete a thesis before graduation, has a funded research enterprise.
Its most endowed departments of politics and environmental science are noted within U. S. higher education. The Washington Post designates its undergraduate program as the 17th best in the country while Bates as a whole is the eighth best liberal arts college in the U. S. according to the 2018 Forbes tables. The students and alumni of Bates are well known for preserving a variety of strong campus traditions. Bates alumni and affiliates include 86 Fulbright Scholars. S. Congress. S. Cabinet-ranked officials; the Bates athletic program has graduated 12 Olympians and 209 All-Americans and maintains 32 varsity sports, some of which compete in Division I of the NCAA. The college is home to the Bates Dance Festival, the Mount David Summit, the Stephens Observatory, the Bates College Museum of Art. While attending the Freewill Baptist Parsonsfield Seminary, Bates founder, Oren Burbank Cheney worked for racial and gender equality, religious freedom, temperance. In 1836, Cheney enrolled in Dartmouth College, due to Dartmouth's significant support of the abolitionist cause against slavery.
After graduating, Cheney was ordained a Baptist minister and began to establish himself as an educational and religious scholar. Parsonsfield mysteriously burned down in 1854 due to arson by opponents of abolition; the event caused Cheney to advocate for the building of a new seminary in a more central part of Maine. With Cheney's influence in the state legislature, the Maine State Seminary was chartered in 1855 and implemented a liberal arts and theological curriculum, making the first coeducational college in New England. Soon after establishment several donors stepped forward to finance portions of the school, such as Seth Hathorn, who donated the first library and academic building, renamed Hathorn Hall; the Cobb Divinity School became affiliated with the college in 1866. Four years in 1870, Bates sponsored a college preparatory school, called the Nichols Latin School; the college was affected by the financial panic of the 1850s and required additional funding to remain operational. Cheney's impact in Maine was noted by Boston business magnate Benjamin Bates who developed an interest in the college.
Bates gave $100,000 in personal donations and overall contributions valued at $250,000 to the college. The school was renamed Bates College in his honor in 1863 and was chartered to offer a liberal arts curriculum beyond its original theological focus. Two years the college would graduate the first woman to receive a college degree in New England, Mary Mitchel; the college began instruction with a six-person faculty tasked with the teaching of moral philosophy and the classics. From its inception, Bates College served as an alternative to a more traditional and conservative Bowdoin College. There is a complex relationship between the two colleges, revolving around socioeconomic class, academic quality, collegiate athletics; the college, under the direction of Cheney, rejected fraternities and sororities on grounds of unwarranted exclusivity. He asked his close friend and U. S. Senator Charles Sumner to create a collegiate motto for Bates and he suggested the Latin phrase amore ac studio which he translated as "with love for learning", taken as "with ardor and devotion," or "through zeal and study."
Prior to the start of the American Civil War, Bates graduated Brevet Major Holman Melcher, who served in the Union A
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Progressive Party (United States, 1912)
The Progressive Party was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former President Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former protégé, incumbent President William Howard Taft. The new party was known for taking advanced positions on progressive reforms and attracting some leading reformers. After the party's defeat in the 1912 presidential election, it went into rapid decline, disappearing by 1918; the Progressive Party was popularly nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party" since Roosevelt said that he felt "strong as a bull moose" both before and after an assassination attempt on the campaign trail. As a member of the Republican Party, Roosevelt had served as President from 1901 to 1909, becoming progressive in the years of his presidency. In the 1908 presidential election, Roosevelt helped ensure that he would be succeeded by Secretary of War Taft. Although Taft entered office determined to advance Roosevelt's Square Deal domestic agenda, he stumbled badly during the Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act debate and the Pinchot–Ballinger controversy.
The political fallout of these events divided the Republican Party and alienated Roosevelt from his former friend. Progressive Republican leader Robert La Follette had announced a challenge to Taft for the 1912 Republican nomination, but many of his supporters shifted to Roosevelt after the former President decided to seek a third presidential term, permissible under the Constitution prior to the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment. At the 1912 Republican National Convention, Taft narrowly defeated Roosevelt for the party's presidential nomination. After the convention, Frank Munsey, George Walbridge Perkins and other progressive Republicans established the Progressive Party and nominated a ticket of Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson of California at the 1912 Progressive National Convention; the new party attracted several Republican officeholders, although nearly all of them remained loyal to the Republican Party—in California and the Progressives took control of the Republican Party. The party's platform built on Roosevelt's Square Deal domestic program and called for several progressive reforms.
The platform asserted that "to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day". Proposals on the platform included restrictions on campaign finance contributions, a reduction of the tariff and the establishment of a social insurance system, an eight-hour workday and women's suffrage; the party was split on the regulation of large corporations, with some party members disappointed that the platform did not contain a stronger call for "trust-busting". Party members had different outlooks on foreign policy, with pacifists like Jane Addams opposing Roosevelt's call for a naval build-up. In the 1912 election, Roosevelt won 27.4% of the popular vote compared to Taft's 23.2%, making Roosevelt the only third party presidential nominee to finish with a higher share of the popular vote than a major party's presidential nominee. Both Taft and Roosevelt finished behind Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, who won 41.8% of the popular vote and the vast majority of the electoral vote.
The Progressives elected several Congressional and state legislative candidates, but the election was marked by Democratic gains. The 1916 Progressive National Convention was held in conjunction with the 1916 Republican National Convention in hopes of reunifying the parties with Roosevelt as the presidential nominee of both parties; the Progressive Party collapsed after Roosevelt refused the Progressive nomination and insisted his supporters vote for Charles Evans Hughes, the moderately progressive Republican nominee. Most Progressives joined the Republican Party, but some converted to the Democratic Party and Progressives like Harold L. Ickes would play a role in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration. In 1924, La Follette set up another Progressive Party for his presidential run. A third Progressive Party was set up in 1948 for the presidential campaign of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace. Roosevelt left office in 1909, he had selected Taft, his Secretary of War, to succeed him as presidential candidate and Taft won the 1908 presidential election.
Roosevelt became disappointed by Taft's conservative policies. Taft upset Roosevelt when he used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to sue U. S. Steel for an action that President Roosevelt had explicitly approved, they became hostile and Roosevelt decided to seek the presidency. Roosevelt entered the campaign late as Taft was being challenged by progressive leader Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin. Most of La Follette's supporters switched to Roosevelt. Nine of the states where progressive elements were strongest had set up preference primaries, which Roosevelt won, but Taft had worked far harder than Roosevelt to control the Republican Party's organizational operations and the mechanism for choosing its presidential nominee, the 1912 Republican National Convention. For example, he bought up the votes of delegates from the southern states, copying the technique Roosevelt himself used in 1904; the Republican National Convention rejected Roosevelt's protests. Roosevelt and his supporters walked out and the convention re-nominated Taft.
The next day, Roosevelt supporters met to form a new political party of their own. California governor Hiram Johnson became a new convention was scheduled for August. Most of the funding came from wealthy sponsors, magazine publisher Frank A. Munsey provided $135,000. S. Steel and chairman of the International Harvester Company, gave $130,000 and became its exec
Robert P. Dunlap
Robert Pinckney Dunlap was the 11th Governor of Maine and a U. S. Representative from Maine. Born in Brunswick, Dunlap was educated by private tutors, he graduated from Bowdoin College, Maine, in 1815. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1818, commenced practice in Brunswick. Dunlap served as a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1821 to 1823, he served as president of the board of overseers of Bowdoin College from 1821 until his death. He served as member of the state militia, was delegated to receive General Lafayette when he visited Maine in 1824. Dunlap served in the State Senate 1824-1828 and 1831–1833, including three years as Senate President, in 1827, 1828, 1831, he is, as of 2012, the only person to serve non-consecutive terms as Senate President. In between his Senate terms, he was a member of the Executive Council of Maine, he served four one-year terms as Governor of Maine from 1834 to 1838. Dunlap was elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-ninth Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Public Expenditures.
He served as collector of customs in Portland, Maine, in 1848-49, postmaster of Brunswick in 1853-57. Dunlap died in Brunswick, October 20, 1859, he was interred in Pine Grove Cemetery. United States Congress. "Robert P. Dunlap". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. National Governors Association profile Robert P. Dunlap at Find a Grave
George Colby Chase
George Colby Chase was an American intellectual and professor of English who served as the second President of Bates College succeeding its founder, Oren Burbank Cheney, from March 1894 to November 1919. Known as "the great builder," Chase constructed 22 new academic buildings and residential dorms on the campus of the college, tripled the number of students and faculty as well as quadrupling the financial endowment to one million dollars. Chase is notable for being the only alumnus of Bates to be elected its president. Chase was born on March 1844 in Unity, Maine, his parents were Freewill Baptists. At age 18 Chase enrolled at the Maine State Seminary and graduated from the Seminary program in 1864, he enrolled in the college program at Bates College, graduating in 1868. After graduation he taught at the New Hampton Literary Institute returning to teach at Bates in 1870. In the 1870s, in pursuit his life's work, he returned to Lewiston and enrolled in the theological school, which became a part of the college's religion department.
Meanwhile, the Bates offered him a professorship of Greek and he spent the next year teaching and pursuing his studies in theology. After his spell teaching Greek he moved to teaching English. In order to better prepare himself, he spent a year as a graduate student at Harvard, returning in 1872 to join the Bates faculty as Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature. Chase attended Bates' Cobb Divinity School while teaching, but decided not to pursue a career in ministry. Chase studied at Harvard University, returning to Bates in 1872 to teach Rhetoric and English. Chase taught for 22 years and during that time his administrative skills were noticed by the current Bates College president, Oren Burbank Cheney. In the 1880s Chase took on many of the president's fundraising responsibilities, in 1894, Chase became Bates' second president, when Oren Burbank Cheney retired; as president Chase expanded the college campus, student body, the endowment. Chase served as president until his death in 1919.
He died shortly after signing the diplomas for the class of 1919. His house on Frye Street is part of College, Chase Hall is named after him, he has received several honorary degrees including University of Bowdoin College. In 1872, he married a former member of the Bates College's first graduating class, they had five children: George, Muriel and Caroline. Chase died at his home in Lewiston, Maine on May 27, 1919 at the age of 75. Chase was honored by Bates with the construction of Chase Hall, which houses the Student Activities Center, the college book store, the postal center, the offices of several student organizations. History of Bates College List of Bates College people Chase, George M. George C. Chase: A Biography. George Colby Chase records at Edmund S. Muskie Archives & Special Collections Library, Bates College Chase Hall at Bates College George Chase's House