Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings are hardened into wing-cases, distinguishing them from most other insects; the Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae with some 70,000 member species, belongs to this order. Found in every habitat except the sea and the polar regions, they interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, eat other invertebrates; some species are serious agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle, while others such as Coccinellidae eat aphids, scale insects and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops. Beetles have a hard exoskeleton including the elytra, though some such as the rove beetles have short elytra while blister beetles have softer elytra; the general anatomy of a beetle is quite uniform and typical of insects, although there are several examples of novelty, such as adaptations in water beetles which trap air bubbles under the elytra for use while diving.
Beetles are endopterygotes, which means that they undergo complete metamorphosis, with a series of conspicuous and abrupt changes in body structure between hatching and becoming adult after a immobile pupal stage. Some, such as stag beetles, have a marked sexual dimorphism, the males possessing enormously enlarged mandibles which they use to fight other males. Many beetles are aposematic, with bright colours and patterns warning of their toxicity, while others are harmless Batesian mimics of such insects. Many beetles, including those that live in sandy places, have effective camouflage. Beetles are prominent in human culture, from the sacred scarabs of ancient Egypt to beetlewing art and use as pets or fighting insects for entertainment and gambling. Many beetle groups are brightly and attractively coloured making them objects of collection and decorative displays. Over 300 species are used as food as larvae. However, the major impact of beetles on human life is as agricultural and horticultural pests.
Serious pests include the boll weevil of cotton, the Colorado potato beetle, the coconut hispine beetle, the mountain pine beetle. Most beetles, however, do not cause economic damage and many, such as the lady beetles and dung beetles are beneficial by helping to control insect pests; the name of the taxonomic order, comes from the Greek koleopteros, given to the group by Aristotle for their elytra, hardened shield-like forewings, from koleos and pteron, wing. The English name beetle comes from the Old English word bitela, little biter, related to bītan, leading to Middle English betylle. Another Old English name for beetle is ċeafor, used in names such as cockchafer, from the Proto-Germanic *kebrô. Beetles are by far the largest order of insects: the 400,000 species make up about 40% of all insect species so far described, about 25% of all animals. A 2015 study provided four independent estimates of the total number of beetle species, giving a mean estimate of some 1.5 million with a "surprisingly narrow range" spanning all four estimates from a minimum of 0.9 to a maximum of 2.1 million beetle species.
The four estimates made use of host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, extrapolations based on body size by year of description. Beetles are found in nearly all habitats, including freshwater and coastal habitats, wherever vegetative foliage is found, from trees and their bark to flowers and underground near roots - inside plants in galls, in every plant tissue, including dead or decaying ones; the heaviest beetle, indeed the heaviest insect stage, is the larva of the goliath beetle, Goliathus goliatus, which can attain a mass of at least 115 g and a length of 11.5 cm. Adult male goliath beetles are the heaviest beetle in its adult stage, weighing 70–100 g and measuring up to 11 cm. Adult elephant beetles, Megasoma elephas and Megasoma actaeon reach 50 g and 10 cm; the longest beetle is the Hercules beetle Dynastes hercules, with a maximum overall length of at least 16.7 cm including the long pronotal horn. The smallest recorded beetle and the smallest free-living insect, is the featherwing beetle Scydosella musawasensis which may measure as little as 325 µm in length.
The oldest known fossil insect that unequivocally resembles a Coleopteran is from the Lower Permian Period about 270 million years ago, though these members of the family Tshekardocoleidae have 13-segmented antennae, elytra with more developed venation and more irregular longitudinal ribbing, abdomen and ovipositor extending beyond the apex of the elytra. In the Permian–Triassic extinction event at the end of the Permian, some 30% of all insect species became extinct, so the fossil record of insects only includes beetles from the Lower Triassic 220 mya. Around this time, during the Late Triassic, fungus-feeding species such as Cupedidae appear in the fossil record. In the stages of the Upper Triassic, alga-feeding insects such as Triaplidae and Hydrophilidae begin to appear, alongside predatory water beetles; the first weevils, including the Obrienidae, appear alongside the first rove beetles, which resemb
Karlberg Palace is a palace by the Karlberg Canal in Solna Municipality in Sweden, adjacent to Stockholm's Vasastaden district. The palace, built in 1630, today houses the Military Academy Karlberg. In the palace park are found, among other things, a "temple of Diana" and the burial site of Pompe, the dog of King Charles XII. Notwithstanding that the palace remains a military institution, the palace park is accessible to the public and is open daily between 6 AM and 10 PM. Three medieval villages at the location — Ösby and Lundby — were bought by Lord High Admiral Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm in the 1620s and subsequently unified into a single estate named "Karlberg" after himself, he had master mason Hans Drisell build a Renaissance palace featuring pink plaster and tall gables. As Gyllenhielm's widow died six years after her husband, a lengthy litigation regarding the inheritance followed. Plans in the mid-1660s to transfer the estate to the widowed Queen Hedwig Eleonora were cancelled as Lord High Admiral Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie sold one of his palaces to the queen and bought Karlberg from the heir of his precursor in 1669.
De la Gardie, at this time one of the most influential men in Sweden, had Jean de la Vallée develop the palace into one of the grandest in Sweden. The new palace, H-shaped in plan in accordance to the style of the day, featured two wings and a terrace facing the waterfront, while wings facing north formed an enclosed courtyard. Additionally, a church was created in the eastern wing; some of the red festoon stucco ornaments from this era are preserved in the façade, as are the curved cornices facing the garden, the sumptuous stucco ceilings of Carlo Carove together with other exclusive interior details, including walls covered in leather and boiseries. The park was furnished with an orangery, fountains and boxwood patterns - all in the manner of French Baroque architecture. Following the Reduction, De la Gardie lost his influence and most of his fortune, since King Charles XI declined to buy the palace, De la Gardie was forced to hand it over to Johan Gabriel Stenbock to settle a debt, in 1683 Stenbock took over the newly rebuilt palace, only to sell it to the king in 1688.
Karlberg thus became the palace where crown prince Charles spent much of his childhood and where he used to hunt wolves in the surrounding forests. His mother, Queen Ulrika Eleonora, had a school, the Tapetskolan vid Karlberg, created for orphaned girls where they could create tapestries. On her death, her son took personal charge over the school to honour his good-hearted mother; when Charles XII died in 1718 his coffin was taken to Karlberg before being interred in the church Riddarholmskyrkan. While the Three Crowns Castle was being rebuilt in the early 1690s, following the disastrous fire which destroyed it in 1697, the royal family chose Karlberg as their temporary home; the entire court resided at Karlberg until 1754 when the present palace was completed. The red panelled log houses west of the main building are believed to date back to the 1720s, while the stables carrying four sandstone vessels were designed by Carl Hårleman under Frederick I in the 1730s, thereafter rebuilt into barracks in the 1790s.
In 1766, Karlberg was made a wedding gift to crown prince) Gustav and Sophia Magdalena. In the early 1790s Gustav had plans to found a war academy at the Ulriksdal Palace; these plans however were interrupted by his death in 1792, when his widow choose Ulriksdal as her private residence. The Kungliga Krigacademien was instead located at Karlberg where the first generation of cadets started their training the same year. During the regency of Gustav's son, architect Carl Christoffer Gjörwell was ordered to enlarge the palace to accommodate the cadets, his additions, finished in 1796, resulted in the elongated wings seen today, which give the palace much of its character. The park, dating back to the 17th century, has suffered gradual encroachment. During the 1860s, the north-eastern corner was cut off by the railway, a century in 1966, the Essingeleden freeway was built over more park land. Other motorways have had been built on part of the park; the exterior of the palace was however restored in the 1980s.
Furthermore, in 2001 an archaeological examination of a nearby burial site, associated with one of the villages out of which Karlberg once was created, unveiled fragments of runestones — including one from an image stone and another featuring the proto-Norse Elder Futhark. Karlberg Palace is managed by the Swedish Fortifications Agency. History of Stockholm Solna Church Hilma af Klint painter, who works will enter Public Domain in 2014 was born there. Johan Mårtelius. "Ytterstaden". Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur förlag. P. 172. ISBN 91-86050-41-9. "Solna: Huvudsta". Solna Municipality. Archived from the original on 2007-08-17. Retrieved 2008-01-05. "Solna: Karlberg". Solna Municipality. Archived from the original on 2007-12-08. Retrieved 2008-01-05. "Solna. Karlbergsparken". Solna Municipality. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-01-05. "Karlberg". Historiesajten. 2007-09-09. Retrieved 2008-01-05. Strandell, Monica. "Karlbergs slott". Swedish Fortifications Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-04-22.
Retrieved 2009-07-19. "Karlberg slott". Stockholms läns museum. Retrieved 2008-01-05
Swedish Museum of Natural History
The Swedish Royal Museum of Natural History, in Stockholm, is one of two major museums of natural history in Sweden, the other one being located in Gothenburg. The museum was founded in 1819 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, but goes back to the collections acquired through donations by the academy since its foundation in 1739; these collections had first been made available to the public in 1786. The museum was separated from the Academy in 1965. One of the keepers of the collections of the academy during its earlier history was Anders Sparrman, a student of Carl Linnaeus and participant in the voyages of Captain James Cook. Another important name in the history of the museum is the zoologist and archaeologist Sven Nilsson, who brought the disorganised zoological collections of the museum into order during his time as keeper before returning to Lund as professor; the present buildings for the museum in Frescati, was designed by the architect Axel Anderberg and completed in 1916, topped with a dome.
As of 2014 it is the largest museum building in Sweden. The main campus of Stockholm University was built next to the museum; the museum has an IMAX cinema called Cosmonova. The cinema is the largest planetarium in Sweden. Swedish Museum of Natural History official website
Orthoptera is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers and crickets, including related insects such as the katydids and wetas. The order is subdivided into two suborders: Caelifera – grasshoppers and close relatives. More than 20,000 species are distributed worldwide; the insects in the order have incomplete metamorphosis, produce sound by rubbing their wings against each other or their legs, the wings or legs containing rows of corrugated bumps. The tympanum or ear is located in the front tibia in crickets, mole crickets, katydids, on the first abdominal segment in the grasshoppers and locusts; these organisms use vibrations to locate other individuals. Grasshoppers and other orthopterans are able to fold their wings, they are grouped with similar "Orthopteroid" insect orders; the name is derived from the Greek ὀρθός orthos meaning "straight" and πτερόν pteron meaning "wing". Orthopterans have a cylindrical body, with elongated hindlegs and musculature adapted for jumping, they have mandibulate mouthparts for biting and chewing and large compound eyes, may or may not have ocelli, depending on the species.
The antennae have multiple joints and filiform type, are of variable length. The first and third segments on the thorax are larger, they have two pairs of wings. The forewings, or tegmina, are narrower than the hindwings and hardened at the base, while the hindwing is membranous, with straight veins and numerous cross-veins. At rest, the hindwings are held; the final two to three segments of the abdomen are reduced, have single-segmented cerci. and their wing type is tegmina. Orthopterans have incomplete metamorphosis; the use of sound is crucial in courtship, most species have distinct songs. Most grasshoppers lay their eggs on vegetation; the eggs hatch and the young nymphs resemble adults, but lack wings and at this stage are called'hoppers'. They may also have a radically different coloration from the adults. Through successive moults, the nymphs develop wings until their final moult into a mature adult with developed wings; the number of moults varies between species. The Orthoptera is divided into two suborders and Ensifera which have been shown to be monophyletic.
Taxonomists classify members of the Caelifera and Ensifera into infraorders and superfamilies as follows: Suborder Caelifera – grasshoppers, pygmy mole crickets and allies Infraorder Acrididea Superfamily Acridoidea – grasshoppers, locusts Superfamily Eumastacoidea – monkey or matchstick grasshoppers and allies Superfamily Locustopsoidea† Superfamily Pneumoroidea – bladder grasshoppers Superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea – gaudy grasshoppers Superfamily Tanaoceroidea – desert long-horned grasshoppers Superfamily Tetrigoidea – ground-hoppers or grouse locusts Superfamily Trigonopterygoidea – leaf grasshoppers Infraorder Tridactylidea Superfamily Dzhajloutshelloidea† Superfamily Regiatoidea† Superfamily Tridactyloidea – pygmy mole crickets and allies Suborder Ensifera – crickets Superfamily Grylloidea – crickets, mole crickets Superfamily Hagloidea – grigs and allies Superfamily Phasmomimoidea† Superfamily Rhaphidophoroidea – camel crickets, cave crickets, cave wetas Superfamily Schizodactyloidea – dune crickets Superfamily Stenopelmatoidea – wetas and allies Superfamily Tettigonioidea – katydids / bush crickets Several species of Orthoptera are considered pests of crops and rangelands or seeking warmth in homes by humans.
The two species of Orthoptera that cause the most damage are locusts. Locust are known for wiping out fields of crops in a day. Locust have the ability to eat up to their own body weight in a single day. Individuals gather in large groups called swarms, these swarms can range up to 80 million individuals that stretch 460 square miles. Grasshoppers can cause major agricultural damage but not to the documented extent as locust have; these insects feed on weeds and grasses, during times of drought and high population density they will feed on crops. They are known pest in soybean fields and will feed on these crops once preferred food sources have become scarce; the Orthoptera include. The list of dietary laws in the book of Leviticus forbids all flying insects that walk, but makes an exception for certain locusts. Strangely, the dragonfly and cranefly are not kosher; the Torah states the only kosher flying insects with four walking legs have knees that extend above their feet so that they hop. Thus nonjumping Orthoptera such as mole crickets are not kosher.
With new research showing promise in locating alternative biofuel sources in the gut of insects, grasshoppers are one species of interest. The insect's ability to break down cellulose and lignin without producing greenhouse gases has aroused scientific interest. Orthoptera portal List of Orthoptera recorded in Britain Orthopterida Female sperm storage Orthoptera Species File Online Orthoptera Image Gallery Australian Plague Locust Commission The Orthopterists' Society AcridAfrica, les acridiens d'Afrique de l'Ouest "Orthoptera". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Birdwing Grasshoppers in Belize Sound recordings of Orthoptera at BioAcoustica
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477. It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings; the university embraces natural sciences. The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century. Uppsala has an important historical place in Swedish national culture and for the Swedish establishment: in historiography, literature and music. Many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap, originated in Uppsala, it shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University and the University of Helsinki. Uppsala belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities and to the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university has nine faculties distributed over three "disciplinary domains". It has 2,300 doctoral students, it has a teaching staff of 1,800 out of a total of 6,900 employees. Twenty-eight per cent of the 716 professors at the university are women. Of its turnover of SEK 6.6 billion in 2016, 29% was spent on education at Bachelor's and Master's level, while 70% was spent on research and research programs. Architecturally, Uppsala University has traditionally had a strong presence in Fjärdingen, the neighbourhood around the cathedral on the western side of the River Fyris. Despite some more contemporary building developments further away from the centre, Uppsala's historic centre continues to be dominated by the presence of the university; as with most medieval universities, Uppsala University grew out of an ecclesiastical center. The archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century. Uppsala had long been a hub for regional trade, had contained settlements dating back into the deep Middle Ages.
As was the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala had been chartered through a papal bull. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna; this included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law and philosophy, to award the bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees. The archbishop of Uppsala was named as the university's Chancellor, was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members; the turbulent period of the reformation of King Gustavus Vasa resulted in a drop in the relatively insignificant number of students in Uppsala, seen as a center of Catholicism and of potential disloyalty to the Crown. Swedish students travelled to one of the Protestant universities in Germany Wittenberg. There is some evidence of academic studies in Uppsala during the 16th century.
At the end of the century the situation had changed, Uppsala became a bastion of Lutheranism, which Duke Charles, the third of the sons of Gustavus Vasa to become king used to consolidate his power and oust his nephew Sigismund from the throne. The Meeting of Uppsala in 1593 established Lutheran orthodoxy in Sweden, Charles and the Council of state gave new privileges to the university on 1 August of the same year. Theology still had precedence, but in the privileges of 1593, the importance of a university to educate secular servants of the state was emphasized. Three of the seven professorial chairs which were established were in Theology. A fourth chair was given to Ericus Jacobi Skinnerus, appointed rector, but whose discipline was not mentioned in the charter. Of the professors, several were taken over from the Collegium Regium in Stockholm, functioning for a few years but closed in 1593. An eighth chair, in Medicine, received no appointee for several years. In 1599 the number of students was 150.
In 1600 the first post-reformation conferment of degrees took place. In the same year, the antiquarian and mystic Johannes Bureus designed and engraved the seal of the university, today used as part of the logotype; the medieval university had been a school for theology. The aspirations of the emergent new great power of Sweden demanded a different kind of learning. Sweden both grew through conquests and went through a complete overhaul of its administrative structure, it required a much larger class of civil educators than before. Preparatory schools, were founded during this period in various cathedral towns, notably Västerås in 1623. Beside Uppsala, new universities were founded in more distant parts of the Swedish Realm, the University of Dorpat in Estonia and the University of Åbo in Finland. Af
Sphinctomyrmex stali is a Neotropical species of ants in the subfamily Dorylinae. Mayr described the genus Sphinctomyrmex with S. stali as its type species, based on a single dealate gyne. However, except for the holotype, there are no records of normal gynes for S. stali. All reproductive females collected. Sphinctomyrmex stali is known from sparse localities along the southeastern portion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, from Santa Catarina to southern Bahia. Recent collections suggest that this species can be most found in submontane forests of the states of Santa Catarina and São Paulo, from whence come most of the specimens in collections. In a single leaf-litter sample collected in São Bonifácio, Santa Catarina, six workers and two ergatoid gynes similar to the workers, were captured, which suggests that S. stali is polygynous, as described for other Sphinctomyrmex species. The distinctly elongate head, the narrow insertion of the clypeus between the frontal lobes, the absence of lateral lobes from the anterior margin of clypeus, the absence of appressed hairs on the dorsum of gaster separate S. stali from S. schoerederi.
This species can be separated from S. marcoyi by its much larger size and the absence of a median smooth longitudinal stripe on the dorsum of mesosoma. Males are unknown. Two forms are recognized and ergatoids; the alate form is known from the holotype. This gyne differs from workers by the typical characters expected for ant reproductive females: size larger. Pronotumis well developed, without projections. Petiole and gaster comparatively larger than in conspecific workers; the ergatoids differ from the conspecific workers only by the presence of three developed ocelli and by the compound eyes being comparatively well developed. Media related to Sphinctomyrmex stali at Wikimedia Commons