New Zealand national rugby league team
The New Zealand national rugby league team has represented New Zealand in rugby league since 1907. Administered by the New Zealand Rugby League, they are known as the Kiwis, after the native bird of that name; the team's colour's are majority black with white and the players perform a haka before every match they play as a challenge to their opponents. The New Zealand Kiwis are second in the RLIF World Rankings. Since the 1980s, most New Zealand representatives have been based overseas, in the professional National Rugby League and Super League competitions. Before that players were selected from clubs in domestic New Zealand leagues. A New Zealand side first played in a 1907 professional rugby tour which pre-dated the birth of rugby league football in the Southern Hemisphere, making it the second oldest national side after England. Since the Kiwis have competed in international competition, touring Europe and Australia throughout the 20th century. New Zealand have competed in every Rugby League World Cup since the first in 1954, reaching three consecutive tournament finals between 2000–2013.
In 2008, New Zealand won the World Cup for the first time. They contest the Baskerville Shield against England. Rugby football was introduced into New Zealand by Charles John Monro, son of the speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives, Sir David Monro, he had been sent to Christ's College, East Finchley in north London, where he became an enthusiastic convert to the new code. He brought the game back to his native Nelson, arranged the first rugby match between Nelson College and Nelson Football Club, played on 14 May 1870; when New Zealand's national rugby team toured Britain in 1905 they witnessed the growing popularity of the breakaway non-amateur Northern Union's games. On his return in 1906, All Black George William Smith met the Australian entrepreneur J J Giltinan to discuss the potential of professional rugby in Australasia; the first New Zealand team to play professional rugby was known as the All Blacks. To avoid confusion, the terms professional. In the meantime, a lesser known New Zealand rugby player, Albert Henry Baskerville was ready to recruit a group of players for a Great Britain pro tour.
It is believed that Baskerville became aware of the profits to be made from such a venture while he was working at the Wellington Post Office in 1906. A colleague dropped a British newspaper. Baskerville picked it up and noticed a report about a Northern Union match that over 40,000 people had attended. Baskerville wrote to the NRFU asking; the 1905 All Blacks tour was still fresh in English minds, thus the NU saw the upcoming competitive New Zealand tour as exceptional opportunity to raise the profile and finances of the NU game. The NU agreed to the tour provided that some of those original All Blacks were included in the New Zealand team. George Smith arrived back in New Zealand and after learning of Baskerville's plans, the two teamed up and began signing players; the New Zealand Rugby Union became aware of the tour and promptly applied pressure to any All Black or New Zealand representative player it suspected of involvement. They had the New Zealand Government's Agent General in London deliver a statement to the British press in an effort to undermine the tour's credibility.
This had little effect and by that time the professional All Blacks were sailing across the Tasman to give Australia its first taste of professional rugby. It was during this time that references to the professional All Blacks as the All Golds first appeared. "All Golds" was a play on the amateur "All Blacks" name but it was an insult to the players, criticising the arrangement where they would each share in the wealth of the tour. The name "All Golds" is now thought to have originated in a New Zealand newspaper in May/June 1907, amidst editorial arguments over whether it was honourable for the proposed "professional All Blacks" team to be paid; the first documented use in Australia was in a headline in the Sydney Morning Herald, just before Baskerville's team arrived. Those same Herald articles had a tag for those who supported the amateur rugby union calling them the "Lily Whites"; the All Golds name is now carried by the Gloucestershire All Golds a Semi-professional team who are based in Gloucestershire and compete in the RFL League 1 Championship 1 and known as Kingstone Press League 1 for sponsorship reasons, is a professional rugby league competition based in England.
They take part in the annual Challenge Cup and League 1 Cup. The Club bears the name in honor of the 3rd test match played at the clubs home ground in Cheltenham. Professional rugby in the southern hemisphere kicked off with the professional All Blacks playing a professional rebel New South Wales team organised by Smith's contact, James Giltinan; the games drew little interest to start with, but were a major success for the rugby rebels of Australia, as they had the money to start the first professional Rugby Football League and hence change the face of rugby in Australia. New Zealand made it to Great Britain in 1907, they included Australian Dally Messenger in their party. He played in the two Tests which the All Golds won. At this time professional rugby, under the banner of the Northern Union, was not played by the RFU rules, all the All Golds knew; the All Golds took on a week of intensive training. From a New Zealander's point of view, the tour may not have been successful, but to
Rugby league positions
A rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field, with four substitutes on the bench. Each of the thirteen players is assigned a position with a standardised number, which reflects their role in attack and defence, although players can take up any position at any time. Players are divided into two general types and backs. Forwards are chosen for their size and strength, they are expected to run with the ball, to attack, to make tackles. Forwards are required to improve the team's field position thus creating space and time for the backs. Backs are smaller and faster, though a big, fast player can be of advantage in the backs, their roles require speed and ball-playing skills, rather than just strength, to take advantage of the field position gained by the forwards. Forwards tend to operate in the centre of the field, while backs operate nearer to the touch-lines, where more space can be found; the diagram, shows the typical positions of each player during a scrum. The laws of the game recognise standardised numbering of positions.
The starting side wear the numbers corresponding to their positions, only changing in the case of substitutions and position shifts during the game. In some competitions, such as Super League, players receive a squad number to use all season, no matter what positions they play in; the positions and the numbers are defined by the game's laws as: Backs1 Full Back 2 Right Wing Threequarter 3 Right Centre Threequarter 4 Left Centre Threequarter 5 Left Wing Threequarter 6 Stand-off Half or Five-eighth 7 Scrum Half or HalfbackForwards8 Prop 9 Hooker 10 Front Row Forward 11 Second Row Forward 12 Second Row Forward 13 Lock ForwardIn practice, the term'front row forward' is rarely used, a team has two props. The scrum half is known as the half back in Australasia, the lock forward is known as loose forward in England. There are seven backs, numbered 1 to 7. For these positions, the emphasis is on ball-handling skills; the "back-line" consists of smaller, more agile players. Numbered 1, the fullback's primary role is the last line of defence, standing behind the main line of defenders.
Defensively, fullbacks must be able to chase and tackle any player who breaks the first line of defence, must be able to catch and return kicks made by the attacking side. Their role in attack is as a support player, they are used to come into the line to create an overlap in attack. Fullbacks that feature in their respective nations' rugby league halls of fame are France's Puig Aubert, Australia's Clive Churchill and Billy Slater, Charles Fraser, Graeme Langlands and Graham Eadie, Great Britain/Wales' Jim Sullivan and New Zealand's Des White. There are four threequarters: two wingers and two centres - right wing, right centre, left centre and left wing; these players work in pairs, with one winger and one centre occupying each side of the field. Known as wingers. There are two wings in a rugby league team, numbered 2 and 5, they are positioned closest to the touch-line on each side of the field. They are among the fastest players in a team, with the speed to exploit space, created for them and finish an attacking move.
In defence their primary role is to mark their opposing wingers, they are usually required to catch and return kicks made by an attacking team dropping behind the defensive line to help the fullback. Wingers that feature in their nations' rugby league halls of fame are Great Britain's Billy Batten, Billy Boston and Clive Sullivan, Australia's Brian Bevan, John Ferguson, Ken Irvine, Harold Horder and Brian Carlson, South African Tom van Vollenhoven and France's Raymond Contrastin There are two centres and left, numbered 3 and 4 respectively, they are positioned just inside the wingers and are the second-closest players to the touch-line on each side of the field. In attack their primary role is to provide an attacking threat out wide and as such they need to be some of the fastest players on the pitch providing the pass for their winger to finish off a move. In defence, they are expected to mark their opposite centre. Centres that feature in their countries' halls of fame are France's Max Rousié, England's Eric Ashton, Harold Wagstaff and Neil Fox, Wales' Gus Risman and Australia's Reg Gasnier, H "Dally" Messenger, Dave Brown, Jim Craig, Bob Fulton and Mal Meninga.
There are two halves. Positioned more centrally in attack, beside or behind the forwards, they direct the ball and are the team's main play-makers, as such are required to be the most skillful and intelligent players on the team; these players usually perform most tactical kicking for their team. Numbered 6, the stand off or five-eighth is a strong passer and runner, while being agile; this player is referred to as "second receiver", as in attacking situations they are the second player to receive the ball and are able to initiate an attacking move. Star players of this position include Wally Lewis, Darren Lockyer, Bob Fulton, Brad Fittler, Laurie Daley and Terry Lamb Numbered 7, the scrum-half or half back is involved in directing the team's play; the position is sometimes referred to as "first receiver", as half backs are the first to receive the ball from the dummy-half after a play-the-ball. This makes them important decision-makers in attack. A rugby league forward pack consists of six players who tend to be bigger and stronger than backs, rely more on their strength and size to fulfill their roles than play-making skills.
The forwards traditionally formed and contested scrums, however in the modern game
2008 Rugby League World Cup
The 2008 Rugby League World Cup was the thirteenth staging of the Rugby League World Cup since its inauguration in 1954, the first since the 2000 tournament. The tournament was held in Australia from 26 October, culminating in the final between Australia and New Zealand on 22 November. 2008 was the fourth time that the World Cup was held in Australia, the first being in 1957. The tournament was won by New Zealand, who defeated Australia 34–20 in the final in one of the greatest upsets in the history of the sport; the tournament featured the best ten teams around the globe. A total of eighteen matches; the tournament ended a year of celebrations commemorating the centenary of the game in the southern hemisphere and was part of the Festival of World Cups. The thirteenth Cup was scheduled to be held in Australia in 2004, however the lack of international success by Great Britain and New Zealand after the 2000 World Cup and the rise of the Tri-Nations tournament meant that it was delayed for a further four years.
The Rugby League International Federation announced this tournament on 6 May 2006, with further details on scheduling and dates following on 19 April 2007. The first match took place in Townsville between England and Papua New Guinea, although the official opening ceremony of the competition occurred before the Australia and New Zealand match the following day in Sydney; the final took place at Lang Park in Brisbane. The tournament proved a commercial success, delivering a profit of A$5 million and re-establishing the credibility of the competition; the draw, after being confirmed by the RLIF on 19 April 2007, involved three groups. The first group was made up of four teams. Whilst the other two groups involved three teams each; the semi finals were made up of the first three teams in the first group and the winner of a playoff between the winners of the second and third groups. The draw was put into doubt after the Papua New Guinea team claimed that it was unfair to them and threatened to boycott the tournament should it not be changed.
Marcus Bai, former Papua New Guinean winger and captain, said: They have to change it and if they don't, we won't come. We will ring up the other island nations and teams elsewhere who don't qualify and we can have our own competition, they have shown no respect for our efforts to promote the game up there. For the tournament, this separate island competition did not eventuate. Papua New Guinea still remained upset with the draw, seeing it as a huge challenge but one which would have seen them be rewarded if they had won; the draw was finalised on 4 October 2007. Teams received 2 points for a win, 1-point for a draw; this meant that, unlike in the Australasian National Rugby League, there was no "golden point" rule enforced. In group stages, if two teams had the same number of points positions were determined on points difference, the number of points scored minus the number of points conceded. After group matches were completed, a match featuring the second placed teams in Group B and Group C took place with the winner receiving 7th place.
The third placed teams in Group B and Group C played off for 9th place. It was believed; the hosts, were given automatic entry into the World Cup, along with New Zealand, England and Papua New Guinea. The five remaining places in the World Cup were determined by qualification rounds. Two European rounds and Pacific and Repêchage rounds were scheduled. Tonga and Fiji became the first two nations to qualify after Tonga defeated Samoa 18–10 in Leeds on 22 October, forcing Samoa to enter the repêchage. In the European Group Two, Ireland drew 16–16 with Lebanon to ensure qualification, while Lebanon were forced to enter the repêchage; the final automatic place went to Scotland. Wales faced Lebanon in the repêchage semi-final, where they lost in a surprise 50–26 defeat, to knock them out of World Cup Qualifying. Lebanon faced Samoa, who beat USA 42–10 in the first semi-final, on 14 November for the final qualifying position; the game was won by Samoa, 38–16, so they booked the tenth and final place. Many qualification matches were broadcast live by Sky Sports in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, whilst BigPondTV broadcast matches online for other fans around the world.
Six referees from four countries controlled matches in the tournament. These four nations provided touch judges while England and Australia provided the video referees. In support of the Australian National Breast Cancer Foundation, the referees wore pastel pink shirts while officiating matches to raise awareness; the shirts, which carried the NBCF logo on the collar, were signed by the team captains at each World Cup game and were auctioned off with the proceeds going to the NBCF. Due to Rugby League World Cup rules prohibiting the use of commercial venue names, all venues were known by their non-commercial names, e.g. Suncorp Stadium was known as Lang Park during the tournament. Lang Park would host the World Cup Final. On Sunday night, 26 October, the Sydney Football Stadium hosted the Opening Ceremony of the World Cup, it started with Greg Inglis reciting a speech about "Playing Fair". Following Inglis' speech there was an Aboriginal Smoking ceremony to welcome all the athletes and participants.
This included a rather large sized Rainbow Serpent. The last part of the ceremony involved a performance of the Rugby League World Cup anthem "Hero" by Natalie Bassingthwaighte. A curtai
Paul Whatuira is a former professional rugby league footballer who last played for the Parramatta Eels in the NRL in 2011. A New Zealand international centre, he won National Rugby League premierships with the Penrith Panthers and Wests Tigers and achieved success with the Huddersfield Giants in the Super League. Whatuira was born in New Zealand. Whatuira played his junior rugby league at Wainuiomata, near Wellington, where he played with former Huddersfield teammate David Faiumu, he played rugby union as a schoolboy. He idolised Mal Meninga, he represented Wellington in 1999. Whatuira left Wellington at 17 to join the Auckland Warriors, he made his first grade début for Auckland Warriors against Wests Tigers in the Leichhardt Oval on 14 February 2000, in Round 2. He played in four other first grade games for the Warriors that season, before leaving the club at the end of the year. During the 2000 season he was released to the Wainuiomata Lions and played in the Bartercard Cup, he spent 2001 at the Melbourne Storm.
Whatuira became a first grade regular. He played left centre in the Panthers side; as 2003 NRL premiers, the Panthers travelled to England to face Super League VIII champions, the Bradford Bulls in the 2004 World Club Challenge. Whatuira played at centre in the Panthers' 22-4 loss, his 2003 premiership ring was stolen from his home along with his DVD player in 2005. Two years the police recovered the ring when they raided a suspected criminal's home. Whatuira joined the Wests Tigers in 2005 and played at centre in the Tigers' 2005 NRL Grand Final victory over the North Queensland Cowboys, gaining his second premiership ring; as NRL Premiers Wests faced Super League champions Bradford Bulls in the 2006 World Club Challenge. Whatuira played at centre in the Tigers' 30-10 loss. Whatuira had a forgettable 2006, he was sin-binned in the Tigers' loss to the North Queensland Cowboys in Townsville just before half-time with Matt Sing scoring in his absence. In the return match, he suffered a hamstring injury, aggravated during the warm-up versus Brisbane Broncos meaning he would not play for the rest of the campaign.
After considering a switch to rugby union with the New South Wales Waratahs, Whatuira instead moved to England and joined the Huddersfield Giants in 2008 where he is contracted until the end of the 2010 season. Whatuira played in the Giants 2009 Challenge Cup Final appearance, where they lost to the Warrington Wolves. On 21 December 2010, Whatuira signed a one-year deal with the Parramatta Eels for the 2011 season. Whatuira is expected to fill the void left in the backline by departing senior players of Eric Grothe Jr and Timana Tahu. Eels CEO Paul Osborne stated that "Paul Whatuira is a proved international performer who brings class and experience to our backline". However, Whatuira retired after just appearing in one game for the Eels. Whatuira represented the New Zealand national team on ten occasions between 2004 and 2006, including the 24-0 win over Australia at Elland Road in the 2005 Tri Nations tournament, in which he scored a try. Whatuira was selected in the 19-man squad for the one-off New Zealand vs Australia Centenary test in Wellington, New Zealand on 14 October 2007.
Whatuira is eligible for the Cook Islands and was named in their train on squad for the 2000 World Cup. He instead represented Aotearoa Māori at the tournament. During 2006, Whatuira posed for the Naked Rugby League 2007-08 charity calendar, produced to raise money for the National Breast Cancer Foundation of Australia. Paul posed alongside former Wests Tigers teammates Robbie Farah and Dene Halatau for the Naked For A Cause 2008-09 calendar for the McGrath Foundation charity. On 13 October 2009, Whatuira was arrested and underwent a psychiatric assessment after he assaulted two men. Police used a Taser gun to subdue him. Whatuira spent 13 days in a secure psychiatric hospital after the incident, related to sexual abuse he suffered as a child. Whatuira was not charged over the incident as under section two of the British Crimes Act, he is exempt from potential prosecution as he was deemed "mentally ill". NRL profile Huddersfield Giants profile
Mount Isa is a city in the Gulf Country region of Queensland, Australia. It came into existence because of the vast mineral deposits found in the area. Mount Isa Mines is one of the most productive single mines in world history, based on combined production of lead, silver and zinc. With an estimated urban population of 21,998 as at June 2016, Mount Isa is the administrative and industrial centre for the state's vast north-western region. Although situated in an arid area, the artificial Lake Moondarra 19 kilometres north of the city on the Leichhardt River provides both drinking water and an area for watersports and recreation. Locals refer to Mount Isa as "The Isa". Due to the lead production in the city, Mount Isa has one of the most intensive air quality monitoring systems in Australia. Concerns have been raised over childhood lead air pollution within the city; the Mount Isa Mines in particular are a source of significant lead pollution. The land around the present day city of Mount Isa was home to the Kalkadoon aboriginal tribe.
The Kalkadoon tribe led a subsistence lifestyle on this land that the white settlers looked at as nothing but poor grazing land, with the odd mineral deposit. As settlers and prospectors pressed further into their lands the Kalkadoon tribe members set out on one of Australia's most successful guerrilla wars in a fight for their lands, their success continued until at Battle Mountain in 1884, with what some historians have called a rush of blood, the tribe attacked a fortified position in large numbers and suffered terrible losses. The weakened state of the tribe made their land more vulnerable to the settlers and soon much of the land was lost. Armed patrols chasing the surviving tribe members and poor grazing lands for the settlers made times hard in the area over the following decades, it is said that a lone prospector, John Campbell Miles, stumbled upon one of the world's richest deposits of copper and zinc during his 1923 expedition into the Northern Territory, but many people do not know that he was taken to the deposits by a young aboriginal man by the name of Kabalulumana.
When Miles inspected the yellow-black rocks in a nearby outcrop, they reminded him of the ore found in the Broken Hill mine that he had once worked at. Upon inspection these rocks were weighty and mineralised. A sample sent away to the assayer in Cloncurry confirmed their value. Miles and four farmers staked out the first claims in the area. Taken with friend's stories of the Mount Ida gold mines in Western Australia, Miles decided upon Mount Isa as the name for his new claim. Mount Isa Post Office opened on 1 August 1924. A location for the town's hospital was chosen in 1929, with a small building completed the following year. In 1931, a larger structure was moved to the site from the closed mining town of Kuridala; the Mount Isa City Library opened in 1974. Mount Isa has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Camooweal Street: Underground Hospital Camooweal Street: Tent House Mount Isa Mining District: Bower Bird Battery on Mount Isa Mine Lease: Mount Isa Mine Early Infrastructure Nettle Street: Casa Grande Mount Isa at local level is part of the City of Mount Isa, at state level is part of the electoral district of Mount Isa in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, at federal level is part of the Division of Kennedy in the Australian House of Representatives.
The mayor of Mount Isa, after the 2016 Local Government Elections, is Joyce McCulloch. The City of Mount Isa LGA jurisdiction, covering 43,188 km2, is one of the largest in the world in terms of area and takes in the border town of Camooweal, 188 km to the north-west of Mount Isa and 12 km from the border of the Northern Territory. Mount Isa's industry is dependent on mining. Glencore operates the Mount Isa Mines lease adjacent to the city, which comprises the "Enterprise" underground copper mine, X41 underground copper mine, "Black Star Open Cut" silver-lead zinc mine, metallurgical processing facilities. Silver-lead-zinc ore is mined 20 km to the north at Hilton from the "George Fisher" underground mine, the adjoining "Handlebar Hill" open cut, trucked back to Mount Isa for processing. Mount Isa is in the top two of smelting operations in the country. Copper and lead are smelted on site, with copper anodes and zinc concentrate being transported 900 km to the city and port of Townsville on the east coast.
The lead ingots are transported to a refinery in Britain. The mine is the most significant landmark in the area, with the stack from the lead smelter, standing 270 m tall, visible from all parts of the city and up to 40 km out. In 2008 a Queensland Health report found that more than 10% of children in Mount Isa had blood lead levels above World Health Organization recommendations; the mining operator Glencore denied responsibility and stated that the town has high levels of lead in the soil. However, a more recent study led by Macquarie University environmental engineers has used lead isotope analysis to show conclusively that the lead ingested had originated from smelted ore and not surface deposits. Attractions include the Hard Times Mine at "Outback at Isa" and The Mount Isa Rodeo and Mardi Gras has given Mount Isa the title of "Rodeo Capital of Australia"; the occasion may well triple the city's population in these few days. A memorial has been made for the Rodeo, down Rodeo Drive; the burial place of John Campbell Miles, the founder of Mount Isa, is on the corner of
Anthony Mundine is an Australian former professional boxer and rugby league footballer. In boxing he competed from 2000 to 2018, held the WBA super-middleweight title twice between 2003 and 2008, as well as the IBO middleweight title from 2009 to 2010, the WBA interim super-welterweight title from 2011 to 2012. Mundine is well known for his heated rivalries with fellow Australians Danny Daniel Geale. Before his move to boxing, Mundine was the highest-paid player in the NRL, he considers himself to be Australia's best all-round athlete. He is the son of former boxer Tony Mundine and hails from the Bundjalung people of northern coastal areas of New South Wales. Mundine was named the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Person of the Year in 2000, he is the first boxer in history to have had every one of his professional fights broadcast for television and has generated more pay-per-views than any other Australian boxer since he turned professional. Steve Bunce has described him as "arguably the greatest crossover athlete in boxing history".
Mundine has had a stormy relationship with the media: his conversion to Islam in 1999, self-promotion and outspoken opinions have created a love–hate relationship with the Australian public. Mundine has been described as "the most polarising athlete in Australian sports history". Mundine was born in Newtown, in the inner west of Sydney in 1975. Both of his parents are Aboriginal. Mundine was converted to Islam in the late 1990s. Mundine played junior rugby league for Hurstville United, while attending Kingsgrove High School, Mundine starred for the school in the 1993 & 1994 teams which won the University Shield both years, he played for the Australian Schoolboys team in 1993. That year, Mundine signed with the St. George Dragons as an eighteen-year-old. Mundine attended Cleveland Street High School. In 1994, Mundine represented the Junior Kangaroos, the team that beat Great Britain's under-19s in the curtain-raiser to the Australia v. France Test at Parramatta Stadium. In 1996, he played against the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles.
That year, he was the victim of racial vilification when Rugby League player Barry Ward called Mundine a "black cunt". Ward was fined $10,000 for the offense. At the end of that season Mundine announced that he was signing with the Brisbane Broncos in the Super League competition. In 1997 he played 18 games for the Broncos, scoring three tries, he played at centre in his second consecutive grand final, this time a victory against the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks in Brisbane. In 1998 he returned to the Dragons. Mundine was selected to play for New South Wales in each of the three matches of the 1999 State of Origin series, scoring a try in Game I on debut; that year he assisted the Dragons' run to the Grand Final, with a hat-trick against the Sharks in the major semi-final. The following week the Dragons lost to the Melbourne Storm in the 1999 NRL Grand Final during which and Mundine, playing at five-eighth knocked-on over the try line early in the second half, which proved to be a major turning point in the match.
In 2000, Mundine declared before playing Melbourne in the grand final rematch that St George were "the true premiers". Melbourne went on to win the match 70-10 at The Melbourne Cricket Ground. Mundine was disappointed that further representative honours did not follow, believed that his representative opportunities did not reflect his abilities and achievements at club level, he raised the issue of racism as the main explanation for this. Mundine left rugby league halfway through the 2000 season, after being inspired to go into boxing, when a friend, Abdi Osman, showed him a video of Muhammad Ali, he cited what he claimed was racism concerning rugby league as one of the reasons he quit to take up boxing. Mundine would make implications during a promotion for a boxing match that former chairman of selectors and respected Aboriginal figure Arthur Beetson may have been an "Uncle Tom" who went along with the alleged racism. In 2005 Mundine was reported to be making a comeback to the NRL. In 2007 Mundine was appointed Indigenous Liaison Officer at the South Sydney Rabbitohs.
Mundine has close family ties to rugby league: he is a relative of Wes Patten, Amos Roberts, Beau Mundine, Blake Ferguson and Reece Robinson, all NRL footballers. He is the brother-in-law of Tyran Smith who married Mundine's sister, Kellie. Mundine's son CJ Mundine is on the path to playing in the NRL. In September 2016, after stating on previous occasions he wanted to return to rugby league, Mundine claimed that St George chief executive Peter Doust had been in contact with him regarding his availability to play. On 8 December 2017, Mundine again declared that he desired to return to rugby league and singled out St George as the club he wanted to play for. Mundine said in an interview with Fox Sports regarding his possible return that “It could be possible, you don’t know. Anything is possible with me,”. Mundine is trained by his father, Tony Mundine, a middleweight contender during the 1970s. Mundine fought his first professional boxing match in July 2000, at the age of 25. After a limited amateur career, his first professional fight was against New Zealander Gerrard Zohs.
Only 10 professional bouts Mundine fought for his first world title against long reigning IBF supermiddleweight champion Sven Ottke in January 2001. In 2001 Anthony Mundine took on Super Middleweight champion Sven Ottke for the IBF Super Middleweight belt, Mundine was ahead on points before being knocked out by a right hand to the temple in the 10th round; this was the first time Mundine lost by knockout. Since the WBA and IBF supe
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he