Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden

Carl XVI Gustaf is King of Sweden. He ascended the throne on the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf, on 15 September 1973, he is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His father died on 26 January 1947 in an airplane crash in Denmark when Carl Gustaf was nine months old. Upon his father's death, he became second in line to the throne, after his grandfather, the Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. Following the death of his great-grandfather King Gustaf V in 1950, Gustaf Adolf ascended the throne and thus Carl Gustaf became Sweden's new crown prince and heir apparent to the throne at the age of four. A short while after he became king in 1973, the new 1974 Instrument of Government took effect, formally stripping Carl XVI Gustaf of any role in the legislative process, several other duties accorded to a head of state, such as the formal appointment of the prime minister, signing off on legislation, being commander-in-chief of the nation's military.

The new instrument explicitly limits the king to ceremonial functions and, among other things, to be informed of affairs of state. As head of the House of Bernadotte Carl Gustaf has been able to make a number of decisions about the titles and positions of its members; the king's heir apparent, after passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture, is Crown Princess Victoria, the eldest child of the King and his wife, Queen Silvia. Before the passage of that law, Crown Princess Victoria's younger brother, Prince Carl Philip, was the heir apparent, as of his birth in May 1979. Carl XVI Gustaf is the longest-reigning monarch in Swedish history, having surpassed King Magnus IV's reign of 44 years and 222 days on 26 April 2018. Carl Gustaf was born on 30 April 1946 at 10:20 in Haga Palace in Solna, Stockholm County, he was the youngest of five children and the only son of Sweden's Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Sibylla. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Uppsala, Erling Eidem.

He was baptised in Charles XI's baptismal font, which stood on Gustav III's carpet. The same christening gown in white linen batiste which the prince carried had been worn by his father in 1906 and would be worn by his three children, his godparents were the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Denmark, the Crown Prince of Norway, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the King of Sweden, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Sweden, Count Folke and Countess Maria Bernadotte af Wisborg. Prince Carl Gustaf was given the title of the Duke of Jämtland, his father, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten was killed in an airplane crash on 26 January 1947, at Copenhagen Airport. His father's death had left the nine-month-old prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf; when his paternal great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the four-year-old prince became the heir apparent of Sweden. Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his father's death.

He expressed his feelings about growing up without knowing his father in a speech in 2005. His earliest education was received at the Royal Palace; the young prince was sent to Broms school, on to Sigtuna boarding school. After graduating from high school in 1966, Carl Gustaf completed two-and-a-half years of education in the Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, the Swedish Air Force. During the winter 1966-1967 he took part in a round-the-world voyage with the mine-laying vessel Älvsnabben; the Crown Prince received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968 rising to the rank of captain and lieutenant, before his ascension to the throne. He completed his academic studies in history, political science, tax law, economics at Uppsala University and Economics at Stockholm University. To prepare for his role as the head of state, Crown Prince Carl Gustaf followed a broad program of studies on the court system, social organisations and institutions, trade unions, employers' associations.

In addition, he studied the affairs of the Riksdag and Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Crown Prince spent time at the Swedish Mission to the United Nations and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, worked at a bank in London and at the Swedish Embassy there, at the Swedish Chamber of Commerce in France, at the Alfa Laval Company factory in France. In 1970 he represented the King at the head of the Swedish delegation to the World Exposition in Osaka, Japan. Since his youth the present monarch has been a strong supporter of the Scout Movement in Sweden. Carl Gustaf has dyslexia, as do his daughter Crown Princess Victoria and his son Prince Carl Philip. On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, Gustaf VI Adolf. On September 19, he took the required regal assurance during an extraordinary meeting of the cabinet. Afterwards, he appeared before the parliament, diplomatic corps, etc. in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace where he gave a speech.

Both the cabinet meeting and ceremony at the Hall were broadcast live on television. Following the ceremonies, he appeared on the balcony to acknowledge gathered crowds. At the cabinet meeting, the King declared that his name would be Carl XVI Gustaf a


In Norse legend, Valland is the name of the part of Europe, inhabited by Celtic and Romance peoples. The element Val- is derived from *Walhaz, a Proto-Germanic word whose descendants were used in various Germanic languages to refer to the inhabitants of the Western Roman Empire. In the genealogy section of Flateyjarbók, there are two kings of Valland named Auði and Kjárr, who may have been a late reflection of Julius Caesar and the Roman Emperors in Norse mythology: Kjárr and his daughter Ölrún appear in the Völundarkviða, where she is a Valkyrie who marries the hero Egil: It is mentioned in Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra that Hringr, the king of Denmark and son of Sköld dagsson, was married to Sigrid, the daughter of Vilhálm - or William - king of Valland. In the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson, Valland is mentioned several times as the Old Norse name for Gaul, it was the country where Rollo carved out Normandy: Rolf Ganger went afterwards over sea to the West to the Hebrides, or Sudreys. In Hrómundar saga Gripssonar, the hero Hrómund slays an undead witch-king named Þráinn, the king of Valland

George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie

George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie was a Scottish nobleman. He succeeded his father John, the 2nd earl, in February 1731. In 1745, he joined Charles Edward Stuart and he served with the Jacobites until April 1746 when he was taken prisoner in Sutherland after the Battle of Littleferry, he was tried and sentenced to death, but he obtained a conditional pardon although his peerage was forfeited because his wife was pregnant. He was however reduced to extreme poverty, because the family estates and rights were confiscated in 1748, he died on 28 September 1766 in Soho Square, having never gone north of the River Trent again, in keeping with the terms of his pardon. He married Isabel Gordon, daughter of Sir William Gordon of Invergordon, on 23 September 1724 and had a large family of young children in 1746, his numerous children, three sons, nine daughters, were: John Mackenzie, Lord MacLeod, de jure 4th Earl of Cromartie but for the attainder, eldest son and heir apparent. He fought alongside his father in the rebellion of 1745.

He was convicted of high treason and sentenced to death, but received a full pardon and was released in 1748, on condition that all estates and rights were forfeit to the Crown. He went to Sweden where he rose to high rank and was created a Count in the Swedish nobility, a title, recognized by George II. In 1777 he returned to England and petitioned for the restoration of his estates and offered to raise a Highland Regiment for the Government; this became known as 1st Battalion Highland Light Infantry. He achieved the rank of Major-General in the British Army. In 1780 Lord MacLeod was elected MP for Ross-shire. In 1784 the family estates were restored to him by Act of Parliament for a payment of £19,000, but not the title Earl of Cromartie. In 1787 he took up residence at New Tarbat, he had the patronage of Kilmuir Easter church. Lord Macleod married in 1786 Marjory, eldest daughter of James, XVIth Lord Forbes, without issue.. Lord MacLeod died childless on 2 April 1789, was succeeded by his cousin Kenneth Mackenzie, a grandson of the 1st Earl, who died without heirs male in 1796.

The family estates passed to Lord MacLeod's eldest sister, Lady Elibank in 1796. William, who died young. George, a Colonel in the 71st Regiment, who died unmarried in 1788. Isabella Mackenzie, who married the elderly George Murray, 6th Lord Elibank, had two daughters. In 1796, Lady Elibank succeeded her cousin Kenneth Mackenzie, de jure 5th Earl of Cromartie in the estates, her great-granddaughter was created Countess of Cromartie, with an unusual remainder, in 1861. Hon Maria Murray, who married 1790 Edward Hay Hay-Mackenzie, of Newhall, brother of George Hay, 7th Marquis of Tweeddale members of a member of a junior branch of the family descended from the 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale; the brother succeeded to the marquisate in 1797, had numerous descendants, still holding the title. John Hay-Mackenzie of Newhall who married on 23 April 1828, daughter of Sir Gibson-Craig and had issue, an only daughter Anne Hay-Mackenzie, 1st Countess of Cromartie in her own right, who married 27 June 1849 the 3rd Duke of Sutherland as his 1st wife, was mother of two surviving sons and two daughters.

This 21 October 1861 creation is still extant, under an unusual remainder. Lady Mary, who married, Captain Robert Clarke, London. Lady Anne, who married, the Hon. Edmond Atkin, of South Carolina and secondly, Dr John Murray of Charlestown. Lady Caroline, who married, first, a Mr Drake, of London, secondly, Walter Hunter of Polmood and Crailieg. Lady Jean, who died young Lady Amelia, who died young. Lady Margaret, who in 1769 married John Glassford of Douglastown, with issue. Lady Augusta, who married Sir William Murray of Auchtertyre, with issue. Henderson, Thomas Finlayson. "Mackenzie, George". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co