Montefiore Medical Center
Montefiore Medical Center is a teaching hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, located in the Norwood section of the Bronx, New York City. It is one of the 50 largest employers in New York State. In 2016, Montefiore Medical Center was ranked #7 of the 180 New York City metropolitan area hospitals by U. S. News & World Report. Montefiore was founded by "leaders of New York’s Jewish community" as the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids at Avenue A and East 84th Street in Manhattan, accepted its first six patients on October 24, 1884, Moses Montefiore's 100th birthday. In its early years, it housed patients with tuberculosis and other chronic illnesses. After growing out of its original building, the hospital moved uptown to Broadway and West 138th Street in 1888, it was renamed Montefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases in 1901, moved again, to its current location in the Bronx and was renamed Montefiore Home and Hospital for Chronic Diseases in 1913. It was again renamed, as Montefiore Hospital for Chronic Diseases in 1920, as Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center on October 11, 1964, as the Henry and Lucy Moses Division of Montefiore Medical Center in 1981 when it took over the daily operations of Einstein Hospital.
Montefiore established the first Department of Social Medicine and the first home health care agency in the United States. In 2001, it established the Children's Hospital at Montefiore; the hospital made international headlines when a series of operations separated the conjoined twins Carl and Clarence Aguirre of the Philippines. The Montefiore Headache Center, the oldest headache center in the world, was ranked number one among New York Best Hospitals in 2006 by New York Magazine; the Emergency Department is among the five busiest in the United States. Its hospitals provide more than 85,000 inpatient stays per year, including more than 7,000 births. In 2007, it was among over 530 New York City arts and social service institutions to receive part of a $20 million grant from the Carnegie Corporation, made possible through a donation by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. On September 9, 2015, Montefiore assumed operational and financial control of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine from Yeshiva University.
The first intracardiac pacemaker to treat Stokes-Adams seizures associated with complete heart block was inserted by cardiothoracic surgeons at Montefiore. The association between endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis, since renamed Streptococcus gallolyticus and colon cancer was discovered by researchers at Montefiore. Moses division: The 726-bed Moses Division is located in the Norwood section, includes the 106-bed Children's Hospital at Montefiore and the Greene Medical Arts Pavilion, an outpatient care and diagnostic testing facility. Jack D. Weiler Hospital: The 431-bed Jack D. Weiler Hospital is operated by Montefiore and is located about 4 miles away, adjacent to the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Morris Park section. Montefiore Medical Park: Montefiore Medical Park, an ambulatory care facility that contains offices for outpatient visits, full-time clinical practices, administrative offices for clinical departments, is a short distance away from Einstein. Wakefield Division: In 2008, Montefiore acquired Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center, a 360-bed hospital in the north Bronx, part of the Catholic health system, which provides inpatient and outpatient primary and consultative care for communities of the Bronx.
It was named the North Division of Montefiore, the Wakefield Division. Montefiore Westchester Square: In March 2013, Montefiore acquired Westchester Square Medical Center, a community hospital that had operated under bankruptcy court protection for nearly seven years, renamed it Montefiore Westchester Square, closed the inpatient beds, transformed it into a surgical center and free-standing emergency room. Both the Moses-Weiler and the Wakefield campuses have many types of residency and fellowship programs. Montefiore runs 23 clinics throughout the Bronx and Westchester that comprise the Montefiore Medical Group. Montefiore is home to the Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care, the Montefiore Einstein Center for Heart and Vascular Care, the Montefiore Einstein Center for Transplantation. Montefiore runs a Residency Program in Social Medicine, one of the nation's oldest programs focused on preparing physicians to practice in underserved communities. Montefiore is a primary clerkship site for third-year and fourth-year medical students at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
Einstein offers joint residency programs between Montefiore Medical Center and Jacobi Medical Center in child neurology, emergency medicine, general surgery, neurology and gynecology, orthopedic surgery, plastic Surgery, rehabilitation medicine and vascular surgery, as well as other subspecialties. Lina Abarbanell, opera singer Herman M. Albert, New York State Assemblyman Milton Avery, painter Benjamin M. Bloch, Israeli physicist Diana Blumenfeld, folksinger and actress Roscoe Brown, Tuskegee Airman, president of Bronx Community College, director for the Center for Education Policy at the City University of New York Eddie Carmel, giant Camilo Egas, Ecuadorian painter Joe Fleishaker, actor Ralph Forbes, actor Berta Gersten Yiddish theatre actress Edwin Franko Goldman and music composer Chaim Grade, Yiddish novelist and poet Ramarley Graham, un
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States; the Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, third-highest population density, it is the only borough predominantly on the U. S. mainland. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue; the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center.
These open spaces are situated on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan. The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639; the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries and from the Caribbean region, as well as African American migrants from the southern United States; this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of hip hop and rock. The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity includes affluent, upper-income, middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, Country Club; the Bronx the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson.
Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today. The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck, it was divided by the Aquahung River. The origin of the person of Jonas Bronck is contested; some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the area now known as the Bronx and built a farm named "Emmanus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven, he leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem, bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land.
The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother. The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both and colloquially; the County of Bronx does not place "The" before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County, it was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family; the capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. The definite article is lowercase in place names except in official references.
The definite article is capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a lowercase word would be capitalized. However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Lloyd Ultan, a historian for The Bronx County Historical Society, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx, a Bronx-based organization; these people say. In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the's' in'Staten Island.'" European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts before it became Bronx County; the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over
Blythedale Children's Hospital
Blythedale Children's Hospital is a specialty children's hospital in Valhalla, New York, United States. It is the only independent children's hospital in New York State; the hospital is dedicated to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of children with complex medical and rehabilitative needs. The hospital opened a new, 56,000 square-foot inpatient hospital in December 2011; the new inpatient facility accommodates 86 patients in single or double rooms and includes a 46-bed Infant & Toddler and Post Neonatal/Post-Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for medically fragile patients, many of whom require weaning from mechanical ventilation. The new building includes a 30-bed Pediatric & Adolescent Unit, a 10-bed Traumatic Brain Injury Unit; the hospital has its own on-site public school district, the Mount Pleasant Blythedale Union Free School District. Http://www.blythedale.org/
Valhalla, New York
Valhalla is a hamlet and census-designated place located within the town of Mount Pleasant, in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. Its population was 3,162 at the 2010 U. S. Census; the name of the community was inspired by a fan of the opera composer Richard Wagner, the hamlet is known both for its location as the home of the primary hospital campus of Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, as well as the burial place of numerous noted people. The name comes from a heavenly abode in Norse mythology. Valhalla gained its name when it was necessary to name a new U. S. post office in the 19th century, due to the flooding of a pre-existing town and post office, now underneath the lake created by the Kensico Dam. According to local historians and published works, the wife of a postmaster was a devoted fan of the works of the composer Richard Wagner, she shared that composer's interest in Norse mythology, her preference led to the choice of the name Valhalla, after the heavenly paradise of slain warriors in that mythology.
It is most agreed that Xavier Reiter, a French horn player with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, a Wagner devotee, who played french horn at Wagner's premier of Parsifal at Bayreuth, suggested that the post office name of "Valhalla" be adopted. The village still maintains its association with death through noted people who were buried in its cemeteries; the Kensico Cemetery was founded in 1889 in Valhalla at a time when many of the cemeteries in the city of New York were filling up, several rural cemeteries were founded near the railroads that served the metropolis. 250 acres in size, the cemetery was expanded to 600 acres in 1905, but reduced to 460 acres in 1912, when a portion of its land was sold to the neighboring Gate of Heaven Cemetery. The Kensico Cemetery is the final resting place of the actress Billie Burke, who played Glinda, the "Good Witch of the North", in the classic film The Wizard of Oz, alongside her famed Broadway impresario husband, Florenz Ziegfeld Jr.. Interred within Kensico Cemetery and Gate of Heaven Cemetery are the big band leader Tommy Dorsey.
It is where the remains lie of Herbert Howard Booth, the son of the Salvation Army founder William Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army Musical Department. Giovanni Turini, a sculptor from Italy, born in 1841 and died in 1899, made the statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi, a man he served in the fighting surrounding the unification of Italy, in Washington Square, the bust of Giuseppe Mazzini in Central Park is buried there, as is actress Anne Bancroft, it is the resting place of Harriet Quimby, America's first certified female pilot. The Pakistani writer and delegate to the United Nations, Patras Bokhari. is buried there. Valhalla and neighboring Hawthorne are densely packed with cemeteries, albeit not as densely as Colma, California. On July 12, 2006, the Westchester tornado, an F2 event, touched down in nearby Hawthorne and proceeded to move into Valhalla, causing much destruction in the Stonegate section of the community; this was one of the strongest tornadoes the area had seen, as tornadoes of this magnitude are in the Midwest.
Power lines were knocked down, hundreds of trees were uprooted. There were no deaths. On September 11, 2006, The Rising memorial to September 11 victims was dedicated at the Kensico Dam by Westchester County and the Westchester County September 11 Memorial Committee; the Rising honors the 109 county residents. In July 2007, Valhalla hosted the opening ceremony of the 2007 Empire State Games; the ceremony was held at the Kensico Dam honoring the athletes and their families and was attended by Governor Eliot Spitzer among other politicians. ESPN's Jeremy Schaap was a keynote speaker. On February 3, 2015, in the Valhalla train crash, a Metro-North train crashed into a Mercedes-Benz SUV, stuck on the tracks at Commerce Street near the Taconic State Parkway; the crash caused 15 injuries, including seven serious. According to the United States Census Bureau, the hamlet has a total area of 0.81 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,379 people, 1,847 households, 1,470 families residing in the hamlet.
The population density was 2,010.6 per square mile. There were 1,886 housing units at an average density of 704.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the hamlet was 95.85% White, 0.76% African American, 0.07% Native American, 2.12% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.36% of the population. Valhalla has a large Italian-American population; as of the 2000 U. S. Census, 34.2% of residents were of Italian ancestry, the 28th highest number of Italian-Americans per capita of all communities in the United States. There were 1,847 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.2% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.4% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or
Scarsdale, New York
Scarsdale is a town and village in Westchester County, New York. The Town of Scarsdale is coextensive with the Village of Scarsdale, but the community has opted to operate with a village government, one of several villages in the state that have a similar governmental situation; as of the 2010 census, Scarsdale's population was 17,166. Caleb Heathcote purchased the land that would become Scarsdale at the end of the 17th century and, on March 21, 1701, had it elevated to a royal manor, he named the lands after his ancestral home in England. The first local census of 1712 counted twelve inhabitants, including seven African slaves; when Caleb died in 1721, his daughters inherited the property. The estate was broken up in 1774, the town was founded on March 7, 1788; the town saw fighting during the American Revolution when the Continental and British armies clashed at what is now the junction of Garden Road and Mamaroneck Road. The British commander, Sir William Howe, lodged at a farmhouse on Garden Road.
Scarsdale's wartime history formed the basis for James Fenimore Cooper's novel, The Spy, written while the author lived at the Angevine Farm in the present-day Heathcote section of town. According to the first federal census in 1790, the town's population was 281. By 1840, that number had declined to 255—the vast majority farmers and farm workers. In 1846, the New York and Harlem Railroad connected Scarsdale to New York City, leading to an influx of commuters; the Arthur Suburban Home Company purchased a 150-acre farm in 1891 and converted it into a subdevelopment of one-family dwellings, starting a transformation of the community from rural to suburban. Civil institutions soon appeared: the Heathcote Association, the Town Club, the Scarsdale Woman's Club and the Scarsdale League of Women Voters. Scarsdale High School and Greenacres Elementary School were built in 1912, the Edgewood Elementary School opened in 1918; the first store in Scarsdale opened on the corner of Popham Road and Garth Road in 1912.
By 1915, the population approached 3000. By 1930, that number approached 10,000. In 1940, German agent Gerhardt Alois Westrick secretly met with American business leaders at his Scarsdale home until public pressure—a reaction to articles in the New York Herald Tribune produced by British Security Coordination in New York—drove his family from the community, he was subsequently deported for pursuing activities unfriendly to the United States. Scarsdale became the subject of national controversy in the 1950s when a "Committee of Ten" led by Otto Dohrenwend alleged "Communist infiltration" in the public schools. A thorough investigation by the town rejected these claims; this same group, known as the Scarsdale Citizens Committee, sued to prevent a benefit for the Freedom Riders from taking place at the public high school in 1963 because some of the performers were "communist sympathizers and subversives."Another controversy enveloped the town in 1961, when the Scarsdale Country Club, headed by Charles S. McCallister, refused to allow a young man who had converted from Judaism into the Episcopal Church, Michael Cunningham Hernstadt, to escort a young woman, Pamela Nottage, to her debut at the club.
At the time, it was the club's policy to prohibit Jews from the premises. In response, the Rev. George French Kempsell of the Church of Saint James the Less announced that he would ban any supporters of the club's decision from receiving Holy Communion; the event marked a turning point toward the decline of anti-Semitism in the town. Scarsdale's public library, housed in historic Wayside Cottage since 1928, moved to its present structure on the White Plains Post Road in 1951; the driving force behind the library was New York City publisher S. Spencer Scott, who raised $100,000 for the project after the village rejected a bond issue to fund the building in 1938; the new library opened with 27,000 books and Sylvia C. Hilton serving as the first librarian; the last of the town's five elementary schools, Heathcote School, opened in September 1953. The $1,000,000 architectural landmark was designed by Will of Chicago. Walter B. Cocking, the president of the New York State Committee for the Public Schools, delivered the dedication address.
In 1967, U. S. Secretary of State and former longtime resident Dean Rusk returned to Scarsdale at the height of the Vietnam War to receive the town's Man of the Year Award and was greeted with a silent protest. Scarsdale was the subject of a landmark United States Supreme Court decision, ACLU v. Scarsdale, that established the so-called "reindeer rule" regarding public nativity scenes and upheld the right of local religious groups to place crèches on public property. Scarsdale was involved in another United States Supreme Court case in 1985, Board of Trustees of Scarsdale v. McCreary, concerning the display of sponsored nativity scenes on public property; the Caleb Hyatt House, Scarsdale Railroad Station, Scarsdale Woman's Club, United States Post Office, Wayside Cottage are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The first official historian of the Village of Scarsdale was Richard Lederer. Lederer was succeeded by Irving J. Sloan. Following Sloan's death in 2008, Eric Rothschild assumed the position of village historian and served until his death in 2018.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 6.6 square miles, of which 0.15% is water. It is located 25 miles from midtown Manhattan, which may be reached by Metro-North Railroad express train in 30 minutes; the town is in a humid continental climate zone, with cold, snowy winters and hot, hum
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Westchester County, New York
Westchester County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. It is the second-most populous county on the mainland of New York, after the Bronx, the most populous county in the state north of New York City. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to have increased by 3.3% to 980,244 by 2017. Situated in the Hudson Valley, Westchester covers an area of 450 square miles, consisting of six cities, 19 towns, 23 villages. Established in 1683, Westchester was named after the city of England; the county seat is the city of White Plains, while the most populous municipality in the county is the city of Yonkers, with an estimated 200,807 residents in 2016. The annual per capita income for Westchester was $67,813 in 2011; the 2011 median household income of $77,006 was the fifth highest in New York and the 47th highest in the United States. By 2014, the county's median household income had risen to $83,422. Westchester County ranks second in the state after New York County for median income per person, with a higher concentration of incomes in smaller households.
Westchester County had the highest property taxes of any county in the United States in 2013. Westchester County is one of the centrally located counties within the New York metropolitan area; the county is positioned with Nassau and Suffolk counties, to its south. Westchester was the first suburban area of its scale in the world to develop, due to the upper-middle-class development of entire communities in the late 19th century and the subsequent rapid population growth; because of Westchester's numerous road and mass transit connections to New York City, as well as its shared border with the Bronx, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen much of the county the southern portion, become nearly as densely developed as New York City itself. At the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Native American inhabitants of present-day Westchester County were part of the Algonquian peoples, whose name for themselves was Lenape, meaning the people, they called the region Lenapehoking, which consisted of the area around and between the Delaware and Hudson Rivers.
Several different tribes occupied the area, including The Manhattans, the Weckquaesgeek and Siwanoy bands of the Wappinger in the south, Tankiteke and Kitchawank Wappinger in the north. The first European explorers to visit the Westchester area were Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Dutch settlers began arriving in the 1620s, followed by settlers from England in the 1640s. Westchester County was one of the original twelve counties of the Province of New York, created by an act of the New York General Assembly in 1683. At the time it included present-day Bronx County, abutted then-Dutchess County to the north. By 1775, Westchester was the richest and most populous county in the colony of New York. Although the Revolutionary War devastated the county, recovery after the war was rapid. In 1788, five years after the end of the war, the county was divided into 20 towns. In 1798, the first federal census recorded a population of 24,000 for the county. Two developments in the first half of the 19th century – the construction of the first Croton Dam and Aqueduct, the coming of the railroad – had enormous impacts on the growth of Westchester.
The Croton Dam and Aqueduct was begun in 1837 and completed in 1842. In the 1840s, the first railroads were built in Westchester, included the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Hudson River Railroad, the New York and New Haven Railroad; the railroads determined the growth of a town, the population shifted from Northern to Southern Westchester. By 1860, the total county population was 99,000, with the largest city being Yonkers; the period following the American Civil War enabled entrepreneurs in the New York area to create fortunes, many built large estates, such as Lyndhurst, in Westchester. During the latter half of the 19th century, Westchester's transportation system and labor force attracted a manufacturing base along the Hudson River and Nepperhan Creek. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County, in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County; these would split from Manhattan to form a county. During the 20th century, the rural character of Westchester would transform into the suburban county known today.
The Bronx River Parkway, completed in 1925, was the first modern, multi-lane limited-access roadway in North America. The development of Westchester's parks and parkway systems supported existing communities and encouraged the establishment of new ones, transforming the development pattern for Westchester. With the need for homes expanding after World War II, multistory apartment houses appeared in the urbanized areas of the county, while the market for single-family houses continued to expand. By 1950, the total County population was 625,816. Major interstate highways were constructed in Westchester during the 1960s; the establishment of these roadways, along with the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge, led to further growth in the county. Westchester County is located in southern New York known as Downstate, it shares its southern boundary with its northern border with Putnam County. It is bordered on the west