Wilco is an American alternative rock band based in Chicago, Illinois. The band was formed in 1994 by the remaining members of alternative country group Uncle Tupelo following singer Jay Farrar's departure. Wilco's lineup changed during its first decade, with only singer Jeff Tweedy and bassist John Stirratt remaining from the original incarnation. Since early 2004, the lineup has been unchanged, consisting of Tweedy, guitarist Nels Cline, multi-instrumentalist Pat Sansone, keyboard player Mikael Jorgensen, drummer Glenn Kotche. Wilco has released ten studio albums, a live double album, four collaborations: three with Billy Bragg and one with The Minus 5. Wilco's music has been inspired by a wide variety of artists and styles, including Bill Fay, The Beatles and Television, has in turn influenced music by a number of modern alternative rock acts; the band continued in the alternative country style of Uncle Tupelo on its debut album A. M. but has since introduced more experimental aspects to their music, including elements of alternative rock and classic pop.
Wilco's musical style has evolved from a 1990s country rock sound to a current "eclectic indie rock collective that touches on many eras and genres."Wilco garnered media attention for their fourth album, Yankee Hotel Foxtrot, the controversy surrounding it. After the recording sessions were complete, Reprise Records rejected the album and dismissed Wilco from the label; as part of a buy-out deal, Reprise gave Wilco the rights to the album for free. After streaming Foxtrot on its website, Wilco sold the album to Nonesuch Records in 2002. Both record labels are subsidiaries of Warner Music Group, leading one critic to say the album showed "how screwed up the music business is in the early twenty-first century." Yankee Hotel Foxtrot is Wilco's most successful release to date, selling over 670,000 copies. Wilco won two Grammy Awards for their fifth studio album, 2004's A Ghost Is Born, including Best Alternative Music Album. Wilco released their ninth studio album, Star Wars, in July 2015, in September 2016 released their tenth studio album, Schmilco.
Wilco was formed following the breakup of the influential alternative country music group Uncle Tupelo. Singer Jay Farrar quit the band in 1994 because of a soured relationship with co-singer Jeff Tweedy. Both Tweedy and Farrar sought to form bands after the breakup. Tweedy was able to keep the entire Uncle Tupelo lineup sans Farrar, including bassist John Stirratt, drummer Ken Coomer, multi-instrumentalist Max Johnston, he enlisted Uncle Tupelo guest guitarist Brian Henneman of the Bottle Rockets, who performed on many of the tracks for Wilco's debut album, A. M.. The band was tempted to keep the Uncle Tupelo name, but decided to rename the band; the group named itself "Wilco" after the military and commercial aviation radio voice abbreviation for "will comply", a choice which Tweedy has called "fairly ironic for a rock band to name themselves." After collaborating with Syd Straw on a cover version of the Ernest Tubb song "The T. B. is Whipping Me", Wilco began recording tracks for A. M. their first studio album, at Easley studio in June 1994.
A demo tape from these recordings was sent to executives at Reprise Records, a subsidiary of Warner Brothers, the label signed Tweedy to a contract. Although Tweedy stated that he wanted a more collaborative project than Uncle Tupelo, only his name appeared on the Reprise contract. Tweedy requested songwriting submissions from other members, but only one submission—John Stirratt's "It's Just That Simple"—appeared on A. M.. It was the last song Wilco released, lyrically written by a member besides Tweedy. Stylistically similar to Uncle Tupelo, the music on A. M. was considered to be straightforward alternative country rock in what Tweedy described as "trying to tread some water with a perceived audience." A. M. peaked at number twenty-seven on the Billboard Heatseekers chart lower than the debut album of Jay Farrar's new band, Son Volt. The album was met with modest reviews though it would rank thirty-fourth in the Village Voice's 1995 Pazz & Jop critics poll. Critically and commercially paling in comparison to the reception of Son Volt's album, the Wilco members perceived A.
M. to be a failure. Shortly after the release of the album, multi-instrumentalist Jay Bennett joined the band, providing the band with a keyboardist and another guitarist. Wilco made its live debut on November 17, 1994 to a capacity crowd at Cicero's Basement Bar in St. Louis, Missouri. During the two hundred-date tour supporting A. M. Tweedy began to write songs for a second album; the lyrical theme of the songs reflected a relationship between a listener. Ken Coomer elaborated: The whole No Depression thing was funny to us because people seemed to forget that Jeff was a bigger punk-rock fan than a country fan, it led to things like us all switching instruments on "Misunderstood,". A number of songs were recorded with this theme, including "Sunken Treasure" and "Hotel Arizona", Wilco recorded a number of songs in the style of A. M. Wilco named the album Being There after a Peter Sellers film of the same name; the band went through some personnel changes during the recording sessions. Max Johnston left the band because he felt that his role in the band had diminished in favor of Bennett.
Bob Egan of Freakwater joined the band
Madigan Shive, or Bonfire Madigan Shive, is an American songwriter, performing artist, community organizer, musician. She is a cellist and guitarist of the band Tattle Tale and fronting her own ensemble, Bonfire Madigan, she undertakes commissioned performances for live theatre and film. She was a part of the riot grrrl movement of the 1990s and her songs have been included in independent feature and documentary films. Shive's parents were "intentional future community" people. Shive chose one of them, Madigan, as her permanent name when she was a teenager; the family lived in a teepee in Washington for about two years when she was a child, moved often. She learned to play cello from age nine. In 1992 at age seventeen she formed the Seattle based duo Tattle Tale with Jen Wood. Tattle Tale were a part of the riot grrrl movement, they released a cassette album, Tattle Tale, on the Kill Rock Stars label and a CD album on St. Francis Records; the band broke up in 1995. In 1995 Shive formed her own artist run music label, MoonPuss Music and began solo releases as'Madigan'.
She released the Rock Stop EP in 1996. The song "Pity Rock" from the EP featured in the film Sleeping Beauties by Jamie Babbit. Babbit featured Tattle Tale's "Glass Vase Cello Case" as the love theme in her film But I'm a Cheerleader. In 1996 Shive released the Fortunes From The F-Holes album. In 1997 she formed the ensemble project'Bonfire Madigan' with original members contrabassist Sheri Ozeki, guitarist Shelley Doty, percussionist Tomas; the music has been described as "mixes classical stringed elements with modern beats and percussion into a punk-influenced, emotional concoction." Bonfire Madigan continues as a collaborative effort with other rotating musicians recording and touring. In 2001 Shive made news while raising money to fight tenant eviction and trying to raise awareness of tenant's and poor people's rights. Shive has been hearing voices and having experiences of what mainstream psychiatry would call delusions but that she frames differently, including mood extremes, all her life.
In 2003 she became a founding collective member of The Icarus Project alongside Sascha Scatter, Jacks Ashley McNamara and Will Hall. The Icarus Project is a mental health movement characterized by the view that many phenomena labeled as mental illness should be regarded as "dangerous gifts", she has said "We see our madness as a dangerous gift to be cultivated and taken care of, not a disease to be cured". In 2008 Shive was a contributing author to the anthology Live Through This: On Creativity and Self-Destruction on Seven Stories Press. Shive has completed a variety of commissioned pieces and performances for live theatre and film since 2006. Chad Jones, reviewing her performance in'Tis Pity She's a Whore at the American Conservatory Theater for SF Theatre Examiner, wrote "What makes the play worth seeing is the live music provided by punk cellist/vocalist Bonfire Madigan Shive, a fascinating performer who connects to the play more viscerally than the actors."She is based in the Mexico / US border region of California.
Tell/Yell, Kill Rock Stars - demo album on cassette Tattle Tale, Kill Rock Stars - EP / album on cassette Early daze, Pillarbox Red Records - 7" EP Sew True, St. Francis - album on CD Alderwood Mall / Loose lips, Chou Chou records - 7" single Plays With Herself, MoonPuss Music / Live Transmission Records - 7" single Rock Stop, MoonPuss Music - EP on 12" and CD Fortunes From The F-Holes, MoonPuss Music - cassette album... From the Burnpile, Kill Rock Stars Saddle the Bridge, Kill Rock Stars Plays for Change, MoonPuss Music - live recording I Bleed: a decade of song, MoonPuss Music - a compilation of previously released work as Tattle Tale and Bonfire Madigan 88, MoonPuss Music Lady Saves, Moonpuss Music - 12". Includes remixes by Neotropic and Dub I. D. ). Edition of 1000 copies, hand numbered. Pixies Fuckin' Die!, LifeLike Records - compilation album of Pixies covers to which Shive contributed "Monkey Gone to Heaven" Gone Ain't Gone, ANTI- - album by Tim Fite. Shive played cello on "The More You Do" 2006: Prepared solo cello suites for Vigil of Light at Grace Cathedral, San Francisco, CA. 2008: Live score written and performed for'Tis Pity She's a Whore, directed by Carey Perloff, at the American Conservatory Theater, San Francisco, CA.'Tis Pity She's a Whore is a tragedy written by John Ford.
2008: Live material for Twisted Christmas program at Barbican Hall, Barbican Centre, London. Featured Jarvis Cocker, Patrick Wolf, Sandy Dillon, Daniel Knox, Mary Margaret O’Hara, Smoke Fairies, Foy Vance, Kathryn Williams and Neill MacColl, Frank Sidebottom. 2008: Performing composer for Powerful Voices, Women of Ancient Greek Drama at The Onassis Cultural Center, New York. 2010: Original recorded score for The Lion in Winter at Shakespeare Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA. 2010: Composer and musical director for a new English translation of Sophocles' Elektra at Getty Villa, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, featuring Olympia Dukakis. 1998: "Pity Rock" by Madigan featured in Sleeping Beauties short film by Jamie Babbit. 1999: "Glass Vase Cello Case" by Tattle Tale featured in But I'm a Cheerleader feature film by Jamie Babbit. 2001: "Snowfell Summer" by Bonfire Madigan featured in Chain Camera feature length documentary film by Kirby Dick. 2002: "Scraps" by Bonfire Madigan featured in Better Luck Tomorrow feature film by Justin Lin.
2006: "Cage" by Bonfire Madigan featured in Laibach 3: Divided States of America / Laibach Live
Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. From a physics standpoint, noise is indistinguishable from sound, as both are vibrations through a medium, such as air or water; the difference arises when the brain perceives a sound. Acoustic noise is any deliberate or unintended. In contrast, noise in electronics may not be audible to the human ear and may require instruments for detection. In audio engineering, noise can refer to the unwanted residual electronic noise signal that gives rise to acoustic noise heard as a hiss; this signal noise is measured using A-weighting or ITU-R 468 weighting. In experimental sciences, noise can refer to any random fluctuations of data that hinders perception of a signal. Sound is measured based on the frequency of a sound wave. Amplitude measures; the energy in a sound wave is measured in decibels, the measure of loudness, or intensity of a sound. Decibels are expressed in a logarithmic scale. On the other hand, pitch is measured in hertz.
The main instrument to measure sounds in the air is the Sound Level Meter. There are many different varieties of instruments that are used to measure noise - Noise Dosimeters are used in occupational environments, noise monitors are used to measure environmental noise and noise pollution, smartphone-based sound level meter applications are being used to crowdsource and map recreational and community noise. A-weighting is applied to a sound spectrum to represent the sound that humans are capable of hearing at each frequency. Sound pressure is thus expressed in terms of dBA. 0 dBA is the softest level that a person can hear. Normal speaking voices are around 65 dBA. A rock concert can be about 120 dBA. In audio and broadcast systems, audio noise refers to the residual low-level sound, heard in quiet periods of program; this variation from the expected pure sound or silence can be caused by the audio recording equipment, the instrument, or ambient noise in the recording room. In audio engineering it can refer either to the acoustic noise from loudspeakers or to the unwanted residual electronic noise signal that gives rise to acoustic noise heard as'hiss'.
This signal noise is measured using A-weighting or ITU-R 468 weighting Noise is generated deliberately and used as a test signal for audio recording and reproduction equipment. White noise is energy randomly spread across a wide frequency band containing all notes from high to low, it is called "white" noise as it is analogous to "white" light which contains all the colors of the visible spectrum. Environmental noise is the accumulation of all noise present in a specified environment; the principal sources of environmental noise are surface motor vehicles, aircraft and industrial sources. These noise sources expose millions of people to noise pollution that creates not only annoyance, but significant health consequences such as elevated incidence of hearing loss and cardiovascular disease. There are a variety of mitigation strategies and controls available to reduce sound levels including source intensity reduction, land-use planning strategies, noise barriers and sound baffles, time of day use regimens, vehicle operational controls and architectural acoustics design measures.
Certain geographic areas or specific occupations may be at a higher risk of being exposed to high levels of noise. Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. Environmental noise is governed by laws and standards which set maximum recommended levels of noise for specific land uses, such as residential areas, areas of outstanding natural beauty, or schools; these standards specify measurement using a weighting filter, most A-weighting. In 1972, the Noise Control Act was passed to promote a healthy living environment for all Americans, where noise does not pose a threat to human health; this policy's main objectives were: establish coordination of research in the area of noise control, establish federal standards on noise emission for commercial products, promote public awareness about noise emission and reduction. The Quiet Communities Act of 1978 promotes noise control programs at the state and local level and developed a research program on noise control.
Both laws authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to study the effects of noise and evaluate regulations regarding noise control. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health provides recommendation on noise exposure in the workplace. In 1972, NIOSH published a document outlining recommended standards relating to the occupational exposure to noise, with the purpose of reducing the risk of developing permanent hearing loss related to exposure at work; this publication set the recommended exposure limit of noise in an occupation setting to 85 dBA for 8 hours using a 3-dB exchange rate. However, in 1973 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration maintained the requirement of an 8-hour average of 90 dBA; the following year, OSHA required employers to provide a hearing conservation program to workers exposed to 85 dBA average 8-hour workdays. The European Environment Agency regulates noise control and surveillance within the European Union
Thurston Joseph Moore is an American musician best known as a member of Sonic Youth. He has participated in many solo and group collaborations outside Sonic Youth, as well as running the Ecstatic Peace! Record label. Moore was ranked 34th in Rolling Stone's 2004 edition of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time." In May 2012, Spin published a staff-selected list of the top 100 rock guitarists, ranked Moore and his Sonic Youth bandmate Lee Ranaldo together at number 1. In 2012, Moore started a new band Chelsea Light Moving, with their first track, "Burroughs", released as a free download. Chelsea Light Moving's eponymous debut was released on March 5, 2013. Moore was born July 25, 1958, at Doctors Hospital in Coral Gables, Florida, to George E. Moore and Eleanor Nann Moore, moved with his family in 1967 to Bethel, Connecticut, he attended St. Joseph's School in Danbury, followed by St. Mary's School in Bethel and attended Bethel High School from 1973–76, he enrolled at Western Connecticut State University in fall 1976, but left after one quarter and moved to East 13th Street between Aves A and B in New York City to join the burgeoning post-punk and no wave music scenes.
It was there that he was able to watch shows by the likes of Patti Smith and spoken-word performances by William S. Burroughs. In 1980 he moved in with Kim Gordon to an apartment at 84 Eldridge St. below artist Dan Graham befriending him, sometimes using records from Graham's collection for mix tapes. Once in the city, Moore was a member of the hardcore punk band Even Worse, featuring future The Big Takeover editor Jack Rabid. After exiting the band and Lee Ranaldo learned experimental guitar techniques in Glenn Branca's "guitar orchestras." Moore has spoken about influences on his music tastes at this time, including British bands Wire, the Pop Group, the Raincoats, the Slits, Public Image Ltd. Moore met Kim Gordon in 1980 at the final gig of The Coachmen, the band he was in with J. D. King, Daniel Walworth, Bob Pullin. Moore, with Gordon, Anne Demarinis and Dave Keay formed a band, appearing under names like Male Bonding and Red Milk and the Arcadians, before settling on Moore's choice of Sonic Youth just before June 1981.
The band played Noise Fest in June 1981 at New York's White Columns gallery, where Lee Ranaldo was playing as a member of Glenn Branca's electric guitar ensemble as well as in duo with David Linton as Avoidance Behavior. Moore invited Ranaldo, who he had known when The Coachmen shared a CBGB stage with Ranaldo's 1970s band The Flux, to join the band; the new threesome played three songs at the festival in the week without a drummer. Each band member took; the band signed to Neutral Records to Homestead Records, to SST Records. Moore and Ranaldo make extensive use of unusual guitar tunings heavily modifying their instruments to provide unusual timbres and drones, they are known for bringing upwards of fifty guitars to every gig, using some guitars for one song only. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked Ranaldo the 33rd and 34th Greatest Guitarists of All Time. In 2011, Moore and his wife, Sonic Youth bassist Kim Gordon, announced. Though his marriage was ending Moore never claimed. In addition to his work with Sonic Youth, Moore has released albums as a solo artist.
He and Gordon released a few songs as Mirror/Dash. Moore established Protest Records as an online gesture of activism but the project has since lapsed. Moore has collaborated with scores of musicians, including Maryanne Amacher, Lydia Lunch, DJ Spooky, William Hooker, Daniel Carter, Christian Marclay, Mike Watt, Loren Mazzacane Connors, William Winant, The Thing, Nels Cline, Cock E. S. P. John Moloney, Glenn Branca, Yamantaka Eye, My Cat is an Alien. John Russell, Steve Noble, John Edwards, Haino Keiji, John Zorn, Yoko Ono, Takehisa Kosugi, others. In the early 1990s, Moore formed the side band Dim Stars, with Richard Hell, Don Fleming, Steve Shelley with a guest appearance by Robert Quine. Moore performed solo on the side stage of the 1993 Lollapalooza tour. Additionally, Moore contributed guitar work and backing vocals on "Crush with Eyeliner", which appeared on R. E. M.'s Monster. He played Fred Cracklin in the Space Ghost Coast to Coast episode dedicated to Sonny Sharrock. In 2000 he contributed improvised guitar pieces for a collaborative project with conceptual artist/guitarist Marco Fusinato.
Since 2004, he has recorded and performed with the noise collective To Live and Shave in L. A. the lineup of which features Andrew W. K.. He recorded with the band at Sonic Youth's former studio in Manhattan, performed with them at the George W. Bush "anti-inaugural" Noise Against Fascism concert in Washington, D. C. which Moore curated, named in reference to Sonic Youth's 1992 song "Youth Against Fascism". Moore curated the "Nightmare Before Christmas" weekend of the All Tomorrow's Parties music festival in December 2006. On June 21, 2007, Moore revealed to Spin Magazine that he would be releasing a solo album titled Trees Outside The Academy; the album was recorded at J Mascis' studio in Massachusetts. The album features violinist Samara Lubelski; the album features collaborations between Mascis and Charalambides' Christina Carter, who performs a duet with Moore on the track, "Honest James." The album was released o
Xiu Xiu is an American experimental band, formed in 2002 by singer-songwriter Jamie Stewart in San Jose, California. The line-up consists of Stewart, Angela Seo, Thor Harris, Jordan Geiger; the band's name comes from the film Xiu Xiu: The Sent Down Girl and has influenced the sound of their music according to Stewart. Jamie Stewart formed Xiu Xiu in 2002 after Ten in the Swear Jar, disbanded. Stewart and Cory McCulloch continued from the previous group, were joined by Yvonne Chen and Lauren Andrews; the band's sound was characterized by its use of indigenous instruments and programmed drums in place of traditional rock instruments: harmonium, brass bells, keyboards, a cross between a guitarrón mexicano and a cello for bass, etc. Xiu Xiu would tour their first LP Knife Play, its successor EP, Chapel of the Chimes, in 2002, blending both melody and cacophony with a heavy reliance on percussive instrumentation and brass instrumentation. Following 2002, the group would shrink in membership as Yvonne Chen left in order to focus on her vegan boutique Otsu and self-published magazine Zum, while Cory McCulloch stopped touring, focusing instead on producing the band's next two LPs.
A personal loss would affect Xiu Xiu as well, as Jamie Stewart's father and record producer Michael Stewart was found dead after an apparent suicide. Coping with these losses, Stewart would record the group's follow-up to Knife Play, 2003's A Promise. Continuing to focus on the subject matter of Jamie Stewart's personal life – as witnessed by Knife Play – A Promise acts like a concept record of internal despair. Consisting of ten tracks, the record was oriented towards a more or less acoustic presentation, rather than relying on the booming brass and percussion which had worked to make Knife Play. However, the record did not veer from the formulated programming for which Stewart and McCulloch would be praised by fans and critics alike. During this time, Stewart recorded Fag Patrol, a collection of previous recorded material as well as covers of songs by The Smiths and his previous group with McCulloch, Ten in the Swear Jar. Released as a handmade CD by Rob Fisk's and Kelly Goodefisk's Free Porcupine Society, Fag Patrol was limited to only a few hundred copies.
In the spring of 2004, Stewart and McCulloch released what is considered by many to be the group's most accessible album, Fabulous Muscles. More pop-friendly in its sound than previous releases, Fabulous Muscles boosted Xiu Xiu to new heights in terms of popularity thanks to its single "I Luv the Valley OH!". The tone of the album reflected an "incredibly violent jarring, difficult to take" string of events in Stewart's life. Stewart described his lyrics as "never fictional", he told Pitchfork that Xiu Xiu songs are based around five topics: family, sex and lovelessness, how they are connected. With the departure of Lauren Andrews in 2003 – who wished to focus on her academic studies – Stewart was joined on stage by his "long-lost" cousin, Caralee McElroy in 2004; the two would tour relentlessly throughout that year, releasing not only the group's third LP, but split recordings with This Song Is a Mess But So Am I and Bunkbed, along with the "Fleshettes" single – which featured a rendition of the Ten in the Swear Jar track "Helsabot" by McElroy.
Seen as a return to Stewart's more dark and crabby demeanor, Xiu Xiu's fourth album La Forêt alluded to a frustration which Stewart had felt throughout the process of recording the 2004 record. Centered around the topic of "horrible times in horrible lives" as well as Stewart's personal frustrations with then-U. S. President George W. Bush, La Forêt is characterized by an altogether different sound – layered by mandolin, clarinet, cello and tuba. In addition to La Forêt, Xiu Xiu would join Italian experimental group Larsen in forming XXL, which released its first LP, ¡Ciaütistico! in 2005, followed by its successor ¿Spicchiology? in 2007. Stewart issued formative splits throughout 2005, working with artists such as The Paper Chase, Kill Me Tomorrow, Devendra Banhart. In 2009, Stewart would break from tradition by ending his professional relationship with McCulloch, he started recording with San Francisco-based band Deerhoof's drummer Greg Saunier as producer for Xiu Xiu's fifth LP entitled The Air Force.
Saunier, who had worked with Stewart on Knife Play, created for the record a greater wall of sound – a stark contrast to that of McCulloch's discordant attitude towards production. The Air Force would be supported throughout 2006 by a three piece ensemble, as Stewart and McElroy were joined by drummer/percussionist Ches Smith, who himself had worked with the group on Knife Play. Produced by Greg Saunier, Stewart said that the album is about "making other people feel bad" instead of feeling bad oneself and the year it was released was "one of the first not dominated by personal tragedies" Its major themes are "guilt and sex as opposed to sorrow and sex". Stewart considered it their best and most consciously pop album yet, he said that the band was obsessed with Weezer's Blue Album and The Smiths's The Queen Is Dead while on tour, though the album does not reflect those albums particularly. The Air Force contained the band's first album-based song without vocals by Stewart – with McElroy singing "Hello From Eau Claire".
A third EP – Tu Mi Piaci – of songs recorded by acts such as Bauhaus, Big Star, The Pussycat Dolls, Nina Simone was released in 2006, along with a collaboration with ambient artist Grouper, entitled Creepshow. Shortly thereafter, Xiu Xiu would record 2008's Women as Lovers, their long
Sampler (musical instrument)
A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument similar in some respects to a synthesizer, but instead of generating new sounds with voltage-controlled oscillators, it uses sound recordings of real instrument sounds, excerpts from recorded songs or other sounds. The samples are recorded by the user or by a manufacturer; these sounds are played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device to perform or compose music. Because these samples are stored in digital memory, the information can be accessed. A single sample may be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords. Samplers offer filters, effects units, modulation via low frequency oscillation and other synthesizer-like processes that allow the original sound to be modified in many different ways. Most samplers have Multitimbrality capabilities – they can play back different sounds simultaneously. Many are polyphonic – they are able to play more than one note at the same time.
Prior to computer memory-based samplers, musicians used tape replay keyboards, which store recordings on analog tape. When a key is pressed the tape head plays a sound; the Mellotron was the most notable model, used by a number of groups in the late 1960s and the 1970s, but such systems were expensive and heavy due to the multiple tape mechanisms involved, the range of the instrument was limited to three octaves at the most. To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument; the emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical. The earliest digital sampling was done on the EMS Musys system, developed by Peter Grogono, David Cockerell and Peter Zinovieff at their London Studio c. 1969. The system ran on Digital Equipment PDP-8's; these had a pair of fast D/A and A/D converters, 12,000 bytes of core memory, backed up by a hard drive of 32k and by tape storage. EMS equipment was used to control the world's first digital studio, their earliest digital sampling was done on that system during 1971-1972 for Harrison Birtwistle's "Chronometer" released in 1975.
The first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell, while the first polyphonic digital sampling synthesizer was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMI, first available in 1979. These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable sample-based synthesis. Since the 1980s, samplers have been using pulse-code modulation for digital sampling; the first PCM digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic. The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM; the LMD-649 was used by other Japanese synthpop artists in the early 1980s, including Chiemi Manabe and Logic System. The E-mu SP-1200 percussion sampler, upon its release in August 1987, popularized the use of digital samplers within hip hop music in the late 1980s.
Akai pioneered many processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa. The Akai MPC60, released in 1988, went on to become the most influential sampler in hip hop music. During the 1980s, hybrid synthesizers began to utilize short samples along with digital synthesis to create more realistic imitations of instruments than had been possible. Examples are the Korg M1, Roland U-110, Yamaha's SY series, the Kawai K series of instruments. Limiting factors at the time were the cost of physical memory and the limitations of external data storage devices, this approach made best use of the tiny amount of memory available to the design engineers; the 2010s-era music workstation uses sampling, whether simple playback or complex editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, includes features such as a sequencer. Samplers, together with traditional Foley artists, are the mainstay of modern sound effects production.
Using digital techniques various effects can be pitch-shifted and otherwise altered in ways that would have required many hours when done with tape. A sampler is controlled by an attached music keyboard or other external MIDI controller or source; each note-message received by the sampler accesses a particular sample. Multiple samples are arranged across the keyboard, each assigned to a note or group of notes. Keyboard tracking allows samples to be shifted in pitch by an appropriate amount in semitones and tones; each group of notes to which a single sample has been assigned is called a "keyzone", the resultant set of zones is called a keymap. For example, in Fig 1, a keymap has been created with four different samples; each sample, if pitched, should be associated with a particular center pitch. The first sample is distributed across three different notes, G2, G#2, A2. If the note G#2 is received the sampler will play back the Violin G#2 sample at its original pitch. If the note received is G2 the sampler will shift the sample down a semitone while the note A2 will play it back a semitone tone higher.
If the next note is input the sampler will select the Violin B2 sample, playing it a semitone lower than its center pitch of B2. In gene
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
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