Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, highlighting the work of architect Bertram Goodhue, is credited with giving the style national exposure. Embraced principally in California and Florida, the Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931, the antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style. The possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late 19th and they integrated porticoes and colonnades influenced by Beaux Arts classicism as well. By the early years of the 1910s, architects in Florida had begun to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style, Frederick H. Trimbles Farmers Bank in Vero Beach, completed in 1914, is a fully mature early example of the style. The city of St. Cloud, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a collection of subtle stucco buildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico.
Many of these were designed by architectural partners Ida Annah Ryan, the major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style was California, especially in the coastal cities. In 1915 the San Diego Panama-California Exposition, with architects Bertram Goodhue and Carleton Winslow Sr. popularized the style in the state and it is best exemplified in the California Quadrangle, built as the grand entrance to that Exposition. In the early 1920s, architect Lilian Jeannette Rice designed the style in the development of the town of Rancho Santa Fe in San Diego County, the city of Santa Barbara adopted the style to give it a unified Spanish character after widespread destruction in the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Its County Courthouse is an example of the style. Real estate developer Ole Hanson favored the Spanish Colonial Revival style in his founding and development of San Clemente, the Pasadena City Hall, as well as the Sonoma and Beverly Hills City Halls are other notable civic examples in California.
Between 1922 and 1931, architect Robert H. Spurgeon constructed 32 Spanish colonial revival houses in Riverside California, many houses of this style can still be seen in the Colonia Nápoles, Condesa and Lomas de Chapultepec areas of Mexico City. By the time the United States liberated the Philippines from the Spaniards, American architects further developed this style in the Philippines, given the Philippines Spanish heritage, but at the same time modernizing the buildings with American amenities. The best example of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture and California mission style is the famed Manila Hotel designed by William E. Parsons and built in 1909. Other examples exist throughout the country such as Gota de Leche, Paco Market, the majority of these buildings though were lost through earthquakes and most especially during World War II when the Americans bombed Manila to counter the Japanese. Mediterranean style became popular in places like Sydney suburbs Manly and Bondi in the 1920s and 1930s.
One variant, known as Spanish Mission or Hollywood Spanish, became popular as Australians saw films of, Spanish mission houses began to appear in the wealthier suburbs, the most famous being Boomerang, at Elizabeth Bay. The Plaza Theatre in Sydney is a cinema in the style. In the 1930s, numerous houses in Spanish Revival style were built in Shanghai, although Shanghai was not culturally linked to the Spanish-speaking world, these buildings were probably inspired by Hollywood movies, which were highly influential in the city at the time
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Santa Barbara Library
The Santa Barbara Public Library is the second library in Santa Barbara, California. It is the largest element of the system which serves Santa Barbara County. It circulates 1,585,836 items annually to approximately 225,000 residents, the librarys director is Jessica Cadiente. There are branch libraries in Solvang, Goleta, Carpinteria, the Faulkner Art Gallery, and Faulkner East and West Galleries, are located within the library building. The library building was designed in 1924 by the architect Carleton Winslow in the Italianate style, and remodeled and expanded in 1979-80. It is located in the center of the city of Santa Barbara, official website Independent site about Santa Barbara libraries
Clarence Samuel Stein was an American urban planner and writer, a major proponent of the Garden City movement in the United States. Stein was born in Rochester, New York into an upwardly mobile Jewish family, while a youth, his family transplanted to New York City. Returning to the United States, he again postponed university education, instead, he focused on the courses newly appearing at Columbia under the influence of the Pragmatists and Progressives, cabinet making, furniture design, and design more generally. Having been deeply impressed by the vision of modern Paris while on his European tour, Stein decided to attend the prestigious, in 1919 Stein started his own practice in New York, and in 1921 began his long association with fellow architect Henry Wright. In 1923 Stein co-founded the Regional Planning Association of America to address large-scale planning issues such as housing, the impact of sprawl. Other founding members included Lewis Mumford and Benton MacKaye, the RPAA helped MacKaye develop his vision for what would become the Appalachian Trail, from 1923 to 1926 Stein served as chairman for the New York State Housing and Regional Planning Commission.
Stein travelled extensivelly outside of the USA and established friendship with among others Swedish statesman-planner Yngve Larsson, from 1928 to his death in 1975, Stein was married to stage and film actress Aline MacMahon. Beginning in 1923 Stein and Henry Wright collaborated on the plan for Sunnyside Gardens, the 77-acre low-rise pedestrian-oriented development was constructed between 1924 and 1929. It was funded by fellow RPAA officer Alexander Bing and took the garden city ideas of Sir Ebenezer Howard as a model and this neighborhood has retained its special character and has been listed on the National Register of Historical Places. Construction for Sunnyside started April 1,1924, two months after it was purchased from Pennsylvania Railroad Company, because of the high costs of urban land, many neighborhoods were congested and run down, making it unhealthy and an unenjoyable place to live in. Sunnyside was different, the land was not being used by the company so it was cheap. Stein had an important job with Sunnyside.
He was responsible not only for developing a more affordable neighborhood. He designed more natural space with lots of light, resulting in a serene living environment. In between all the apartment buildings there was a public open space, such as a play ground or mini park. The park was surrounded by individual private gardens that went to the ground level of the apartments. Gardens were placed on the front of the apartment buildings between the road and the building and this helped break up the long lines of houses and created an appealing mood. Stein needed as much space as possible to incorporate gardens and open areas, because of this, he had to place the garages by themselves separate from the apartment buildings
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
Founded in 1916, the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History reconnects more than 150,000 people each year to nature indoors and outdoors. Uniquely nestled in nature, the Museum is located along Mission Creek in the Mission Canyon area. The Museum has ten exhibit halls focusing on regional natural history including astronomy, insects, mammals, marine life, plant life. Also, the Museum is home to the only full-dome planetarium on the Central Coast, a library. Though the effort waned at the end of the century, the arrival of ornithologist William Leon Dawson from Ohio re-ignited the effort. Dawson and a group of prominent Santa Barbarans founded the Museum of Comparative Oology, the initial holdings were assembled from his own extensive collection of bird eggs as well as collections of other community members. According to the Museums website, Dawson believed oology—the study of bird eggs—“would throw a flood of light upon the trend of life itself, ” yielding “the secrets of life’s origins and its destiny.
”Though it began from a collection of bird eggs, the holdings of the Museum were soon expanded into other realms by its Board of Directors. The successor to William Dawson as director was Ralph Hoffmann, a Harvard-trained educator and this building was built with funds donated by Mrs. Rowland G. Hazard in memory of her late husband and opened in 1923. In 1937, Arthur Sterry Coggeshall came to Santa Barbara, and took the position of director of the museum and he had worked at various prestigious museums, such as the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh. Upon coming, he convinced Max Fleischmann, heir to the Fleischmann Yeast fortune, Coggeshall was a key player in the foundation of the California Association of Museums and the Western Museum Association. Following Coggeshall, Dr. Vertress L. VanderHoof, a research geologist from the University of California, in 1965, Dr. Frederick H. Pough became director, he was a vulcanologist and mineralogist from the American Museum of Natural History.
In between the tenure of these last two directors, interim directors were recruited from staff and an outsider who lasted only a short time, in 1972, the museum hired Dr. Dennis Power, an evolutionary biologist specializing in birds on islands. Power was a native Californian who at the time was an Associate Curator at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. He stayed until 1994 when he was recruited to be the director of the Oakland Museum of California,22 years being the longest tenure of any of the museums leaders. From the 1960s through the 1990s, the museum had a role in the field of environmental action. Museum scientists helped establish the whale stranding network and participated in the California Condor Project, albert Einstein, who was visiting the museum with his wife, in 1931, remarked I can see that this museum has been built by the work of love. The museum is renowned for fine dioramas of birds and these were illustrated in the 1930s and 1960s by famous artists of the California school of plein-aire painters.
Among the most notable of these is the Bird Habitat Hall featuring mounted specimens by staff members Egmont Rett and Waldo Abbott and background paintings by Ray Strong
Carthay Circle Theatre
The Carthay Circle Theatre was one of the most famous movie palaces of Hollywoods Golden Age. It opened at 6316 San Vicente Boulevard in 1926 and was considered developer J, the Carthay Circle Theater provided the circle for which Carthay Circle has come to be named. The auditorium itself was shaped in the form of a circle, extended vertically into a cylinder. McCarthys development was called Carthay—an anglicized version of his last name, the theater was called the Circle Theater for its unique floorplan. Initially developed by Fox, it was called the Fox Carthay Circle Theater, the theater became better known than the development in which it was located, and this has led to confusion in the name of the area. The theaters name meant the Circle Theater, by Fox, located in Carthay, the misinterpretation has stuck, and now the region is more or less officially known as Carthay Circle, even as its theater namesake has been gone for half a century. The exterior design was in the Spanish Colonial Revival style, with whitewashed concrete trimmed in blue, with a bell tower.
The architects were Carleton Winslow and Dwight Gibbs, the iconic octagonal tower was placed in the front corner spandrel space left between the circle and the square. The auditoriums cylinder-shaped wall was raised up above the roof line, simple and dignified, the building stands out for its intrinsic beauty, raved The Architect and Engineer. Pacific Coast Architect wrote that it was a theatre masked as a cathedral, there was a drop curtain that featured an homage to the pioneer Donner Party, which perished crossing the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Bronze busts of Native American leaders and photographs of Lillie Langtry, murals of historic scenes forty feet tall graced the walls, painted by Pasadena artist Alson S. Clark. For Disneys Fantasia, the most elaborate audio system in use at the time, only Graumans Chinese Theatre in Hollywood had such elaborate premieres in that era. In 1951 the first PATSY Award ceremony was held at the Carthay Circle, presented by the American Humane Association, the event was hosted by Ronald Reagan, and honored Francis the Talking Mule as the first recipient of the award that honored animal actors.
The store now sells clothing items for men and women, in June 2012, a fanciful larger-scale replica of the theater building was opened in the Buena Vista Street section of Disney California Adventure Park at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California. Although this replica is larger than the Orlando version, it is slightly smaller than the 1926 original. While there is no actual theatre inside, the houses the Carthay Circle Lounge. This structure is located on a plaza known as Carthay Circle. Also, the originals signature circular floorplan is absent from the building
Damariscotta is a town in Lincoln County, United States. The population was 2,218 at the 2010 census, a popular tourist resort area, the towns of Damariscotta and Newcastle are linked by the Main Street bridge over the Damariscotta River, forming the Twin Villages. The name Damariscotta is an Indian name meaning river of little fish, the area was once inhabited by the Wawenock Abenaki Indians, who left behind 2, 500-year-old oyster shell middens along the banks of the Damariscotta River. The Whaleback Shell Midden is now a historic site. The land became part of the Pemaquid Patent, granted by the Plymouth Council in 1631 to Robert Aldsworth and Gyles Elbridge, merchants from Bristol, at Pemaquid, they built a fort and trading post. Some colonists moved upriver from the village at Pemaquid about 1640 to settle what is today Damariscotta, but the settlements were attacked in 1676 during King Philips War, with the inhabitants either driven off or massacred. Attempts to rebuild alternated with further attacks during the French and Indian Wars, the Province of Massachusetts Bay constructed Fort William Henry at Pemaquid in 1692, but it was destroyed in 1696.
The last battle of King Williams War was on September 9, Fort Frederick, in 1729, successfully resisted the regions final two attacks, and was pulled down at the Time of the Revolution so that the British could not occupy it. With peace at last, Damariscotta grew as a trade center and it was incorporated as a separate town on March 15,1848, set off from parts of Bristol and Nobleboro. Damariscotta is a corruption of the Algonquian word Madamescontee, meaning place of an abundance of alewives. The main village is located at the falls and head of navigation on the Damariscotta River. Early industries included two sawmills, a factory and a tannery. Along the river were established several brickyards, which supplied much of the used to build Bostons Back Bay neighborhood. But shipbuilding in particular brought Damariscotta wealth in the 1800s, when ships were launched at the towns shipyards. The terminus of the Damariscotta River is the Great Salt Bay, which is the northernmost mating area for crabs in North America.
Damariscotta is home of the Skidompha Public Library, whose name is a formed from the first letter of several founders surnames. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 14.71 square miles. Damariscotta is situated on the Damariscotta River, an estuary of the Gulf of Maine
La Jolla is a hilly seaside community within the city of San Diego, United States occupying 7 miles of curving coastline along the Pacific Ocean within the northern city limits. The population reported in the 2010 Census was 46,781, Local Native Americans, the Kumeyaay, called this location mat kulaaxuuy, lit. land of holes. The topographic feature that gave rise to the holes is uncertain, it probably refers to sea-level caves located on the north-facing bluffs. It is suggested that the Kumeyaay name for the area was transcribed by the Spanish settlers as La Jolla, an alternative, pseudo-etymological suggestion for the origin of the name is that it is an alternate spelling of the Spanish word la joya, which means the jewel. Despite being disputed by scholars, this derivation of the name has been cited in popular culture. That supposed origin gave rise to the nickname Jewel City, during the Mexican period of San Diegos history, La Jolla was mapped as pueblo land and contained about 60 lots. When California became a state in 1850, the La Jolla area was incorporated as part of the chartered City of San Diego, in 1870 Charles Dean acquired several of the pueblo lots and subdivided them into an area that became known as La Jolla Park.
Dean was unable to develop the land and left San Diego in 1881, a real estate boom in the 1880s led speculators Frank T. Botsford and George W. Heald to further develop the sparsely settled area. In the 1890s the San Diego, Pacific Beach, and La Jolla Railway was built, La Jolla became known as a resort area. To attract visitors to the beach, the railway built facilities such as a bath house, visitors were housed in small cottages and bungalows above La Jolla Cove, as well as a temporary tent city, erected every summer. The La Jolla Park Hotel opened in 1893, the Hotel Cabrillo was built in 1908 by Squire James A. Wilson and was incorporated into the La Valencia Hotel. By 1900, La Jolla comprised 100 buildings and 350 residents, the first reading room was built in 1898. A volunteer fire brigade was organized in 1907, the city of San Diego established a fire house in 1914. Livery stable owner Nathan Rannells served successively as La Jollas volunteer fire captain, first police officer, the Bishops School opened in 1909.
La Jolla High School was established in 1922, the La Jolla Beach and Yacht Club was built in 1927. In 1896 journalist and publisher Ellen Browning Scripps settled in La Jolla and she was wealthy in her own right from her investments and writing, and she inherited a large sum from her brother George H. Scripps in 1900. Unmarried and childless, she devoted herself to philanthropic endeavors, particularly those benefiting her adopted home of La Jolla and she commissioned many of La Jollas most notable buildings, usually designed by Irving Gill or his nephew and partner Louis John Gill. Her donations launched the Scripps Memorial Hospital in 1924, the Scripps Metabolic Clinic, Ellen Browning Scripps founded Scripps College, a womens college, in 1926
Spanish Colonial architecture
These two visible aspects of the city are connected and complementary. The 16th century Laws of the Indies included provisions for the layout of new settlements in the Americas. The new churches and mission stations, for example, aimed for maximum effect in terms of their imposition and domination of the buildings or countryside. In order for that to be achievable, they had to be strategically located - at the center of a square or at a higher point in the landscape. The Spanish Colonial style of architecture dominated in the early Spanish colonies of North and South America and it is sometimes marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Mexico, as the center of New Spain - and the richest province of Spains colonial empire - has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. With twenty-nine sites, Mexico has more sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list than any country in the Americas.
Some of the most famous cities in Mexico built in the Colonial style are Puebla, Querétaro, the historic center of Mexico City is a mixture of architectural styles from the 16th century to the present. The Metropolitan Cathedral – built from 1563 to 1813 in a variety of including the Renaissance, Baroque. The rich interior is mostly Baroque, during the late 17th century to 1750, one of Mexicos most popular architectural styles was Mexican Churrigueresque. These buildings were built in an ultra-Baroque, fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic style, Antigua Guatemala in Guatemala is known for its well preserved Spanish colonial style architecture. The city of Antigua is famous for its well-preserved Spanish Mudéjar-influenced Baroque architecture as well as a number of ruins of colonial churches dating from the 16th century. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Ciudad Colonial of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, founded in 1498, is the oldest city in the New World and a prime example of this architectural style.
San Juan was founded by the Spaniards in 1521, where Spanish colonial architecture can be found like the Historic Hotel El Convento, Old San Juan with its walled city and buildings are very good examples, and in excellent condition. According to UNESCO, Ecuador has the largest, best-preserved and it was the first city that was inscribed onto the UNESCO World Heritage List, along with Kraków, Poland in 1978. The historic district of city is the sole largest and best preserved area of Spanish Colonial architecture in the world. The idea of laying out a city in a pattern is not unique to the Spanish. In fact, it never started out with the Spanish colonizers and it has been traced back to some ancient civilizations especially the ancient cities of the Aztec and Maya, and Ancient Greeks
William S. Hebbard
William Sterling Will Hebbard was an American architect most noted for his work in San Diego County, California. Hebbard briefly worked as a draftsman and assistant for the firm and Root in Chicago, by 1890 he was in private practice in San Diego. In 1891, he associated with the Reid Brothers firm, noted designers of Hotel Del Coronado. In 1898, he formed a well known partnership with Irving Gill, the Hebbard & Gill firm arguably produced San Diegos best architecture until its breakup in 1907. During World War I he entered the Army Transport Service and worked until 1922 as a consultant for military shipbuilding. After his service with the Army, he moved to Los Angeles and he bard graduated from Cornells School of Architecture