Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a field that has base lengths of 60 feet, a pitcher's mound that ranges from 35-43 feet away from home plate, a homerun fence, 220 feet away from home plate. It was invented in 1887 in Chicago, United States as an indoor game; the game moves at a faster pace than traditional baseball. There is less time for the base runner to get to first; the name softball was given to the game in 1926, because the ball used to be soft, however in modern day usage, the balls are hard. A tournament held in 1933 at the Chicago World's Fair spurred interest in the game; the Amateur Softball Association of America governs the game in the United States and sponsors annual sectional and World Series championships. The World Baseball Softball Confederation regulates rules of play in more than 110 countries, including the United States and Canada. Women's fast pitch softball became a Summer Olympic sport in 1996, but it and baseball were dropped from the 2012 Games.
There are three types of softball. In the most common type, slow-pitch softball, the ball, which can measure either 11 or 12 inches in circumference depending on gender and league, must arch on its path to the batter, there are 10 players on the field at once. In fastpitch softball, the pitch is fast, there are nine players on the field at one time, bunting and stealing bases are permitted. Modified softball restricts the "windmill" wind-up used by fastpitch pitchers, although the pitcher is allowed to throw as hard as possible with the restricted back swing. Softball rules vary somewhat from those of baseball. Two major differences are that the ball must be pitched underhand—from 46 ft for men or 43 ft for women as compared with 60.5 ft in baseball—and that seven innings instead of nine constitute a regulation game. Despite the name, the ball used in softball is not soft, it is about 12 in in circumference, 3 in larger than a baseball. Softball recreational leagues for children use 11-inch balls until they participate in travel ball around age 12 and adjust to a 12-inch sized ball.
The infield in softball is smaller than on an adult or high school baseball diamond but identical to that used by Little League Baseball. In fast pitch softball the entire infield is dirt, whereas the infield in baseball is grass except at the bases and on the pitcher's mound which are dirt. Softball mounds are flat, while baseball mounds are a small hill. Softballs are pitched underhand; this changes the arc of the ball. For example, depending if the pitcher pitches a fastball, in softball the ball would most rise while in baseball because the pitcher is on a hill, the ball would drop; the earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club at a gathering to hear the outcome of the Yale University and Harvard University football game; when the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The Harvard fan swung at the rolled up glove. George Hancock, a reporter there, called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat.
This first contest ended with a score of 41–40. The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded. George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of a 17" ball and an undersized bat in the next week; the Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball". Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, the first rules were published in 1889. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters. Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches in circumference, rather than the 16-inch ball used by the Farragut club, the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one. Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. Fire Station No. 19 in Minneapolis, Rober's post from 1896 to 1906, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in part for its association with the sport's development.
The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897. The name "softball" dates back to 1926; the name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress. The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. By 1936, the Joint Rules Committee on Softball had standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States. Sixteen-inch softball sometimes referred to as "mush ball" or "super-slow pitch", is a direct descendant of Hancock's original game. Defensive players are not allowed to wear fi
High technology, or high tech is technology, at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available. The opposite of high tech is low technology, referring to simple traditional or mechanical technology; the phrase was used in a 1958 The New York Times story advocating "atomic energy" for Europe: "... Western Europe, with its dense population and its high technology...." Robert Metz used the term in a financial column in 1969: "Arthur H. Collins of Collins Radio] controls a score of high technology patents in variety of fields." And in a 1971 article used the abbreviated form, "high tech."A used classification of high-technological manufacturing industries is provided by the OECD. It is based on the intensity of research and development activities used in these industries within OECD countries, resulting in four distinct categories. Startups working on high technologies are sometimes referred to as deep tech. Electronics Intermediate technology - sometimes used to mean technology between low and high technology Industrial design List of emerging technologies Innovation
Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt is Canada's Pacific Coast naval base and home port to Maritime Forces Pacific and Joint Task Force Pacific Headquarters. As of 2018, 4,411 military personnel and 2,762 civilians work at CFB Esquimalt; the base occupies 41 km2 at the southern tip of Vancouver Island on the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the municipality of Esquimalt, adjacent to the western limit of the provincial capital, Victoria. CFB Esquimalt comprises facilities that include Naden, Her Majesty's Canadian Dockyard Esquimalt, Fleet Maintenance Facility – Cape Breton, a Fire Fighting and Damage Control School, the Naval Officer Training Centre Venture, extensive housing including 716 personnel married quarters located at nine sites such as Belmont Park, WorkPoint, Royal Roads; the present dockyard and dry dock, known as HMC Dockyard Esquimalt, dates to the Royal Navy's Esquimalt Royal Navy Dockyard and was the Royal Navy's Pacific Station until 1911. Today it serves as the Canadian Naval Headquarters in the Pacific.
Major units of the base are: All ships and squadrons of the Maritime Pacific Fleet CF Fleet School Esquimalt Naval Officers Training Centre Fleet Diving Unit 443 Maritime Helicopter Squadron Canadian Forces Health Services Centre Naval Provost Marshal The Fifth Field Regiment The Canadian Scottish Regiment 11 Service Battalion 4th Canadian Rangers Patrol Group Acoustic Data Analysis Centre Regional Cadets Due to their significance in Canadian naval history, four sites at CFB Esquimalt have been designated the Esquimalt Naval Sites National Historic Site of Canada. As of March 2013, CFB Esquimalt services the following ships assigned to Canadian Fleet Pacific Halifax-class patrol frigates HMCS Vancouver HMCS Regina HMCS Calgary HMCS Winnipeg HMCS Ottawa Kingston-class coastal defence vessels HMCS Nanaimo HMCS Edmonton HMCS Whitehorse HMCS Yellowknife HMCS Saskatoon HMCS Brandon Victoria-class patrol submarines HMCS Victoria HMCS Corner Brook HMCS Chicoutimi Auxiliary vessels CFAV Tillicum, tugboat Fire-class fireboat CFAV Firebrand, fireboat Ville-class tugs CFAV Lawrenceville, tugboat CFAV Parksville, tugboat Glen-class tugs CFAV Glendyne, tugboat CFAV Glendale, tugboat Orca-class patrol craft training tenderOrca Raven Caribou Renard Wolf Grizzly Cougar Moose CFB Esquimalt contains several recognized and classified federal heritage buildings on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings.
Colwood Site Guard House Building 38 Recognized – 2002 Belmont Road Main Gatehouse BEL 13 Recognized – 2000 Cow Barn / Dairy RR6 Recognized – 2000 Gatehouse Lodge RR8 Recognized – 2000 Grant Block, Building 24 Recognized – 1990 Gymnasium RR22 Recognized – 2000 Hatley Castle Classified – 1986 Nixon Block RR24A Recognized – 2000 Stable / Garage RR4 Recognized – 2000 Swimming Pool RR22A Recognized – 2000 Dockyard Admiral's Residence, former Naval Storekeeper's Residence, Building D101 Classified – 1991 Aldergrove Building DY 199 Recognized – 2001 Bickford Tower, Building D118 Recognized – 1988 Clothing / Receiving Stores, Building D211 Recognized – 1991 Cordage / Furniture Stores, Building D80 Recognized – 1991 Dry Dock Pumphouse, Building D175 Recognized – 1991 Electrical Shop Building DY 141 Recognized – 2001 Engineer's Residence, Building D1 Recognized – 1991 Factory, Building 51 Recognized – 1991 Guard House Building D214 Recognized – 1991 Main Office, Building D70 Recognized – 1991 Oil Stores Building D83 Recognized – 1991 Ordnance Stores, Building D77 Recognized – 1991 Pump House, Graving Dock No. 1 Recognized – 1991 Royal Navy Prison, Building D26 Recognized – 1991 Rum / Salt Meats Stores, Building D75-D76 Recognized – 1991 Sail Loft / Oil Stores, Building D109 Recognized – 1991 Shipwrights' Shed / Spar Shed, Building D113 Recognized – 1991 Stone Frigate Building D38 Recognized – 1991 Transformer House, Graving Dock No. 11 Recognized – 1991 Veterans' Cemetery Chapel Recognized – 1996 Warehouse Building D85 Recognized – 1986 Naden Administration Block, Building 37 Recognized – 1990 Administration Office, former Offices of the Officer-in-Charge, Building 5 Recognized – 1991 Catholic Chapel, Building 35 Recognized – 1990 Communications School, Building 67 Recognized – 1991 Drill Hall Building 33-33A-33B Recognized – 1991 Gunnery School, former Building 50 Recognized – 1991 Nelles Block, Building 34 Recognized – 1994 Officer's Ward / Base Museum, Building 20 Recognized – 1990 Protestant Chapel Building 39 Recognized – 1990 Radar Training Building 92A Recognized – 2006 Stores / Museum Warehouse, Building 29 Recognized – 1990 Torpedo School, former Building 2 Recognized – 1991 Trades Training Building 92 Recognized – 2006 Signal Hill Armament Artificer's and Sergeant's Quarters, former Building 522 Recognized – 1991 Gun Emplacement, Building 578 Recognized – 1990 Private Married Quarters, former Building 523 Recognized – 1991 Reserve Ordnance Stores, former Building 508 Recognized – 1991 Work Point Barracks Administration Building 1020 Recognized – 1991 Artillery Barracks, Building 1075 Recognized – 1991 Barracks Building 1004 Recognized – 1991 Work Point Guard House Recognized – 2011The Institute for Stained Glass in Canada has documented the stained glass at the Multi-Faith Naval Chapel and the stained glass at the Old Naval and Garrison Church, now known as St Paul's Anglican.
CFB Esquimalt Naval & Military Museum is located at HMCS Naden. Building 20, part of Naden Museum Square is a Municipa
CFB Goose Bay
Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay referred to as CFB Goose Bay, is a Canadian Forces Base located in the municipality of Happy Valley-Goose Bay in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is operated as an air force base by the Royal Canadian Air Force, its primary RCAF lodger unit is 5 Wing referred to as 5 Wing Goose Bay. The airfield at CFB Goose Bay is used by civilian aircraft, with civilian operations at the base referring to the facility as Goose Bay Airport; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers; the mission of 5 Wing is to support the defence of North American airspace, as well as to support the RCAF and allied air forces in training. Two units comprise 5 Wing: 5 Wing Air Reserve Flight. CFB Goose Bay serves as a forward operating location for RCAF CF-18 Hornet aircraft and the base and surrounding area is used to support units of the Canadian Army during training exercises.
While the flat and weather-favoured area around North West River had for years been under consideration for an airport for the anticipated North Atlantic air routes, it was not until Eric Fry of the Dominion Geodetic Survey investigated the area on 1 July 1941 that the Goose Bay location was selected. Fry beat by three days a similar United States Army Air Forces survey team under Captain Elliott Roosevelt; these surveys used amphibious aircraft. Eric Fry recalled: "The airport is located on the plateau at the west end of Terrington Basin but it is only five miles inland from the narrows between Goose Bay and Terrington Basin. Having a Gander air base in Newfoundland I suggested we call the Labrador site Goose Bay airport and the suggestion was accepted."Under pressure from Britain and the United States the Canadian Air Ministry worked at a record pace, by November, three 2,100-metre gravel runways were ready. The first land aircraft movement was recorded on 9 December 1941. By spring of 1942 the base, now carrying the wartime codename Alkali, was bursting with air traffic destined for the United Kingdom.
In time, the USAAF and the British Royal Air Force each developed sections of the triangular base for their own use, but the airport remained under overall Canadian control despite its location in the Dominion of Newfoundland, not yet a part of Canada. The 99-year lease arrangement with the United Kingdom was not finalized until October 1944. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as RCAF Aerodrome - Goose Bay, Labrador at 53°20′N 60°24′W with a variation of 35 degrees west and elevation of 45 metres; the field was listed as "All hard-surfaced" and had three runways listed as follows: The northeast side of the facility was built to be a temporary RCAF base, complete with its own hangars and control tower, while the south side of the facility, built for the Americans, was being upgraded with its own aprons, earth-covered magazines, control tower and infrastructure. The Canadian and American bases were built as an RCAF station and a United States Air Force base known as Goose AB, housing units of the Strategic Air Command and Aerospace Defense Command.
It was home to permanent detachments of the RAF, Aeronautica Militare, Royal Netherlands Air Force, in addition to temporary deployments from several other NATO countries. 1950 – The Rivière-du-Loup Incident Goose Air Base was the site of the first US nuclear weapons in Canada, when in 1950 the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command stationed 11 model 1561 Fat Man atomic bombs at the base in the summer, flew them out in December. While returning to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base with one of the bombs on board, a USAF B-50 heavy bomber encountered engine trouble, had to drop, conventionally detonate, the bomb over the St. Lawrence, contaminating the river with uranium-238. 1954 – Construction of the Strategic Air Command Weapons Storage AreaConstruction of Strategic Air Command's Weapons Storage Area at Goose Air Base was completed in 1954. The area was surrounded by two fences, topped with barbed wire, it was the highest security area in Goose Air Base and comprised One guard house One administration building Three warehouses Six guard towers One plant group building Five earth-covered magazines for non-nuclear weapon storage Four earth-covered magazines for "pit" storage The design and layout of the Goose Air Base weapons storage area was identical, with only slight modifications for weather and terrain, to the three Strategic Air Command weapons storage areas in Morocco located at Sidi Slimane Air Base, Ben Guerir Air Base, Nouasseur Air Base, which were constructed between 1951 and 1952 as overseas operational storage sites.
The last nuclear bomb components that were being stored at the Goose Air Base weapons storage area were removed in June 1971. 1958 – Construction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage areaConstruction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage area at Goose Air Base was completed in 1958. This extension to the Strategic Air Command weapons storage area was built directly beside the constructed area, with a separate entrance; the buildings built within the area were: Three storage buildings One guardhouse One missile assembly building. The storage wa
CBC News, stylized as CBCnews, is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, CBC.ca. Founded in 1941, CBC News is the largest news broadcaster in Canada and has local and national broadcasts and stations, it collaborates with its French-language counterpart, Radio-Canada Info, although the two are organizationally separate. The CBC follows the Journalistic Standards and Practices which provides the policy framework within which CBC journalism seeks to meet the expectations and obligations it faces from the public; the first CBC newscast was a bilingual radio report on November 2, 1936. The CBC News Service was inaugurated during World War II on January 1, 1941 when Dan McArthur, chief news editor, had Wells Ritchie prepare for the announcer Charles Jennings a national report at 8:00 pm. Readers who followed Jennings were Frank Herbert and Earl Cameron.
CBC News Roundup startet on August 16, 1943 at 7:45 pm, being replaced by The World at Six on October 31, 1966. On English-language television the first newscast, part of CBC Newsmagazine, was given on September 8, 1952 on CBLT, the only English station telecasting; that year CBC National News was introduced changing its name to The National in 1970. CBC began delivering news online in 1996 via the Newsworld Online website; the CBC News Online site launched in 1998. In 2009, CBC's Television News, Radio News and Digital News departments were merged into CBC News with a central assignment and reporting structure. In 2013, CBC News relaunched its CBC Aboriginal website, based in Winnipeg, with journalists in Toronto and other cities. In 2016, the site was renamed CBC Indigenous. In 2017, CBC News relaunched its flagship newscast, The National, with four co-anchors based in Toronto and Vancouver. CBC News has won Canadian awards including Michener, Canadian Screen, Canadian Association of Journalists and RTDNA awards and internationally, Prix Italia, Monte Carlo, Gabriel and International Emmys.
Thousands of hours of archival CBC News programming are available at the CBC Digital Archives Website and Facebook page. The Television News section of CBC News is responsible for the news programs on CBC Television and CBC News Network, including national news programs like The National, The Fifth Estate, The Investigators with Diana Swain and The Weekly with Wendy Mesley, they are responsible for news, business and sports information for Air Canada's inflight entertainment. The distinctive music on all CBC television news programs was introduced in 2006 as part of the extensive rebranding of all news programming under the CBC News title. Most local newscasts on CBC Television are branded as CBC News:, such as CBC News: Toronto at Six. Local radio newscasts are heard on the half-hour during morning and afternoon drive shows and on the hour at other times during the day; the Radio News section of CBC News produces on-the-hour updates for the CBC's national radio newscasts and provides content for regional updates.
Major radio programs include World Report, The World at Six, The World This Hour and The World this Weekend. The majority of news and information is aired on CBC Radio One. All newscasts are available via apps or via voice-activated virtual assistants. CBC News Online is the CBC's CBC.ca news website. Launched in 1996, it was named one of the most popular news websites in Canada in 2012; the website provides regional and international news coverage, investigative, business and entertainment. Investigative, business, Indigenous, health and tech news. An Opinion section was reintroduced in November 2016. Many reports are accompanied by podcasting and video from the CBC's television and radio news services. CBC News content is available on multiple platforms including Facebook, Instagram, etc. CBC News Network is an English-language news channel owned and operated by the CBC, it began broadcasting on July 31, 1989 from several regional studios in Halifax, Toronto and Calgary. It was revamped and relaunched as the CBC News Network in 2009 as part of a larger renewal of the CBC News division.
Current programs include CBC News Now, Power & Politics, The National with Adrienne Arsenault and, Ian Hanomansing, Andrew Chang and Rosemary Barton. In November 2005, the CBC News Weather Centre was established to cover local and international weather, using in part data provided by Environment Canada. Claire Martin was hired to serve as the primary face of the Weather Centre. In April 2014, the national Weather Centre was disbanded due to CBC budget cuts. In November 2014, citing difficulties implementing this new system, CBC announced a one-year trial content sharing partnership with The Weather Network, the owned cable specialty channel, which went into effect on December 8. Under the partnership, in exchange for access to weather-related news coverage from the CBC, The Weather Network provides the national weather reports seen on The National and CBCNN da
Royal Canadian Air Force
The Royal Canadian Air Force is the air force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant and effective airpower"; the RCAF is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2013, the Royal Canadian Air Force consists of 14,500 Regular Force and 2,600 Primary Reserve personnel, supported by 2,500 civilians, operates 258 manned aircraft and 9 unmanned aerial vehicles. Lieutenant-General Al Meinzinger is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force and Chief of the Air Force Staff; the Royal Canadian Air Force is responsible for all aircraft operations of the Canadian Forces, enforcing the security of Canada's airspace and providing aircraft to support the missions of the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army. The RCAF is a partner with the United States Air Force in protecting continental airspace under the North American Aerospace Defense Command; the RCAF provides all primary air resources to and is responsible for the National Search and Rescue Program.
The RCAF traces its history to the Canadian Air Force, formed in 1920. The Canadian Air Force was granted royal sanction in 1924 by King George V to form the Royal Canadian Air Force. In 1968, the RCAF was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army, as part of the unification of the Canadian Forces. Air units were split between several different commands: Air Defence Command, Air Transport Command, Mobile Command, Maritime Command, as well as Training Command. In 1975, some commands were dissolved, all air units were placed under a new environmental command called Air Command. Air Command reverted to its historic name of "Royal Canadian Air Force" in August 2011; the Royal Canadian Air Force has served in the Second World War, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, as well as several United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations. As a NATO member, the force maintained a presence in Europe during the second half of the 20th century; the Canadian Air Force was established in 1920 as the successor to a short-lived two-squadron Canadian Air Force, formed during the First World War in Europe.
John Scott Williams, MC, AFC, was tasked in 1921 with organizing the CAF, handing command over the same year to Air Marshal Lindsay Gordon. The new Canadian Air Force was a branch of the Air Board and was chiefly a training militia that provided refresher training to veteran pilots. Many CAF members worked with the Air Board's Civil Operations Branch on operations that included forestry and anti-smuggling patrols. In 1923, the CAF became responsible including civil aviation. In 1924, the Canadian Air Force, was granted the royal title. Most of its work was civil in nature. After budget cuts in the early 1930s, the air force began to rebuild. During the Second World War, the RCAF was a major contributor to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and was involved in operations in Great Britain, the north Atlantic, North Africa, southern Asia, with home defence. By the end of the war, the RCAF had become the fourth largest allied air force. During WWII the Royal Canadian Air Force were headquartered in London.
A commemorative plaque can be found on the outside of the building. After the war, the RCAF reduced its strength; because of the rising Soviet threat to the security of Europe, Canada joined NATO in 1949, the RCAF established No. 1 Air Division RCAF consisting of four wings with three fighter squadrons each, based in France and West Germany. In 1950, the RCAF became involved with the transport of supplies to the Korean War. Members of the RCAF served in USAF units as several flew in combat. Both auxiliary and regular air defence squadrons were run by Air Defence Command. At the same time, the Pinetree Line, the Mid-Canada Line and the DEW Line radar stations operated by the RCAF, were built across Canada because of the growing Soviet nuclear threat. In 1957, Canada and the United States created the joint North American Air Defense Command. Coastal defence and peacekeeping became priorities during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces.
This initiative was overseen by Liberal Defence Minister, Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger maintained several existing organizations and created some new ones: In Europe, No. 1 Air Division, operated Canadair CF-104 Starfighter nuclear strike/attack and reconnaissance under NATO's 4 ATAF. Aviation assets of the Royal Canadian Navy were combined with the RCAF Canadair CP-107 Argus long-range patrol aircraft under Maritime Command. In 1975, the different commands, the scattered aviation assets, were consolidated under Air Command. In the early 1990s, Canada provided a detachment of CF-18 Hornets for the air defence mission in Operation Desert Shield; the force performed combat air patrols over operations in Kuwait and Iraq, undertook a number of air-to-ground bombing missions, and, on one occasion, attacked an Iraqi patrol boat in the Persian Gulf. In the late 1