1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Iola is a city situated along the Neosho River in the northwestern part of Allen County, in southeast Kansas, in the central United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 5,704. Iola is the county seat of Allen County, it is named in honor of Iola Colborn. The history of Iola began in 1859. After the location of the county seat at Humboldt, by the legislature of 1858, there was a great deal of dissatisfaction among the residents of the central and northern parts of the county, a number of citizens selected the present site of Iola, with the intention of securing the county seat. On January 1, 1859, a large meeting was held at the Deer Creek schoolhouse, it was determined to organize a town company, done, a constitution was adopted and officers elected. The officers of the company after due consideration of different points selected a site for the proposed town, about two miles north of Cofachique, at the confluence of Elm Creek and the Neosho River; the site was owned in part by J.
F. Colborn and W. H. Cochrane; the claims on two quarter-sections were bought, were soon after surveyed into lots. The town company worked to get the town started. A meeting was held to choose a name. Several were proposed, the choice was determined by ballot; some one had proposed the name Iola, the Christian name of J. F. Colborn's wife; as a result of the vote, this name was chosen. Meetings of the company were held every week during the first year and efforts made to induce settlement. By the close of the year a number of lots had been disposed of, several buildings erected, other improvements made, as all who bought lots were required to make some improvements at once; the residents of Cofachique, despairing of making their town a success, joined with Iola, most of them moved to the new site, all working together in the endeavor to secure the location of the county seat at once. The first building on the town site was a small log cabin owned by D. B. Bayne. Late in 1859, he built a frame house addition to it.
The first building erected after the town was surveyed was a dwelling completed early in June, 1859, by J. F. Colborn, who had lived on the claim of which the town site formed a part, since 1857. On the completion of the house and his family moved into it, thus being the first settlers in the town of Iola; the first birth in Iola was that of Luella E. Colborn. About 1859 a stone building was built to become the town's headquarters in the event of troubles with Indians or Bushwhackers; when the Civil War erupted in 1861, the building and the block on which it stood were fortified, becoming Iola's fort. The fort served both Army troops throughout the War. During 1859, two stores were established by Aaron Case and James Faulkner, who had moved their buildings and goods from the old town of Cofachique, the first hotel was opened; the post office for the neighborhood had been at Cofachique, Aaron Case was Postmaster, but in October 1859, the office was removed to Iola, Case still being Postmaster, though James Faulkner attended to it, as his deputy, until he was appointed to the office a short time after.
In 1860, a number of buildings were erected, the population increased to about 150. Two more stores were opened—a dry goods store, by D. B. Bayne, a grocery, by J. M. Cowan. On March 26, 1860, an election was held on the re-location of the county seat, but the majority of votes were cast to keep the county seat in Humboldt. People were still dissatisfied, for several years thereafter the county seat question entered into every political campaign. Much strife and bitterness of feeling was thus engendered between the two sections of the county, harsh accusations and recriminations were the order of the day. After a number of years of strife, an election was again ordered, to take place on May 19, 1865. Having secured a majority of the votes, Iola was declared the county seat, the records and county offices removed there at once, since which time it has remained. City improvements in 1860 were nearly all made in early summer. In the latter part of the year the effects of the drought were so badly felt, in addition to failing to secure the county seat, that business became dull, for a time all of the citizens were much discouraged.
In 1861 the war broke out, as nearly every able-bodied man in Iola, as well as the county, had entered the army there was no chance for improvement. In 1865, after the return of the citizens from the army at the close of the war, the town began to improve and so continued until the year 1870, at which time it was incorporated as a city of the third class, having secured the Leavenworth and Galveston Railroad, rapid strides were made for the next two years in the improvement of the town. Several manufacturing establishments were in project, some of them were built. Among other heavy institutions at that time, was the King Bridge Manufacturing Company, which located the Bridge shops at Iola, in 1871. For some time large numbers of men were employed, good business was done, but with the monetary panic of 1873, the value of bonds so depreciated that the company failed, removed its machinery. They received bonds in payment for their bridges and work, for this reason the "crash" ruined them; the buildings and several acres of land on which they were located were sold at a Sheriff's sale for $1,100, being purchased by several citizens of Iola.
The early journal of the city disappe
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Conway is a city in the U. S. state of Arkansas and the county seat of Faulkner County, located in the state's most populous Metropolitan Statistical Area, Central Arkansas. Conway is unusual in; the city serves as a regional shopping, work, healthcare and cultural hub for Faulkner County and surrounding areas. Conway's growth can be attributed to its jobs in technology and higher education with its largest employers being Acxiom, the University of Central Arkansas, Hewlett Packard, Hendrix College, Insight Enterprises, many technology start up companies. Conway is home to three post-secondary educational institutions, earning it the nickname "The City of Colleges"; as of the 2017 Census Estimate, the city proper had a total population of 65,782, making Conway the eighth-largest city in Arkansas. Central Arkansas, the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, is ranked 75th largest in the United States with 734,622 people in 2016. Conway is part of the larger Little Rock–North Little Rock, AR Combined Statistical Area, which in 2016 had a population of 905,847, ranked the country's 60th largest CSA.
The city of Conway was founded by Asa P. Robinson. Robinson was the chief engineer for the Little Rock-Fort Smith Railroad. Part of his compensation was the deed to a tract of land, one square mile, located near the old settlement of Cadron; when the railroad came through, Robinson deeded a small tract of his land back to the railroad for a depot site. He laid off a town site around the depot and named it "Conway Station", in honor of a famous Arkansas family. Conway Station contained two small stores, two saloons, a depot, some temporary housing and a post office. Despite being founded as a railroad town, there exists no passenger service; the disappearance of passenger rail service in the region is attributed to the emphasis placed on the automobile. In 1878, Father Joseph Strub, a priest in the Roman Catholic Holy Ghost Fathers, arrived in Arkansas. A native of Alsace-Lorraine, Strub was expelled from Prussia during the Kulturkampf in 1872, he moved to the United States, settling in Pittsburgh, where he founded Duquesne University in October 1878.
Difficulties with Bishop John Tuigg led Strub to leave Pittsburgh in late October 1878 to travel to Conway. In 1879, Strub convinced the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad to deed 200,000 acres along the northern side of the Arkansas River to the Holy Ghost Fathers in order to found the St. Joseph Colony; this included land on which Father Strub built St. Joseph Catholic Church of Conway; as part of the land deal, the railroad offered land at 20 cents per acre to every German immigrant. In order to attract Roman Catholic Germans to Conway and the surrounding areas, Father Strub wrote The Guiding Star for the St. Joseph Colony. In addition to extolling the qualities of Conway and the surrounding area, Father Strub provided information on how best to travel from Europe to Conway. By 1889, over 100 German families had settled in Conway, giving the town many of its distinctively German street and business names. Conway was long the home of the late Arkansas Supreme Court Associate Justice James D. Johnson, who ran unsuccessful races for governor in 1956 against fellow Democrat Orval Eugene Faubus and in 1966 against the Republican Winthrop Rockefeller.
Johnson, a leading segregation activist during the confrontation over integration at Little Rock Central High School, went on to switch affiliation to the Republican Party in the 1980s, after the death of his nemesis Rockefeller. Johnson lost an important race in 1968 for the United States Senate against the incumbent James William Fulbright, his wife, the late Virginia Johnson, ran for governor in 1968, while he was running for U. S. Senate. On April 10, 1965, an F4 tornado struck Conway, causing 200 injuries. Conway is located in southwestern Faulkner County at 35°05′14″N 92°27′12″W. Interstate 40 passes through the north and east sides of the city, with access from Exits 124 through 129. Via I-40, Little Rock is 30 miles to the south, Russellville is 47 miles to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, Conway has a total area of 45.6 square miles, of which 45.3 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.54%, is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Conway has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Conway has two designated historic districts: the Asa P. Robinson Historic District and the Hendrix Addition Historic District. Since 2000, downtown Conway has seen tens of millions of dollars in private investment; the revitalization has brought new retail, office and residential construction to the historic downtown. As of the census of 2010, there were 58,908 people, 23,205 households, 13,969 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,299.2 people per square mile. There were 24,402 housing units at an average density of 538.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.4% White, 15.6% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 5.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 23,205 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.2% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.8% were non-families.
27.0% of all hous
Lonoke is the second most populous city in Lonoke County, United States, serves as its county seat. According to 2010 United States Census, the population of the city is 4,245, it is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lonoke's history begins with the advance of Union troops through Central Arkansas during the American Civil War; the town of Brownsville was burned to the ground by Union forces after the retreat of Confederate forces westward to Little Rock. After the war, it was decided by the city leaders of Brownsville that a new town should be formed by the nearby railroad so that those who wished to stay could do so. According to local legend, the town was named for a large red oak tree, found while trees were being chopped down in order to build houses; the official name of the city was Lone Oak. However, due to a misprint in the Lonoke Democrat newspaper, the town's name was printed as Lonoak; this misspelling became further misspelled as Lonoke.
The town of Lonoke was slow to grow. Lonoke maintained a sustainable population through the support of its agricultural based economy until World War II; because of the baby boom, Lonoke's population began to reach higher numbers. Furthermore, Lonoke became a sort of suburban area of Little Rock due to the implementation of the Interstate Highway System and the construction of Interstate 40. In recent years, the population of Lonoke has remained in the area of about 4,000 people; as the Little Rock metropolitan area continues to grow, Lonoke's population is expected to grow as well as Lonoke is becoming more suitable as a suburban area. Eberts Field, used by the United States Army for pilot training during World War I and World War II, was located near Lonoke. Lonoke is in central Lonoke County, located at 34°47′3″N 91°54′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.6 square miles, of which 4.3 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. Lonoke is governed by a mayor-council form of city government, in which a mayor, other city administrators, an eight-member city council are all elected.
The city is divided into eight districts, each represented on the council by an alderman. In addition to the mayor, the city's clerk, treasurer and district judge are popularly elected; the city of Lonoke lacks post secondary institutions due to rural nature. However, Lonoke does feature a public school district that includes a primary, elementary and high school. According to the National Institute for Higher Education, Lonoke High School has an average ACT score of 22. However, over 89% of the graduating class of high school from 1987 to 2007 has been accepted to an institution of higher education. Of those 89% 45% have attended Arkansas State University Beebe. In addition to its public school system, Lonoke is home to the main campus of the Lonoke Exceptional School, which offers learning opportunities for children and adults with various developmental disabilities; the school has served Lonoke and surrounding areas since 1972. Some areas of Lonoke are served by the Des Arc School District, which leads to graduation from Des Arc High School.
As of the 2000 census, there were 4,287 people, 1,595 households, 1,092 families residing in the city. The population density was 990.0 people per square mile. There were 1,703 housing units at an average density of 393.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.29% White, 23.40% Black or African American, 0.77% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. 1.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,595 households out of which 33.4% had children under the living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.14. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,558, the median income for a family was $44,423. Males had a median income of $34,315 versus $22,642 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,598. About 11.9% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over. Maurice Britt, football player and decorated soldier. Reed, Democratic member of Arkansas House of Representatives in 1907 session and U. S. representative from 1923 to 1929 from Arkansas' former 6th congressional district Joseph Taylor Robinson, U. S. Senate Majority leader and Al Smith's running mate on Democratic ticket in 1928 U. S. presidential election Thomas Clark Trimble III, former federal judge Will Walls (191
New York Giants
The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area. The Giants compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, which it shares with the New York Jets in a unique arrangement. The Giants hold their summer training camp at the Quest Diagnostics Training Center at the Meadowlands Sports Complex; the Giants were one of five teams that joined the NFL in 1925, is the only one of that group still existing, as well as the league's longest-established team in the Northeastern United States. The team ranks third among all NFL franchises with eight NFL championship titles: four in the pre–Super Bowl era and four since the advent of the Super Bowl, along with more championship appearances than any other team, with 19 overall appearances, their championship tally is surpassed only by the Green Bay Packers and Chicago Bears.
Throughout their history, the Giants have featured 28 Hall of Fame players, including NFL Most Valuable Player award winners Mel Hein, Frank Gifford, Y. A. Tittle, Lawrence Taylor. To distinguish themselves from the professional baseball team of the same name, the football team was incorporated as the "New York National League Football Company, Inc." in 1929 and changed to "New York Football Giants, Inc." in 1937. While the baseball team moved to San Francisco after the 1957 season, the football team continues to use "New York Football Giants, Inc." as its legal corporate name, is referred to by fans and sportscasters as the "New York Football Giants". The team has acquired several nicknames, including "Big Blue", the "G-Men", the "Jints", an intentionally mangled contraction seen in the New York Post and New York Daily News, originating from the baseball team when they were based in New York. Additionally, the team as a whole is referred to as the "Big Blue Wrecking Crew" though this moniker and refers to the Giants defensive unit during the 80s and early 90s.
The team's heated rivalry with the Philadelphia Eagles is the oldest of the NFC East rivalries, dating all the way back to 1933, has been called the best rivalry in the NFL in the 21st century. The Giants played their first game as an away game against All New Britain in New Britain, Connecticut, on October 4, 1925, they defeated New Britain 26–0 in front of a crowd of 10,000. The Giants were successful in their first season, finishing with an 8–4 record. In its third season, the team finished with the best record in the league at 11–1–1 and was awarded the NFL title. After a disappointing fourth season owner Mara bought the entire squad of the Detroit Wolverines, principally to acquire star quarterback Benny Friedman, merged the two teams under the Giants name. In 1930, there were still many who questioned the quality of the professional game, claiming the college "amateurs" played with more intensity than professionals. In December 1930, the Giants played a team of Notre Dame All Stars at the Polo Grounds to raise money for the unemployed of New York City.
It was an opportunity to establish the skill and prestige of the pro game. Knute Rockne reassembled his Four Horsemen along with the stars of his 1924 Championship squad and told them to score early defend. Rockne, like much of the public, expected an easy win, but from the beginning it was a one-way contest, with Friedman running for two Giant touchdowns and Hap Moran passing for another. Notre Dame failed to score; when it was all over, Coach Rockne told his team, "That was the greatest football machine I saw. I am glad none of you got hurt." The game raised $100,000 for the homeless, is credited with establishing the legitimacy of the professional game for those who were critical. It was the last game the legendary Rockne coached. In a 14-year span from 1933 to 1947, the Giants qualified to play in the NFL championship game 8 times, winning twice. During this period the Giants were led by Hall of Fame coach Steve Owen, Hall of Fame players Mel Hein, Red Badgro and Tuffy Leemans; the period featured the 1944 Giants, which are ranked as the #1 defensive team in NFL history, "...a awesome unit".
They gave up only 7.5 points per game and shut out five of their 10 opponents, though they lost 14-7 to the Green Bay Packers in the 1944 NFL Championship Game. The famous "Sneakers Game" was played in this era where the Giants defeated the Chicago Bears on an icy field in the 1934 NFL Championship Game, while wearing sneakers for better traction; the Giants played the Detroit Lions to a scoreless tie on November 7, 1943. To this day, no NFL game played since has ended in a scoreless tie; the Giants were successful from the latter half of the 1930s until the United States entry into World War II. They added their third NFL championship in 1938 with a 23–17 win over the Green Bay Packers, they did not win another league title until 1956, the first year the team began playing at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx borough of New York City. Aided by a number of future Pro Football Hall of Fame players such as running back Frank Gifford, linebacker Sam Huff, offensive tackle Roosevelt Brown, as well as all-pro running back Alex Webster.
The Giants' 1956 championship team not only included players who would find their way to the Pro Football Hall of Fame, but a Hall of Fame coaching staff, as well. Head coach J
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for