A Tory holds a political philosophy based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history. The Tory ethos has been summed up with the phrase God, Tories generally advocate monarchism, are usually of a high church Anglican religious heritage, and are opposed to the liberalism of the Whig faction. In Britain, the Tory political faction originated with the Cavaliers during the English Civil War and this political philosophy remains prominent in the politics of the United Kingdom, and appears in parts of the Commonwealth realms, particularly in Canada. It had exponents in other parts of the former British Empire, under the Corn Laws a majority of Tories supported protectionist agrarianism with tariffs being imposed at the time for higher food prices, self-sufficiency, and enhanced wages in rural employment. There were two Tory ministries after James II came to the throne, the first led by the Earl of Rochester, a significant faction took part in the ousting of James II with the Whigs to defend the Church of England and definitive protestantism.
Although only a minority of Tories gave their adhesion to the Jacobite risings, after the advent of the Prime Ministerial system under the Whig Robert Walpole, Lord Butes premiership in the reign of George III marked a revival. Edmund Burke and William Pitt the Younger led the way in this and strong armed forces were to prove a hallmark of Toryism under subsequent Prime Ministers. Due to these Tories leading the formation of the Conservative Party, members of that party are referred to as Tories. The word Tory derives from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe, modern Irish tóraí, robber or brigand, from the Irish word tóir, meaning pursuit and it was originally used to refer to a Rapparee and applied to Confederates or Cavaliers in arms. The term was originally a term of abuse, an Irish rebel. Towards the end of Charles IIs reign there was debate about whether or not his brother, Duke of York. Whigs, originally a reference to Scottish cattle-drivers, was the term directed at those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic.
Those who were not prepared to exclude James were labelled Abhorrers, the suffix -ism was quickly added to both Whig and Tory to make Whiggism and Toryism, meaning the principles and methods of each faction. Historically, the term Tory has been applied in ways to loyalists of the British monarchy. During the Exclusion Crisis, the word Tory was applied in Kingdom of England as a nickname to the opponents of the bill, the word Tory had connotations of Papist and outlaw derived from its previous use in Ireland. Since 1832, the term Tory is commonly used to refer to the Conservative Party, the term Tory or Loyalist was used in the American Revolution for those who remained loyal to the British Crown. Since early in the 18th century, Tory had described those upholding the right of the King over Parliament, during the war of independence, particularly after the Declaration of Independence in 1776 this use was extended to cover anyone who remained loyal to the British Crown. About 80% of the Loyalists remained in the United States after the war, the 60,000 or so Loyalists who settled in Quebec, the Bahamas, or returned to Great Britain after the American War of Independence are known as United Empire Loyalists
The rebellion was set off by enactment under President Plutarco Elías Calles of a statute to enforce the anticlerical articles of the Mexican Constitution of 1917. Calles sought to eliminate the power of the Catholic Church and organizations affiliated with it as an institution, the massive, popular rural uprising was tacitly supported by the Church hierarchy and was aided by urban Catholic support. US Ambassador Dwight W. Morrow brokered negotiations between the Calles government and the Church, the government made some concessions, the Church withdrew its support for the Cristero fighters and the conflict ended in 1929. The Mexican Revolution remains the largest conflict in Mexican history, the overthrow of dictator Porfirio Díaz unleashed disorder, with many contending factions and regions. Having a change of leadership or a wholesale overturning of the order was potentially a danger to the Churchs position. In the democratizing wave of activity, the National Catholic Party was formed. Francisco Madero was overthrown and assassinated in a February 1913 military coup led by Gen, the Constitutionalist faction won the revolution and its leader, Venustiano Carranza, had a new revolutionary constitution drawn up.
The Constitution of 1917 strengthened the anticlericalism of the previous document, neither President Carranza nor his successor, Gen. Alvaro Obregón, enforced the anticlerical articles. The Calles administration felt its revolutionary initiatives and legal basis to pursue them were being challenged by the Catholic Church, on the opposing side was an armed professional military sponsored by the government. Calles’ Mexico has been characterized as an atheist state, and his program as being one to religion in Mexico. A period of resistance to the enforcement of the anticlerical provisions of the constitution by Mexican Catholics brought no result. Skirmishing broke out in 1926, and violent uprisings began in 1927, the rebels called themselves Cristeros, invoking the name of Jesus Christ under the title of Cristo Rey or Christ the King. The rebellion eventually ended by diplomatic means brokered by the U. S. Ambassador to Mexico Dwight Whitney Morrow, with financial relief, the rebellion attracted the attention of Pope Pius XI, who issued a series of papal encyclicals between 1925–37.
On December 11,1925, the pontiff issued Quas primas, on November 18,1926, he issued Iniquis afflictisque, denouncing the violent anti-clerical persecution in Mexico. Despite the governments promises to the contrary, it continued the persecution of the Church, in response, Pius issued Acerba animi on September 29,1932. The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States was drafted by the Constitutional Congress convoked by Venustiano Carranza in September 1916, the new constitution was based in the previous one instituted by Benito Juárez in 1857. Three of its 136 articles—Article 3, Article 27 and Article 130—contain heavily secularizing sections, restricting the power, the first two sections of article 3 state, I. According to the liberties established under article 24, educational services shall be secular and, therefore
Spanish Civil War
Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. Sanjurjo was killed in an accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal. The coup was supported by units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Burgos, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Valencia, and Málaga—did not gain control, Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country, the Nationalist forces received munitions and soldiers from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican side received support from the Communist Soviet Union and leftist populist Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, operated a policy of non-intervention. The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west and they besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war.
Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists, with the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime. The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired, organized purges occurred in territory captured by Francos forces to consolidate the future regime. A significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans, the extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied. The 19th century was a turbulent time for Spain and those in favour of reforming Spains government vied for political power with conservatives, who tried to prevent reforms from taking place. Some liberals, in a tradition that had started with the Spanish Constitution of 1812, sought to limit the power of the monarchy of Spain, the reforms of 1812 did not last after King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government.
Twelve successful coups were carried out between 1814 and 1874, until the 1850s, the economy of Spain was primarily based on agriculture. There was little development of an industrial or commercial class. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful, a number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon, two distinct factors led to the uprisings, a series of urban riots and a liberal movement within the middle classes and the military concerned with the ultra-conservatism of the monarchy. In 1873 Isabellas replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated owing to increasing pressure. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy, alejandro Lerroux, Spanish politician and leader of the Radical Republican Party, helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was particularly acute
Republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are republics in the sense that they are not monarchies, this article covers only the ideology of republicanism. This form of government collapsed in the part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form. Republics revived subsequently, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain, the concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britains North American colonies where it led to the American Revolution. In Europe, it gained influence through the French Revolution. In Ancient Greece, several philosophers and historians analysed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism, the Greek concept of politeia was rendered into Latin as res publica. Consequently, political theory until relatively recently often used republic in the sense of regime. There is no single written expression or definition from this era that exactly corresponds with an understanding of the term republic.
However, most of the features of the modern definition are present in the works of Plato, Aristotle. These include theories of mixed government and of civic virtue, for example, in The Republic, Plato places great emphasis on the importance of civic virtue together with personal virtue on the part of the ideal rulers. Indeed, in Book V, Plato asserts that until rulers have the nature of philosophers or philosophers become the rulers, there can be no civic peace or happiness. Aristotle considered Carthage to have been a republic as it had a system similar to that of some of the Greek cities, notably Sparta. Some of this history, composed more than 500 years after the events, with scant written sources to rely on, Polybius exerted a great influence on Cicero as he wrote his politico-philosophical works in the 1st century BCE. In one of works, De re publica, Cicero linked the Roman concept of res publica to the Greek politeia. However, the term republic, despite its derivation, is not synonymous with the Roman res publica.
This Roman Republic would, by an understanding of the word, still be defined as a true republic. Thus, Enlightenment philosophers saw the Roman Republic as an ideal system, several offices from the republican era, held by individuals, were combined under the control of a single person. These changes became permanent, and gradually conferred sovereignty on the Emperor, ciceros description of the ideal state, in De re publica, does not equate to a modern-day republic, it is more like enlightened absolutism
Royalist (Spanish American independence)
The creation of juntas in Spanish America in 1810 was a direct reaction to developments in Spain during the previous two years. In 1808 Ferdinand VII had been convinced to abdicate by Napoleon in his favor, the Supreme Central Junta had led a resistance to Josephs government and the French occupation of Spain, but suffered a series of reverses resulting in the loss of the northern half of the country. On February 1,1810, French troops took Seville and gained control of most of Andalusia, the Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself in favor of a Regency Council of Spain and the Indies. As news of this arrived throughout Spanish America during the three weeks to nine months—depending on time it took goods and people to travel from Spain—political fault lines appeared. It is important to note that, at first, the claimed to carry out their actions in the name of the deposed king. Juntas were successfully established in Venezuela, Río de la Plata and New Granada, in the months following the establishment of the Regency, it became clear that Spain was not lost, and furthermore the government was effectively reconstituting itself.
The Regency successfully convened the Cortes Generales, the parliament of the Spanish Monarchy. The Regency and Cortes began issuing orders to, and appointing and those who supported the new government came to be called royalists. Those that supported the idea of maintaining independent juntas called themselves patriots, as the Cortes instituted liberal reforms and worked on drafting a constitution, a new division appeared among royalists. Conservatives did not want to see any innovations in government, while liberals supported them and these differences would become more acute after the restoration of Ferdinand VII, because the king opted to support the conservative position. Regional rivalry played an important role in the wars that broke out in Spanish America as a result of the juntas. The disappearance of a central, imperial authority—and in some cases of even a local, viceregal authority —initiated a prolonged period of balkanization in many regions of Spanish America. It was not clear which political units which should replace the empire, more often than not, juntas sought to maintain a provinces independence from the capital of the former viceroyalty or captaincy general, as much as from the Peninsula itself.
Armed conflicts broke out between the provinces over the question of some provinces were to be subordinate to others in the manner that they had been under the crown. This phenomenon was particularly evident in New Granada and Río de la Plata and this rivalry lead some regions to adopt the opposing political cause from their rivals. The creation of juntas in Río de la Plata allowed Peru to regain control of Upper Peru for the duration of the wars. Ferdinand justified his actions by stating that the Constitution and other changes had made by a Cortes assembled in his absence. He declared all of the juntas and constitutions written in Spanish America invalid and restored the former law codes, most Spanish Americans were moderates who decided to wait and see what would come out of the restoration of normalcy
Remnants and continuations of the movement, some of which only had narrow support, endured within the wider White émigré community until after the fall of Communism. The Whites had the aim of bringing about law and order and the salvation of Russia, fighting against traitors, barbarians. They worked to remove Soviet organizations and functionaries in White-controlled territory, the White Army was nationalistic, rejected ethnic particularism and separatism. The White Army generally believed in a united multinational Russia, amongst White Army members, anti-Semitism was widespread. Western sponsors expressed dismay at this, especially as the Bolsheviks had prohibited anti-Semitism, many of the White leaders were conservative, accepting autocracy while remaining suspicious of politics. Aside from being anti-Bolshevik and patriotic, the Whites had no set ideology or main leader, the White Armies did acknowledge a single provisional head of state, the so-called Supreme Governor of Russia, but this post was prominent only under the leadership of Admiral Alexander Kolchak.
The movement had no set plan for foreign policy, Whites differed on policies toward Germany, the Whites wanted to keep from alienating any potential supporters and allies, and thus saw an exclusively monarchist position as a detriment to their cause and recruitment. White-movement leaders such as Anton Denikin advocated for Russians to create their own government, Admiral Alexander Kolchak succeeded in creating a temporary wartime government in Omsk, acknowledged by most other White leaders, only for it to fall with the loss of his armies. Some warlords who were aligned with the White movement, such as Grigory Semyonov and Roman Ungern von Sternberg, did not acknowledge any authority, the White movement had no set political leanings, members could be monarchists, rightists, etc. Moreover, other parties supported the anti-Bolshevik White Army, among them the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. But depending on the time and place, those White Army supporters might exchange right-wing allegiance for allegiance to the Red Army, the Volunteer Army in South Russia became the most prominent and the largest of the various and disparate White forces.
Starting off as a small and well-organized military in January 1918, the Kuban Cossacks joined the White Army, and conscription of both peasants and Cossacks began. In late February 1918,4,000 soldiers under the command of General Aleksei Kaledin were forced to retreat from Rostov-on-Don due to the advance of the Red Army, in 1919 the Don Cossacks joined and the Army began drafting Ukrainian peasants. In that year, between May and October, the Volunteer Army grew from 64,000 to 150,000 soldiers and was better supplied than its Red counterpart. The White Armys rank-and-file comprised active anti-Bolsheviks, such as Cossacks, the White movement had access to various naval forces, both sea-going and river-based. Note especially the use of the Black Sea Fleet, aerial forces available to the Whites included the Slavo-British Aviation Corps. The Russian ace Alexander Kazakov operated within this unit, the White movements leaders and first members came mainly from the ranks of military officers. Many came from outside the nobility, such as generals Mikhail Alekseev, the White generals never mastered administration, they often utilized prerevolutionary functionaries or military officers with monarchististic inclinations for administering White-controlled regions
Cross of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy was inherited by the House of Habsburg on the extinction of the Valois ducal line. The Spanish monarchs continued to use it in their own arms even after they lost their Burgundian lands. From 1506 to 1701 it was used by Spain as an ensign, and up to 1843 as the land battle flag. The emblem continues to be used in a variety of contexts in a number of European countries and in the Americas, reflecting both the extent of Valois Burgundy and the former Habsburg territories. The banner strictly speaking dates back to the early 15th century and it represents the cross on which Andrew the Apostle was crucified. The design is a red saltire resembling two crossed, roughly-pruned branches, on a white field, in heraldic language, it may be blazoned argent, a saltire ragulée gules. Pedro de Ayala, writing in the 1490s, claims it was first adopted by a previous Duke of Burgundy to honour his Scottish soldiers. This must be a reference to the Scottish soldiers recruited by John the Fearless in the first years of the century, led by the Earl of Mar.
Andrew was the saint of the dukes of Burgundy The year 1506 should be considered its theoretical earliest use in Spain. Philip, after his marriage to Joanna of Castile, became the first Habsburg King of Spain and used the Cross of Burgundy as an emblem as it was the symbol of the house of his mother, Mary of Burgundy. From the time of Philip and Joannas son, Emperor Charles V, the official field was still white. The Spanish monarchs – the Habsburgs and their successors the House of Bourbon – continued to use the Cross of Burgundy in various forms and it remained in use in Spains overseas empire. In the First Carlist War the Burgundian banner, was a banner of the Regent Queens standing Army rather than Carlist. After 1843 the red Burgundian saltire kept on appearing on the new brand red-yellow army flag under a four-quartered Castilian, under the leadership of Manuel Fal Condé, the Cross of Burgundy became the Carlist badge in 1934. Users mostly have some direct or indirect relation to the historical Burgundy, though such connection can be very vague, the flying of this flag reminds people today of the impact Spain and its military had on world history for over 400 years.
It was used by Spanish military forces, in present-day Bolivia the Cross of Burgundy is the official flag of the department of Chuquisaca. The Flag of Alabama uses a modified representation of the Spanish Cross of Burgundy, an unmodified version of the cross was used in most of Alabama until the 19th century. The colors of the Flag of New Mexico are those of the yellow, Burgundy Flag of New Mexico Saint Patricks Flag Vexillology Flags of the World GeorgiaInfo
Its full name was the Army of Holy Faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, and its members were called Sanfedisti. Ruffo recruited the Sanfedisti in his native Calabria and his recruiting poster of February 1799 reads and courageous Calabrians, unite now under the standard of the Holy Cross and of our beloved sovereign. Do not wait for the enemy to come and contaminate our home neighbourhoods, let us march to confront him, to repel him, to hunt him out of our kingdom and out of Italy and to break the barbarous chains of our holy Pontiff. May the banner of the Holy Cross secure you total victory, the Sanfedismo movement nominally acted on behalf of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. It took Ruffo a month to amass a force of 17,000, mostly peasants, but bandits, mercenaries, devotees, the Parthenopean Republic collapsed on June 19,1799. Most of the Sanfedisti victories occurred in rugged terrain, which was well-suited to the style of warfare employed by Ruffo. Similar to other anti-French uprisings in Italy, the Sanfedisti were not, as a rule, amiable towards Jews, the name of Sanfedismo itself was a source of criticism, dubbed a word sprung up, by which this new phase of wickedness might be called by a contemporary.
Sanfedismo, and Ruffo himself, became synonymous with the recalcitrant, the name Sanfedisti was used by Bourbonist peasant uprisings against the House of Savoy during Italian unification. The Canto dei Sanfedisti is still remembered by heart among many in the Mezzogiorno and it is a parody of La Carmagnole, a popular French Revolutionary song. Later scholarly views of the Sanfedisti have dubbed them a counter-revolutionary group, veronese Easters Viva Maria Sanfedisti#Canto dei Sanfedisti Vendée Revolt Carlism Brauer, Kinley J. and Wright, William E.1990. Austria in the Age of the French Revolution, 1789-1815, the Politics of Religion in Napoleonic Italy, The War Against God, 1801-1814. Papal Elections in the Age of Transition, 1878-1922, saints and Sinners, a history of the popes. England and France in the Mediterranean, 1660-1830, napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution. The Red Shirt and the Cross of Savoy and Revolution, Naples 1799 in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Aragon is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces, Huesca and Teruel, the current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a nationality of Spain. Aragons northern province of Huesca borders France and is positioned in the middle of the Pyrenees, within Spain, the community is flanked by Catalonia to the east and Castile–La Mancha to the south, and Castile and León, La Rioja, and Navarre to the west. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spains largest river in volume and it is home to the Aneto, the highest mountain in the Pyrenees. As of 2015, the population of Aragon was 1,317,847, with more than half of it living in Zaragoza. As of 2015, half of Aragons population,50. 45%, Huesca is the only other city in the region with a population greater than 50,000. The majority of Aragonese citizens,71. 8%, live in the province of Zaragoza,17. 1% in Huesca and 11.
1% in Teruel, the population density of the region is the second lowest in Spain, only 26, 8/km2, after Castilla La Mancha. Only four cities have more than 20,000 inhabitants, Zaragoza 700,000, Huesca 50,000, Teruel 35,000 and Calatayud 20,000. Spanish is the language in most of Aragon, and it is the only official language, understood. The strip-shaped Catalan-speaking area in Aragon is often called La Franja, with such a low population density large areas of Aragon remain wild and relatively untouched. It is a land of natural contrasts, both in climate and geologically, from the green valleys and snow-capped peaks of the Pyrenees to the dry plains. Aragons Pyrenees include splendid and varied mountain landscapes with soaring peaks, deep canyons, dense forests and its rugged peaks include the Aneto, the highest in the range, the misty Monte Perdido, Perdiguero and many others. The park is one of the last sanctuaries of birds of prey in the range. Many beautiful mountain butterflies and flowers can be seen in the summer, the principal valleys in the mountains include those of Hecho, Tena and others.
The green valleys hide pretty villages with nice Romanesque churches and typical Pyrenean houses with flowers on the balconies, the oldest Romanesque cathedral in Spain is located in the medieval town of Jaca in the very northern part of Huesca Province. In the Pyrenean foothills, or pre-Pyrenees, the Mallos de Riglos are a natural rock formation. Ancient castles nestle on lonely hills, the most famous being the magnificent Loarre Castle, further south, the Ebro valley, irrigated by the river Ebro, is a rich and fertile agricultural area covered with vast fields of wheat and other fruit and vegetable crops. Many beautiful and little-known settlements and Roman ruins dot the landscape here, some of the most notable towns here include Calatayud, Sos del Rey Catolico and others
They are so-called due to association with the Sicilian Vespers. The revolt ended on 25 April 1797 with the encirclement and capture of the town by 15,000 soldiers, the movements followers were numerous, with sources talking of at least 280,000 insurgents and 70,000 dead. These revolts were primarily against French domination Jacobin-inspired French political ideology, the French troops arrived in Verona on 1 June 1796, occupying the military strong-points and billeting troops in other buildings despite the Republic of Venice already having declared its neutrality. Bergamo, in contrast, resisted the French invasion, the French general, did not lower the flags of San Marco, given that this city too was officially under Venetian control. When secret information of this reached Ottolini, he immediately informed Venices provveditore, Francesco Battaia, hesitating to follow up his actions with force, replied that Ottolini should double-check if this information was true. Thanks to a spy, Ottolini quickly confirmed Napoleons intentions, the work of democratising Bergamao was initiated by François Joseph Lefebvre, the successor to Baraguay dHilliers, but there were too few Jacobin locals.
These representatives protested but were obliged to assent, Ottolini had in the meantime recalled some military companies from the provinces, and the French used this action as a pretext for occupying the city. Bergamo thus officially became the first city in the Veneto removed from Venices rule, in the meantime, Napoleon set off to march on Vienna via the defiles of Carinthia, ultimately ending up in Leoben negotiating a treaty with Austria. The next step would have to be the democratisation of Brescia, on 16 March, a column of soldiers left for Brescia. Its podestà, Giovanni Alvise Mocenigo, wished to attack this hostile column but was stopped from doing so by Battaia, two days 200 men entered Brescia and, with the aid of Brescian Jacobins, put down what little resistance was offered. Their first act after gaining the city was to hunt down Battaia, although lacking the support of the population, with French help the Jacobins succeeded in democratising the countryside and the town of Crema.
The provveditore Battaia arrived at Verona on 22 March, and immediately called a meeting of the council, Battaia urged caution, but conte Emilei noted that passive resistance had already lost them Brescia, and that Veronas citizens were ready to take up arms against the Jacobin Lombards. Meanwhile, conte Augusto Verità had returned to Verona, always enjoying good relations with the French, he proposed to get an assurance of French neutrality before the Veronese forces clashed with the Jacobins. Bonaparte agreed with Ballands decision, and informed the Venetian senate that French troops would not intervene, Ballands response to the letter aroused Veronas inhabitants to great enthusiasm for defending their own territory. On 23 March news reached Verona that 500 Jacobin soldiers headed for Peschiera del Garda or Valeggio sul Mincio had set out from Brescia - the officials and troops rushed to take up their positions. Miniscalchi went to Colà, a village above the hills of Lazise, Giusti to Povegliano Veronese, Bevilacqua to Cerea.
From Valeggio Maffei could see that the troops were still not in sight. 24 fanti coming from Brescia joined his force, as well as 40 Croatian cavalrymen and 2 cannons coming from Verona, on 27 March he decided to send off a scouting party, whilst at Castelnuovo del Garda 1,500 volunteers gathered
Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Liberalism first became a political movement during the Age of Enlightenment. Liberalism rejected the social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy. The 17th-century philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a philosophical tradition. Locke argued that man has a natural right to life and property. Liberals opposed traditional conservatism and sought to replace absolutism in government with representative democracy, prominent revolutionaries in the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of what they saw as tyrannical rule. Liberalism started to spread rapidly especially after the French Revolution, the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe, South America, and North America. During the 20th century, liberal ideas spread even further as liberal democracies found themselves on the side in both world wars.
In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence throughout the world. Words such as liberal, liberty and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means free. One of the first recorded instances of the word occurs in 1375. The words early connection with the education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations. In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someones generosity or indiscretion, in Much Ado About Nothing, Shakespeare wrote of a liberal villaine who hath. confest his vile encounters. With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as free from narrow prejudice in 1781, in 1815, the first use of the word liberalism appeared in English. In Spain, the Liberales, the first group to use the label in a political context.
From 1820 to 1823, during the Trienio Liberal, King Ferdinand VII was compelled by the liberales to swear to uphold the Constitution, by the middle of the 19th century, liberal was used as a politicised term for parties and movements worldwide. Over time, the meaning of the word began to diverge in different parts of the world. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, In the United States, liberalism is associated with the policies of the New Deal programme of the Democratic administration of Pres