Taça de Portugal
The Taça de Portugal is an annual association football competition and the premier knockout tournament in Portuguese football. For sponsorship reasons, it has been known as Taça de Portugal Placard as of the 2015–16 season. Organised by the Portuguese Football Federation since it was first held in 1938, the competition is open to professional and amateur clubs from the top-four league divisions. Matches are played from August–September to May–June, the final is traditionally held at the Estádio Nacional in Oeiras, near Lisbon; the winners qualify for the UEFA Europa League. Before 1938, a similar competition was held since 1922 under the name Campeonato de Portugal, which determined the national champions from among the different regional championship winners; the establishment of the Primeira Liga, a nationwide league-based competition, as the official domestic championship in 1938, led to the conversion of the Campeonato de Portugal into the main domestic cup competition, under its current designation.
In fact, the trophy awarded to the Portuguese Cup winners is the same, awarded to the Campeonato de Portugal winners, although titles in each competition are counted separately. The first winners of the Taça de Portugal were Académica, who defeated Benfica 4–3 in the 1939 final. Benfica are the most successful team with 26 trophies in 36 final appearances. Desportivo das Aves are the current holders; the first incarnation of the Portuguese Cup was in 1912, but few clubs could participate and thus it was not a regular competition, the fact which ended it in 1918, the Portuguese Federation doesn't take in account its existence. It was named Taça do Império since S. C. Império organized it. In 1922 the Championship of Portugal was created and was played every season with all the clubs participating in elimination rounds, the winners were named Champions of Portugal and it was the primary tournament in Portugal, until the creation of the round-robin competition in the middle 1930s. With the success of this competition and the beginning of the created and official Portuguese Championship, in the 1938–39 season the Taça de Portugal was created and the tournament became the second-most important in Portugal.
It is organized by the Portuguese Football Federation and is played by all the teams in the Primeira Liga, Segunda Liga, Campeonato Nacional de Seniores, 22 District Championships runners-up and by 18 District Cups winners. As of the 2008–09 season, the cup is composed of 8 rounds, with 1st level clubs joining at the 3rd round, the 2nd level clubs joining at the 2nd round and the 3rd and lower level clubs competing from the beginning. All rounds are played except for the semifinals. Since 1946 the final game has been played at the Estádio Nacional near Lisbon in Jamor, except in 1961, in the three years following the Carnation Revolution and in the season 1982/83, due to FC Porto pressure. In the years after the Carnation Revolution, the venue of the final game would be played at the home ground of the team that won the Portuguese Cup the previous year (note that when Boavista won the Cup two times in a row, the final of the next years were in Estádio das Antas, since the Estádio do Bessa was too small to host the final.
List of association football competitions in Portugal List of Taça de Portugal winning managers Lebre, Fernando. Taça de Portugal: Décadas de paixão. Sete Caminhos. ISBN 978-989-602-121-4. List of Taça de Portugal winners Competition page at Portuguese Football Federation Competition page at UEFA List of winners at RSSSF
FC Basel 1893 known as FC Basel, FCB, or just Basel, is a Swiss football club based in Basel. Formed in 1893, the club has been Swiss national champions 20 times, Swiss Cup winners 12 times, Swiss League Cup winners once. Basel have competed in European competitions every season since 1999–2000, they have qualified for the Group Stages of the Champions League more times than any other Swiss club – a total of seven times – and are the only Swiss club to have qualified to the Group Stages directly. Since 2001 the club has played its home games at St. Jakob-Park, built on the site of their previous home, St. Jakob Stadium, their home colours are red and blue, leading to a nickname of "RotBlau". FC Basel was started by an advertisement placed by Roland Geldner in the 12 November 1893 edition of the Basler national newspaper, requesting that a football team be formed and that anyone who wished to join should meet up the following Wednesday at 8:15 in the restaurant Schuhmachern-Zunft. Eleven men attended the meeting from the academic community, founding Fussball Club Basel on 15 November 1893.
The club colours from the first day on were blue. Basel's first game was on 26 November 1893, an internal match between two ad hoc FCB teams. Two weeks FCB had their first official appearance in a game against a team formed by students from the high school gymnastic club. FCB won 2–0. Basel continued to only play friendly matches, until they joined the second Serie A championship organized by the Swiss Football Association; the Serie A was divided into an east, a central and a west group. The winners of each group qualified for the finals. Basel did not qualify for the finals and they did not compete in the championship the following season; the Serie A 1900 -- 01 was divided into an east and a west group. Basel were with three teams from Zürich and two other teams from Basel, Old Boys and Fortuna Basel in the west group. Basel ended the season with two draws and six defeats in 5th position in the group. Basel did not have much of an early footballing success, waiting 40 years before winning their first trophy.
At the beginning of the 1932–33 season, the Austrian ex-international footballer Karl Kurz took over as club trainer. There were eight teams in Group 1 of the 1932–33 Nationalliga. Basel finished the season with seven victories from 14 games; the play-off game between the second placed teams from both groups was held in Basel at the Stadion Rankhof, but the home team lost 3–4 to Servette FC Genève. In the Swiss Cup, Basel advanced to the final, played in the Hardturm in Zürich. Basel won 4–3 and thus their first national title, defeating arch-rivals and reigning cup-holders Grasshoppers in what is still considered to be one of the best cup finals in Swiss football history. During the following five seasons, Basel were positioned towards the middle of the Nationliga, not having much to do with the championship not having to worry about relegation, but the 1938–39 Nationalliga did not mean well with them. With just five wins and with twelve defeats, they finished in the last position in the league table and were relegated.
The 1941–42 season was Basel's third season in the 1st League after relegation. Eugen Rupf was player-coach for his second year. Basel finished their season as winners of group East. In the play-offs against group West winners Bern, the away tie ending with a goalless draw and Basel won their home tie 3–1 to achieve Promotion. In the Swiss Cup five home games, a coin toss in the quarter-final and a replay in the semi-final was needed to qualify for the final; the final against Grasshoppers ended goalless after extra time and a replay was required here too. In the replay – played at the Wankdorf Stadion against the Nationalliga champions – Basel led at half-time through two goals by Fritz Schmidlin, but two goals from Grubenmann a third from Neukom gave Grasshoppers a 3–2 victory. After just three seasons in the top flight of Swiss football, Basel suffered relegation again, but achieved immediate re-promotion in the 1944–45 season. Anton Schall, another Austrian ex-international, became the club's new trainer.
Basel finished the Nationalliga A season in fourth position, with 12 victories from 26 games, scoring a total of 60 goals. Basel won the cup for the second time as they beat Lausanne Sports 3–0 in the final at the Stadion Neufeld in Bern. Paul Stöcklin scored Bader scored the other one. At the beginning of the 1952–53 season, René Bader took over the job as club trainer from Ernst Hufschmid, who had acted as trainer the previous five years. Bader acted as Willy Dürr was his assistant. Basel ended the season four points ahead of BSC Young Boys. Basel won 17 of the 26 games, losing only once, they scored 72 goals conceding 38. Josef Hügi was the team's top league goal scorer; the Czechoslovakian manager Jiří Sobotka was the club manager at this time, he taken the job over from Jenő Vincze the year before. Basel finished the championship in sixth position. Heinz Blumer was Basel's top scorer this season with 16 goals, Karl Odermatt their second best goal scorer with 14; the Wankdorf Stadium hosted the Swiss Cup final on 15 April 1963, Basel played against favourites Grasshoppers.
Two goals after half-time, one by Heinz Blumer and the second from Otto Ludwig, gave Basel a 2–0 victory and their third Cup win in their history. Peter Füri played in all games save the final due to an illness. On 26 December 1964 FCB played against G
Eintracht Frankfurt e. V. is a German sports club based in Frankfurt, best known for its association football club playing in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system. The club have won one German championship, five DFB-Pokals and one UEFA Cup. Since 1925, their stadium has been the Waldstadion, renamed Commerzbank-Arena in 2005; the origins of the side go back to a pair of football clubs founded in 1899: Frankfurter Fußball-Club Viktoria von 1899 – regarded as the "original" football side in the club's history – and Frankfurter Fußball-Club Kickers von 1899. Both clubs were founding members of the new Nordkreis-Liga in 1909; these two teams merged in May 1911 to become Frankfurter Fußball Verein, an instant success, taking three league titles from 1912 to 1914 in the Nordkreis-Liga and qualifying for the Southern German championship in each of those seasons. In turn, Frankfurter FV joined the gymnastics club Frankfurter Turngemeinde von 1861 to form TuS Eintracht Frankfurt von 1861 in 1920.
At the time, sports in Germany was dominated by nationalistic gymnastics organizations, under pressure from that sport's governing authority, the gymnasts and footballers went their separate ways again in 1927, as Turngemeinde Eintracht Frankfurt von 1861 and Sportgemeinde Eintracht Frankfurt von 1899. Through the late 1920s and into the 1930s, Eintracht won a handful of local and regional championships, first in the Kreisliga Nordmain in the Bezirksliga Main and Bezirksliga Main-Hessen. After being eliminated from the national level playoffs after quarterfinal losses in 1930 and 1931, they won their way to the final in 1932 where they were beaten 0–2 by Bayern Munich, who claimed their first German championship. In 1933, German football was re-organized into sixteen Gauligen under the Third Reich and the club played first division football in the Gauliga Südwest finishing in the upper half of the table and winning their division in 1938. Eintracht picked up where they left off after World War II, playing as a solid side in the first division Oberliga Süd and capturing division titles in 1953 and 1959.
Their biggest success came on the heels of that second divisional title as they went on to a 5–3 victory over local rivals Kickers Offenbach to take the 1959 German national title and followed up with an outstanding run in the 1960 European Cup. Eintracht lost 3–7 to Real Madrid in an exciting final, regarded as one of the best football matches played, which included a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano and four goals by Ferenc Puskás; the side continued to play good football and earned themselves a place as one of the original 16 teams selected to play in the Bundesliga, Germany's new professional football league, formed in 1963. Eintracht played Bundesliga football for 33 seasons, finishing in the top half of the table for the majority of them, their best Bundesliga performances were five third-place finishes: they ended just two points back of champion VfB Stuttgart in 1991–92. The team narrowly avoided relegation on several occasions. In 1984, they defeated MSV Duisburg 6–1 on aggregate, in 1989 they beat 1.
FC Saarbrücken 4–1 on aggregate, in two-game playoffs. Eintracht slipped and were relegated to 2. Bundesliga for the 1996–97 season. At the time that they were sent down alongside 1. FC Kaiserslautern, these teams were two of only four sides, in the Bundesliga since the league's inaugural season, it looked as though they would be out again in 1998–99, but they pulled through by beating defending champions Kaiserslautern 5–1, while 1. FC Nürnberg unexpectedly lost at home to give Eintracht the break; the following year, in another struggle to avoid relegation, the club was "fined" two points by the German Football Association for financial misdeeds, but pulled through with a win by a late goal over SSV Ulm on the last day of the season. The club was plagued by financial difficulties again in 2004 before once more being relegated. Between 1997 and 2005, Eintracht bounced between the top two divisions; the 2010–11 season ended with the club's fourth Bundesliga relegation. After setting a new record for most points in the first half of the season, the club struggled after the winter break, going seven games without scoring a goal.
Despite winning the next game, Frankfurt sacked coach Michael Skibbe, replacing him with Christoph Daum. The change in coaches did little to improve Eintracht's fortunes. Frankfurt achieved only three draws from the last seven games of the season and were relegated on the 34th matchday. One year Eintracht defeated Alemannia Aachen 3–0 on the 32nd match day of the 2011–12 season, thus qualifying for the Bundesliga. In 2017–18, Eintracht had the 20th highest attendance in Europe, ahead of such prominent clubs as Atlético de Madrid, Inter Milano and Paris Saint-Germain; the club has enjoyed considerable success in competition outside the Bundesliga. Eintracht famously lost the European Cup final to Real Madrid on 18 May 1960 at Hampden Park 7–3 in front of 127,621 spectators. In the match, Alfredo Di Stéfano scored three and Ferenc Puskás scored the other four in Madrid's victory. In 1967, Eintracht won the Intertoto Cup after beating Inter Bratislava in the final. Eintracht won the DFB-Pokal in 1974, 1975, 1981, 1988 and in 2018, took the UEFA Cup over another German team, Borussia Mönchengladbach, in 1980.
Eintracht were the losing finalists in the 2005–06 DFB-Pokal. Their opponents in the final, that year's Bundesliga champions Bayern Muni
Letzigrund is a stadium in Zürich and the home of the athletics club LC Zürich, the football clubs FC Zürich and Grasshopper Club Zürich. LC Zürich is a spin-off of FC Zürich whose members constructed the stadium in 1925. Grasshopper-Club is using it as their home stadium since 2007; the annual athletics meet Weltklasse Zürich—part of the IAAF Diamond League—takes place at the Letzigrund since 1928, as well as frequent open-air concerts. On the Letzigrund track on 21 June 1960, Armin Hary was the first human being to run the 100 metres in 10,0 seconds, it opened November 1925 owned by the FC Zürich football club. During the Great Depression, ownership changed to the city of Zurich in 1937 which has operated it since, it underwent extensive remodeling in 1947, 1958, 1973, 1984. Lighting was added in 1973; the first open-air concert was in 1996. The capacity was 25,000 and the main pitch was 105 by 68 meters with athletics facilities. There were three other playing fields: 2 lawns, 1 artificial turf and a small packed sand field.
The old Letzigrund contained a bar and a restaurant within the stadium. The old stadium hit its highest capacity of 75,000 during Celine Dion's Falling Into You Tour. Notably, Tina Turner performed 2 sold-out performances at the old stadium during her successful Twenty Four Seven Tour. AC/DC were scheduled to perform during their Razors Edge World Tour on September 6, 1991, but the show was cancelled. Rock band Bon Jovi performed 4 concerts at the stadium, but the most notable was their The Crush Tour, with the August 30, 2000 show being recorded and released on VHS/DVD as The Crush Tour The stadium was one of the venues for the UEFA Euro 2008; the following games were played at the stadium during the UEFA Euro 2008 In the Nineties, the athletics club Zürich was pushing for a modernisation of the facilities at Letzigrund in order to better accommodate the athletes of Weltklasse Zürich. In 1997, the city parliament decided favourably on an upgrade of the stadium whereas the city administration was working on a reconstruction plan.
At the same time, the owners of the Hardturm football stadium were planning to reconstruct their stadium. In 2003, the new Hardturm stadium was approved by the city population in a public vote, but subsequently, legal objections by neighbourhood and environmental groups put the timely realisation for the EURO 2008 tournament, for which it was chosen by UEFA in 2002 as one of eight venues, in jeopardy; as a result, the planning process for the new Letzigrund stadium was accelerated. In 2005, the city population approved in a vote the reconstruction of the public stadium, plus in a separate vote, the costs of temporarily adjusting the stadium to the requirements of EURO 2008. Planned for 2009, the new Letzigrund stadium was opened on August 30, 2007; the first sports event there was the annual Weltklasse Zürich on September 7 with 26,500 spectators. The first football game was FC Zürich vs. Grasshopper Club Zürich on September 23, it hosted three games during the 2008 European championships, with a capacity of up to 30,000.
The current capacity is 26,000 for athletics and 50,000 for concerts. List of football stadiums in Switzerland Media related to Letzigrund-Stadion, Zürich at Wikimedia Commons Official Website Stadion Letzigrund Weltklasse Zürich stadium information
UEFA European Under-21 Championship
The UEFA European Under-21 Championship is a football competition for men organised by the sport's European governing body, UEFA. It is held every two years; the competition has existed in its current form since 1978. It was preceded by the Under-23 Challenge Cup which ran from 1967 to 1970. A true Under-23 championship was formed, starting in 1972; the age limit was reduced to 21 for the 1978 championship and it has remained so since. To be eligible for the campaign ending in 2019, players need to be born in or after 1996. Many can be 23 years old by the time the finals tournament takes place. Under-21 matches are played on the day before senior internationals and where possible, the same qualifying groups and fixtures were played out; this was not true for the shortened 2006-2007 Championship. This tournament serves as qualifier for the Summer Olympics, it has been considered a stepping stone toward the senior team. Players such as 2014 World Cup winner Mesut Özil, Klaas-Jan Huntelaar, Luís Figo, Petr Čech, 2010 World Cup winner Iker Casillas, 2006 World Cup winners Francesco Totti, Fabio Cannavaro, Gianluigi Buffon, Alberto Gilardino and Andrea Pirlo, Euro 2004 winner Georgios Karagounis began their international careers in the youth teams.
Germany are the reigning champions. The finals of the 2017 competition were hosted by Poland. Up to and including the 1992 competition, all entrants were divided into eight qualification groups, the eight winners of which formed the quarter-finals lineup; the remaining fixtures were played out on a two-legged and away basis to determine the eventual winner. For the 1994 competition, one of the semi-finalists, was chosen as a host for the semi-finals, 3rd place playoff and final. Spain was chosen to host the last four matches in 1996. For 1998, nine qualification groups were used, as participation had reached 46, nearly double the 24 entrants in 1976; the top seven group winners qualified automatically for the finals, whilst the eighth- and ninth-best qualifiers and England, played-off for the final spot. The remaining matches, from the quarter-finals onward, were held in Romania, one of the eight qualifiers; the 2000 competition had nine groups, but the nine winners and seven runners-up went into a two-legged playoff to decide the eight qualifiers.
From those, Slovakia was chosen as host. For the first time, the familiar finals group stage was employed, with the two winners contesting a final, two runners-up contesting the 3rd-place playoff; the structure in 2002 was identical, except for the introduction of a semi-finals round after the finals group stage. Switzerland hosted the 2002 finals. In 2004, ten qualification groups were used, with the group winners and six best runners-up going into the playoff. Germany was host that year. For 2006, the top two teams of eight large qualification groups provided the 16 teams for the playoffs, held in November 2005. Portugal hosted the finals. Followed the switch to odd years; the change was made because the senior teams of many nations chose to promote players from their under-21s team as their own qualification campaign intensified. Staggering the tournaments allowed players more time to develop in the under-21 team rather than get promoted too early and end up becoming reserves for the seniors.
The 2007 competition began before the 2006 finals, with a qualification round to eliminate eight of the lowest-ranked nations. For the first time, the host was chosen ahead of the qualification section; as hosts, Netherlands qualified automatically. Coincidentally, the Dutch team had won the 2006 competition - the holders would have gone through the qualification stage; the other nations were all drawn into fourteen three-team groups. The 14 group winners were paired in double-leg play-off to decide the seven qualifiers alongside the hosts. From 2009 to 2015, ten qualification groups were used, with the group winners and four best runners-up going into the two-legged playoffs; the 2015 finals was to be the last 8 teams edition, as UEFA expanded the participants to the finals to 12 teams starting from 2017 edition. On 6 February 2019, UEFA's Executive Committee increased the number of participants to 16 teams, starting from 2021 edition. Held only three times before it was relabelled by UEFA. Only under-21 championships are included in the table.
Legend Notes1 Includes results representing Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro in 2004. 2 Includes results representing West Germany. 3 Includes results representing Soviet Union and CIS 4 Includes results representing Czechoslovakia The Golden Player award is awarded to the player who plays the most outstanding football during the tournament. The UEFA European Under-21 Championship adidas Golden Boot award will be handed to the player who scores the most goals during the tournament. Since the 2013 tournament, those who finish as runners-up in the vote receive the Silver Boot and Bronze Boot awards as the second and third top goalscorer players in the tournament respectively. On 17 June 2015, UEFA revealed an all-time best XI from the previous Under-21 final tournaments. UEFA European Championship UEFA European Under-19 Championship UEFA European Under-17 Championship The Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation Contains full record of U-21/U-23 Championships. UEFA European U-21 Championship at uefa.com
2007–08 UEFA Cup
The 2007–08 UEFA Cup was the 37th edition of the UEFA Cup, UEFA's second tier club football tournament. The final was played at the City of Manchester Stadium, England on 14 May 2008 between Rangers of Scotland and Zenit Saint Petersburg of Russia. Zenit won the match 2–0, with goals from Igor Denisov and Konstantin Zyryanov, to claim their first UEFA Cup title; the first qualifying games were played on 19 July 2007 and the main tournament commenced on 20 September 2007. A total of 123 football clubs took part in the tournament; each European football nation is represented by a different number of its associate clubs, depending on the UEFA coefficients. Budućnost Podgorica was the first team from Montenegro to enter the competition; the tournament's top scorers were Pavel Pogrebnyak of Zenit Saint Petersburg and Luca Toni of Bayern Munich, each with 10 goals. The calendar from UEFA.com. The draw, conducted by UEFA General Secretary David Taylor and Michele Centenaro, UEFA's head of club competitions, was held on Friday, 29 June 2007 at 13:30 CET in Nyon, Switzerland.
The matches were played on 19 July and 2 August 2007. 1 This match was played at Partizan Stadium in Belgrade.2 UEFA expelled Partizan from the 2007–08 UEFA Cup due to crowd trouble at their away tie in Mostar, which forced the match to be interrupted for 10 minutes. UEFA adjudged travelling Partizan fans to have been the culprits of the trouble, but Partizan were allowed to play the return leg while the appeal was being processed. However, Partizan's appeal was rejected so Zrinjski Mostar qualified.3 This match was played at Szusza Ferenc Stadium in Budapest because MTK Budapest's ground in Budapest does not meet UEFA standards.4 This match was played at Zimbru Stadium in Chişinău because FC Nistru Otaci's ground in Otaci does not meet UEFA standards. The draw, conducted by UEFA General Secretary David Taylor and Giorgio Marchetti, UEFA's director of professional football, was held on Friday, 3 August 2007 at 13:00 CET in Nyon, Switzerland; the matches were played on 16 and 30 August 2007.
The draw, conducted by UEFA General Secretary David Taylor and Gérard Houllier, the winning coach in the 2000–01 tournament, was held on Friday, 31 August 2007 at 13:00 CET in Monaco. The matches were played on 20 September and 4 October 2007. 1 This match was played at Panthessaliko Stadium in Volos because AE Larissa's ground would not meet UEFA standards. The draw, conducted by UEFA's director of professional football Giorgio Marchetti and Michele Centenaro, UEFA's head of club competitions, was held on Tuesday, 9 October 2007 at 12:00 CET in Nyon, Switzerland; the top three teams of each group qualified for the next round. Based on paragraph 6.06 in the UEFA regulations for the current season, if two or more teams were equal on points on completion of all the group matches, the following criteria were applied to determine the rankings: superior goal difference from all group matches played. All of the rounds in the final phase are two-legged, except for the final. In the event of aggregate scores being equal after normal time in the second leg, the winning team will be that which scored more goals on their away leg: if the scores in the two matches were identical, extra time is played.
The away goals rule applies if scores are equal at the end of extra time. If there are no goals scored in extra time, the tie is decided on a penalty shoot out; the team first out of the hat in each tie plays the first leg of their tie at home, the second leg away. The draw for the round of 32, conducted by UEFA General Secretary David Taylor and Michele Centenaro, UEFA's head of club competitions, was held on Friday, 21 December 2007 at 13:00 CET in Nyon, Switzerland; the eight group winners were drawn against the eight third-placed teams, while the eight second-placed teams were drawn against the eight teams who finished third in the Champions League groups. Teams from the same group or the same country cannot be drawn together; the first legs were played on 13 and 14 February 2008. The second legs were played on 21 February 2008; the draw for the Round of 16, conducted by UEFA General Secretary David Taylor, was held on Friday, 21 December 2007 at 13:00 CET in Nyon, Switzerland. The first legs were played on 6 March 2008.
The second legs were played on 12 and 13 March 2008. Unlike the previous rounds, teams from the same group or country may be drawn together from the round of 16 onwards; the draw for the quarter-finals, semi-finals and final, conducted by UEFA General Secretary David Taylor and Denis Law, the ambassador for the final in Manchester, was held on Friday, 14 March 2008 at 14:00 CET in Nyon, Switzerland. The first legs of the quarter-finals were played on 3 April and the second legs were played on 10 April 2008; the semi-final matches were played on 24 April and 1 May 2008. The final was contested by Russian side Zenit Saint Petersburg and Scottish side Rangers on 14 May 2008 at the City of Manchester Stadium in Manchester, England. Zenit won the match 2–0, with goals from Igor Denisov and Konstantin Zyryanov coming in the last 20 minutes of the game to give Zenit their first UEFA Cup title; the top scorers in the 2007–08 UEFA Cup are the following: Sources: Top Scorers Final - Wednesday 14 May 2008 2007–08 UEFA Champions League 2007 UEFA Intertoto Cup 2008 UEFA Super Cup 2007–08 All matches UEFA Cup
The Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition; the Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal; the winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup. 54 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 27 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them; the Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked fourth in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2017–18 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons.
The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries; the Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes; the Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund, but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga. The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga, below that, the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier of German football since 1974; the Bundesligen are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga in Germany has been a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League. Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are made up of Nord, Nordost, Süd, Südwest and West divisions.
Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas; the league structure has changed and reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany; every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations; as in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division: A greater share of television broadcast licence revenues goes to 1. Bundesliga sides. 1. Bundesliga teams draw greater levels of fan support. Average attendance in the first league is 42,673 per game — more than twice the average of the 2.
Bundesliga. Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1. Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships. 1. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues and marketing of their team brands; this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities. The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, reflecting an higher standard of professional play. Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Schalke 04, Hamburger SV, VfB Stuttgart, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Werder Bremen and Bayer Leverkusen. Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May 2018, when the club was relegated for the first time. In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, in use from 1981 until 1991: The bottom two finishers in the Bundesliga are automatically relegated to the 2.
Bundesliga, with the top two finishers in the 2. Bundesliga taking their places; the third-from-bottom club in the Bundesliga will play a two-legged tie with the third-place team from the 2. Bundesliga, with the winner taking up the final place in the following season's Bundesliga. From 1992 until 2008, a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1963 until 1981 two, or three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either or in promotion play-offs; the season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks (mid-December through to the end of