By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
1958 Formula One season
The 1958 Formula One season was the 12th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1958 World Championship of Drivers which commenced on 19 January 1958 and this was the first Formula One season in which a Manufacturers title was awarded, the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers being contested concurrently with the World Championship of Drivers. Englishman Mike Hawthorn won the Drivers title after a battle with compatriot Stirling Moss. Hawthorn retired from racing at the end of the season, only to die three months after a car accident. The season was one of the most important and tragic seasons in Formula Ones history, four drivers died in four different races during this season. Hawthorn retired from racing after his success, but was killed in a road accident only a few months later. 1959 and 1960 would be years, where grids at Grand Prix events would feature more and more mid-engined cars. The mid-engined cars, with their better road holding, increased driving comfort, lighter weight and ease on tires, rear-engined Cooper-Climaxes, entered by the private owner Rob Walker, won two early-season races, through Moss and Maurice Trintignant.
Moss teammate at Vanwall, Tony Brooks won three races, his success in the Italian race, overtaking Hawthorn after Moss had retired, ensured the title went to the round in Morocco. Moss needed to win, with a fastest lap and Hawthorn third or lower to win the title, Hawthorn finished second to win his first title by a single point. Vanwall won the inaugural Constructors competition, hawthorns death early in 1959 compounded a tragic season for Formula One, with four drivers killed or fatally injured on the track. Maria Teresa de Filippis became the first woman to drive in a championship event. Reigning five-time Champion Juan Manuel Fangio, the dominant driver of the 1950s and one of the greatest of all time, pink background denotes F2 entrants to the German and Moroccan Grands Prix Points were awarded on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis to the first five finishers at each race. An additional point was awarded to the setting the fastest race lap. The best six results from the races were retained. Points were awarded on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis to the first five finishers at each race, however a manufacturer only received points for its highest placed car and only the best six results from the ten races were retained.
Bold results counted to championship totals, other Formula One races held in 1958, which did not count towards the World Championship. Race results and images from the 1958 World Championship of Drivers at f1-facts. com
Alfa Romeo Tipo 33
The Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 was a sports racing prototype raced by the Alfa Romeo factory-backed team between 1967 and 1977. These cars took part for Sport Cars World Championship, Nordic Challenge Cup, Interserie, a small number of road going cars were derived from it in 1967, called Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale. With the 33TT12 Alfa Romeo won the 1975 World Championship for Makes, Alfa Romeo started development of the Tipo 33 in the early 1960s, with the first car being built in 1965. It was sent to Autodelta to be completed and for changes to be made. It used an Alfa Romeo TZ2 straight-4 engine, but Autodelta produced its 2.0 litre V8 soon after, the 2000 cc Tipo 33 mid-engined prototype debuted on 12 March 1967 at the Belgian hillclimbing event at Fléron, with Teodoro Zeccoli winning. The first version was named as “periscope” because it had very characteristic air inlet and it was powered by a 1995 cc 90° V8 of 270 hp, with a large-diameter tube frame. The original T33 proved unreliable and uncompetitive in the 1967 World Sportscar Championship season, its best result a 5th at the Nürburgring 1000, co-driven by Zeccoli, in 1968, Alfas subsidiary, created an evolution model called 33/2.
A road version, dubbed Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, was introduced, win was repeated at the Targa Florio, where Nanni Galli and Ignazio Giunti took second place overall, followed by teammates Lucien Bianchi and Mario Casoni. Galli and Giunti won the class at the Nürburgring 1000 km, however, in most races, the Alfa drivers were outclassed by their Porsche rivals which used bigger engines. In 1968, the car was used mainly by privateers, winning its class in the 1000km Monza, Targa Florio, at the end of season Alfa Romeo had finished third in the 1968 International Championship for Makes. A total of 28 cars were built during 1968, allowing the 33/2 to be homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for 1969, the Alfa Romeo 33/3 made its debut in 1969 at the 12 Hours of Sebring. The engine was enlarged to 2998 cc with 400 hp, which put the 33/3 in the class as the Porsche 908. The chassis was now a monocoque, the new car did poorly at Sebring and Alfa did not take part in Le Mans after Lucien Bianchis death in a practice session.
The car took a couple of wins in smaller competitions but overall the 1969 season was not a successful one, in 1970, an Alfa T 33/3 was one of the actors of Steve McQueens movie Le Mans, released in 1971. In 1971 the Alfa Romeo racing effort was finally successful, rolf Stommelen and Nanni Galli won their class at the 1000km Buenos Aires, before taking another class win at Sebring. De Adamich and Pescarolo won outright at the 1000km Brands Hatch and they took a class win at Monza and another one at Spa. At the Targa Florio and Hezemans won outright, followed by teammates De Adamich and Vaccarella won their class at Zeltweg, and De Adamich and Ronnie Peterson won overall at Watkins Glen. Alfa Romeo finished the second place in the championship
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
Luigi Cristiano Fagioli, nicknamed the Abruzzi robber, was an Italian motor racing driver. He is currently the oldest driver to win a race in Formula One, born in the small city of Osimo, in the Marche region of central Italy, as a boy Luigi Fagioli was fascinated by the relatively new invention of the automobile and the ensuing racing. Blessed with great natural driving instincts, a young Fagioli spent several years participating in hillclimbing, by 1930, his racing success led to an opportunity to join the Maserati team on the Grand Prix motor racing circuit. He immediately made his presence felt, winning the Coppa Ciano, in April of the following year he went head to head with Louis Chiron and his Bugatti Type 51 at the Monaco Grand Prix. Fagioli went on to take the victory at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza in Monza, Italy beating Chiron as well as fellow Italian greats, Achille Varzi and Tazio Nuvolari. In 1932, Fagioli won the Grand Prix of Rome driving for Maserati, driving an Alfa Romeo Tipo B P3, he won the Coppa Acerbo, the Grand Prix du Comminges, and the Italian Grand Prix.
A supremely confident Fagioli often displayed a temper and retaliated against other drivers on the track when he felt they had done something wrong. Also, he took chances that others might not and as such he developed a somewhat negative reputation after he had several significant race crashes. Nevertheless, his talents were considerable and for the 1934 season he was lured away by Mercedes to drive one of their Silver Arrows with the brilliant Hermann Lang as his chief mechanic. The move proved successful for Fagioli but his relationship with the German team manager, following this, Fagioli went on to take first place at the Spanish Grand Prix at the Circuito Lasarte. For the 1935 racing season, his factory Mercedes was upgraded to a W25B model with which he captured the Monaco Grand Prix, his relationship with his teammates worsened, in particular, Rudolf Caracciola and in some races Fagioli tried to pass Caracciola against team orders. Health problems, including crippling rheumatism, soon began to severely affect Luigi Fagiolis racing ability, at the Coppa Acerbo he needed the aid of a cane just to walk and had no choice but to drop out of the race.
He even entered the round as one of three drivers in contention for the title, despite not winning a race. His only Grand Prix of 1951 was his last, but he won the French Grand Prix with Juan-Manuel Fangio. For 1952, Fagioli signed with Lancia to drive sports cars, Luigi Fagioli ranks as one of Italys greatest race car drivers, and has the second-highest percentage of podium finishes in the Formula One World Championship, after one-time wonder Dorino Serafini. Each driver scored half points for the win, trofeo Luigi Fagioli Hillclimb Official web site
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually.
Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD.
Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period
Andreas Nikolaus Niki Lauda is an Austrian former Formula One driver and a three-time F1 World Drivers Champion, winning in 1975,1977 and 1984. He is currently the driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sports two most successful constructors. More recently an aviation entrepreneur, he has founded and run two airlines and he is Bombardier Business Aircraft brand ambassador. He was a consultant for Scuderia Ferrari and team manager of the Jaguar Formula One racing team for two years and he is currently working as a pundit for German TV during Grand Prix weekends and acts as non-executive chairman of the Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Team. Lauda owns 10% of the team, however, he survived, and recovered enough to race again just six weeks at the Italian Grand Prix. Niki Lauda was born on 22 February 1949 in Vienna and his paternal grandfather was the Viennese-born businessman Hans Lauda. Lauda became a racing driver despite his familys disapproval, after starting out with a Mini, Lauda moved on into Formula Vee, as was normal in Central Europe, but rapidly moved up to drive in private Porsche and Chevron sports cars.
With his career stalled, he took out a £30,000 GBP bank loan, secured by an insurance policy. Because of his familys disapproval he had a feud with his family over his racing ambitions. He was quickly promoted to the F1 team, but drove for March in F1, although the F2 cars were good, Marchs 1972 F1 season was catastrophic. Lauda took out another loan to buy his way into the BRM team in 1973. Regazzoni spoke so favourably of Lauda that Ferrari promptly signed him, after an unsuccessful start to the 1970s culminating in a disastrous start to the 1973 season, Ferrari regrouped completely under Luca di Montezemolo and were resurgent in 1974. The teams faith in the little-known Lauda was quickly rewarded by a finish in his début race for the team. His first Grand Prix victory – and the first for Ferrari since 1972 – followed only three races in the Spanish Grand Prix and he finished fourth in the Drivers Championship and demonstrated immense commitment to testing and improving the car. The 1975 F1 season started slowly for Lauda, after no better than a finish in the first four races.
Lauda famously gave away any trophies he won to his garage in exchange for his car to be washed and serviced. It would be a feat not achieved since Jack Brabhams victories in 1959 and 1960 and he looked set to win the most races in a season, a record held by the late Jim Clark since 1963. Most of the other drivers voted against the boycott and the race went ahead, unlike Lunger, Lauda was trapped in the wreckage
Bernard Charles Bernie Ecclestone is a British business magnate. As such, he is considered an authoritative voice in Formula One racing and is most commonly described in tabloid journalism as F1 Supremo. His early involvement in the sport was as a competitor and as a manager of drivers Stuart Lewis-Evans, in 1972, he bought the Brabham team, which he ran for fifteen years. As a team owner he became a member of the Formula One Constructors Association, Ecclestone entered two Grand Prix races as a driver, during the 1958 season, but failed to qualify for either of them. Ecclestone and business partner Flavio Briatore owned the English football club Queens Park Rangers between 2007 and 2011, Ecclestone was born in St Peter, South Elmham, a hamlet three miles south of Bungay, Suffolk. The son of a fisherman, he attended school in Wissett before the family moved to Danson Road, south east London. Ecclestone left West Central Secondary School, Dartford at the age of 16 to work as an assistant in the laboratory at the local gasworks testing gas purity.
He studied chemistry at Woolwich Polytechnic and pursued his hobby of motorcycles, immediately after the end of World War II, Ecclestone went into business trading in spare parts for motorcycles, and formed the Compton & Ecclestone motorcycle dealership with Fred Compton. His first racing experience came in 1949 in the 500cc Formula 3 Series and he drove only a limited number of races, mainly at his local circuit, Brands Hatch, but achieved a number of good placings and an occasional win. He initially retired from racing following several accidents at Brands Hatch, after his accident, Ecclestone temporarily left racing to make a number of eventually lucrative investments in real estate and loan financing and to manage the Weekend Car Auctions firm. Ecclestone even attempted, unsuccessfully, to qualify a car himself at Monaco in 1958 and he entered the British Grand Prix, but the car was raced by Jack Fairman. He continued to manage Lewis-Evans when he moved to the Vanwall team and his friendship with Salvadori led to his becoming manager of driver Jochen Rindt and a partial owner of Rindts 1970 Lotus Formula 2 team.
Rindt, on his way to the 1970 World Championship, died in a crash at the Monza circuit, in early 1972, Ecclestone purchased the Brabham team from Ron Tauranac. During the 1971 season, Ecclestone was approached by Ron Tauranac, owner of the Brabham team, Ecclestone made him an offer of £100,000 for the whole team, which Tauranac eventually accepted. The Australian stayed on as designer and to run the factory, Colin Seeley was briefly brought in against Tauranacs wishes to assist in design and management. Ecclestone and Tauranac were both dominant personalities and Tauranac left Brabham early in the 1972 season, the team achieved little during 1972, as Ecclestone moulded the team to fit his vision of a Formula One team. For the 1973 season, Ecclestone promoted Gordon Murray to chief designer, despite the increasing success of Murrays nimble Ford-powered cars, Ecclestone signed a deal with Alfa Romeo to use their powerful but heavy flat-12 engine from the 1976 season. Although this was beneficial, the new BT45s were unreliable
1979 Formula One season
The 1979 Formula One season was the 33rd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The season included three non-championship Formula One races, Jody Scheckter of Scuderia Ferrari won the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers while Scuderia Ferrari won 1979 International Cup for F1 Constructors. Gilles Villeneuve made it a 1-2 for Ferrari in the championship, Alan Jones finished the season strongly for Williams, finishing third in the championship and with teammate Clay Regazzoni scoring Williams first ever Grand Prix win as a constructor. Scheckters title was Ferraris last drivers title for 21 years, before Michael Schumacher won five titles for the team between 2000 and 2004. The following drivers and constructors contested the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers, the dominant Lotus team signed Carlos Reutemann from Ferrari to replace Peterson. Ferrari took on Jody Scheckter to fill the gap, and the Wolf team hired James Hunt in his place, like in previous years, the opening race of the season was in Argentina at the Buenos Aires circuit located on the outskirts of the capital city.
Four other cars were collected and the race was red-flagged, and aside from Piquets injury, the race restarted after the mess was cleared, and this time Depailler set off into the lead with Jean-Pierre Jariers Tyrrell and Watson following him. But soon Laffite was up to second, and a few he took the lead from Depailler. The Ligiers drove away, whereas Jarier struggled and dropped down the order with engine troubles, Laffite went on and won comfortably, but teammate Depailler suffered a misfire and dropped to fourth, leaving Reutemann second and Watson third. The drivers stayed in South America for the round which was held in Brazil, returning to the 5-mile Interlagos circuit in São Paulo. The Ligiers were in top form again, Laffite taking pole comfortably with Depailler alongside, Andretti however soon retired with a misfire, and so Reutemann was back in third. There was a break between the Brazilian and South African GPs. Jabouille led at the start with Villeneuve and Scheckter following, when the race restarted, most drivers were on wets, but Scheckter and a few others opted for slicks.
Villeneuve led at the restart and built up a gap, but the track dried and it was Villeneuve who won the race with Scheckter close behind, and Jarier taking the final spot on the podium. Five weeks after the South African race, the field went to the United States to compete at the gruelling Long Beach street circuit near Los Angeles, qualifying saw Villeneuve taking his first career pole position with Reutemann alongside him on the front row ahead of Scheckter. Before the race started, Reutemann suffered a failure and had to start from the pits. After a string of failed attempts to start the race due to different reasons, the race started with Villeneuve leading Depailler and Scheckter. As Villeneuve set about building a gap and Depailler battled for second, towards the end, Jarier began to drop back rapidly with a vibration, so Depailler finally got third but not for long as Alan Joness Williams was past him
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches, aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering, avionics engineering is similar, but deals with the electrical side of aerospace engineering. Aeronautical engineering was the term for the field. As flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space, Aerospace engineering, particularly the astronautics branch, is often colloquially referred to as rocket science. Flight vehicles are subjected to demanding conditions such as produced by changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature. The interaction between these technologies is known as aerospace engineering, because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise. Early knowledge of engineering was largely empirical with some concepts. Scientists understood some key elements of aerospace engineering, like fluid dynamics, many years after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft.
The first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958, the definition considered the Earths atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft and spacecraft under a newly coined word aerospace. In response to the USSR launching the first satellite, Sputnik into space on October 4,1957, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War. Some of the elements of aerospace engineering are, Radar cross-section – the study of vehicle signature apparent to Radar remote sensing, fluid mechanics – the study of fluid flow around objects. Specifically aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels, astrodynamics – the study of orbital mechanics including prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level and Dynamics – the study of movement, moments in mechanical systems.
Mathematics – in particular, differential equations, and linear algebra, electrotechnology – the study of electronics within engineering. Propulsion – the energy to move a vehicle through the air is provided by internal combustion engines, jet engines and turbomachinery, a more recent addition to this module is electric propulsion and ion propulsion. Control engineering – the study of modeling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them, usually using feedback signals. This applies to the behavior of aircraft, propulsion systems. Aircraft structures – design of the configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val dOrcia are internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast.
The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.
The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia