A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Uninvited (1999 film)
Uninvited is a 1999 Italian thriller film directed by Carlo Gabriel Nero and starring Vanessa Redgrave and Franco Nero. It premiered at the Mar del Plata Film Festival in Argentina on 26 November 1999 before its release in Italy on 19 May 2000. Tony has lusted after Patricia his whole life since high school his yearning never ceased, but he was only to appreciate her from a distance. Tony becomes a victim of his own heart when he is named chief suspect to the murder of Patricia, her husband and her children; as Tony is incarcerated his lawyer, Barolo struggles to make a case of defence. Meanwhile, Tony struggles to come to terms with Patricia's death. Vanessa Redgrave as Mrs. Ruttenburn Franco Nero as Avvocato Ralph Barolo Eli Wallach as Strasser Adam Hann-Byrd as Young Tony Grasso Kevin Isolad as Tony Grasso Bethel Leslie as Mrs. Wentworth Stephen Mendillo as Vincent Grasso Patricia Dunnock as Rose Grasso Olivia Birkelund as Patricia Macchiato Carver Barton Tinapp as Kirk Carver Jessica Munch as Young Patricia Jennifer Wiltsie as Charlotte Celeste Hinney Nick Sandow as Ed Tommy J. Michaels as Koosh Uninvited on IMDb Uninvited at Rotten Tomatoes
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Vanessa Redgrave is an English actress of stage and television, a political activist. She is a 2003 American Theatre Hall of Fame inductee, received the 2010 BAFTA Fellowship. Redgrave rose to prominence in 1961 playing Rosalind in the Shakespeare comedy As You Like It with the Royal Shakespeare Company and has since starred in more than 35 productions in London's West End and on Broadway, winning the 1984 Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Revival for The Aspern Papers, the 2003 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the revival of Long Day's Journey into Night, she received Tony nominations for The Year of Magical Thinking and Driving Miss Daisy. On screen, she has starred in scores of films and is a six-time Oscar nominee, winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the title role in the film Julia, her other nominations were for Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment, Mary, Queen of Scots, The Bostonians and Howards End. Among her other films are A Man for All Seasons, Camelot, The Devils, Murder on the Orient Express, Prick Up Your Ears, Mission: Impossible, Atonement and The Butler.
Redgrave was proclaimed by Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams as "the greatest living actress of our times", has won the Oscar, Tony, BAFTA, Cannes, Golden Globe, the Screen Actors Guild awards. A member of the Redgrave family of actors, she is the daughter of Sir Michael Redgrave and Lady Redgrave, the sister of Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, the mother of actresses Joely Richardson and Natasha Richardson, the aunt of British actress Jemma Redgrave, the mother-in-law of actor Liam Neeson. Redgrave was born on 30 January 1937 in Blackheath, the daughter of actors Sir Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson. Laurence Olivier announced her birth to the audience at a performance of Hamlet at the Old Vic, when he said that Laertes had a daughter. In her autobiography, Redgrave recalls the East End and Coventry Blitzes among her earliest memories. Following the East End Blitz, Redgrave relocated with her family to Herefordshire before returning to London in 1943, she was educated at the Alice Ottley School and Queen's Gate School, before "coming out" as a debutante.
Her siblings, Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, were acclaimed actors. Vanessa Redgrave entered the Central School of Speech and Drama in 1954, she first appeared in the West End, playing opposite her brother, in 1958. In 1959, she appeared at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre under the direction of Peter Hall as Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream opposite Charles Laughton as Bottom and Coriolanus opposite Laurence Olivier, Albert Finney and Edith Evans. In 1960, Redgrave had her first starring role in Robert Bolt's The Tiger and the Horse, in which she co-starred with her father. In 1961, she played Rosalind in As You Like It for the Royal Shakespeare Company. In 1962, she played Imogen in William Gaskill's production of Cymbeline for the RSC. In 1966, Redgrave created the role of Jean Brodie in the Donald Albery production of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, adapted for the stage by Jay Presson Allen from the novel by Muriel Spark. Redgrave had her first credited film role, in which she co-starred with her father, in Brian Desmond Hurst's Behind the Mask.
Redgrave's first starring film role was in Morgan – A Suitable Case for Treatment, co-starring David Warner and directed by Karel Reisz, for which she received an Oscar nomination, a Cannes award, a Golden Globe nomination and a BAFTA Film Award nomination. Following this, she portrayed a cool London swinger in Blowup. Co-starring David Hemmings, it was the first English-language film of the Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni. Reunited with Karel Reisz for the biographical film of dancer Isadora Duncan in Isadora, her portrayal of Duncan led her gaining a National Society of Film Critics' Award for Best Actress, a second Prize for the Best Female Performance at the Cannes Film Festival, along with a Golden Globe and an Oscar nomination. In the same period came other portrayals of historical figures – ranging from Andromache in The Trojan Women to the lead in Mary, Queen of Scots, the latter earning her a third Oscar nomination, she played the role of Guinevere in the film Camelot with Richard Harris and Franco Nero, as Sylvia Pankhurst in Oh!
What a Lovely War. She portrayed the character of Mother Superior Jeanne des Anges in The Devils, the once controversial film directed by Ken Russell. Redgrave funded and narrated a documentary film, The Palestinian, about the situation of the Palestinians and the activities of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation. In the film Julia, she starred in the title role as a woman murdered by the Nazi German regime in the years prior to World War II for her anti-Fascist activism, her co-star in the film was Jane Fonda, who, in her 2005 autobiography, noted that: there is a quality about Vanessa that makes me feel as if she resides in a netherworld of mystery that eludes the rest of us mortals. Her voice seems to come from some deep place that knows all secrets. Watching her work is like seeing through layers of glass, each layer painted in mythic watercolor images, layer after layer, until it becomes dark, but then you know you haven't come to the bottom of it... The only other time I had experienced this with an actor was with Marlon Brando...
Like Vanessa, he always seemed to be in another reality, working off some secret, magn
Lynn Rachel Redgrave was an English and American actress. A member of the Redgrave family of actors, Lynn trained in London before making her theatrical debut in 1962. By the mid-1960s she had appeared in several films, including Tom Jones and Georgy Girl which won her a New York Film Critics Award and nominations for an Academy Award and a Golden Globe Award, she made her Broadway debut in 1967, performed in several stage productions in New York while making frequent returns to London's West End. She performed with her sister Vanessa in Three Sisters in London, in the title role of Baby Jane Hudson in a television production of What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? in 1991. She made a return to films in the late 1990s in films such as Shine and Gods and Monsters for which she received another Academy Award nomination. Lynn Redgrave is the only person to have been nominated for all of the'Big Four' American entertainment awards without winning any of them. Redgrave was born in London, to actors Sir Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson.
Her sister is actress Vanessa Redgrave. She was the aunt of writer/director Carlo Gabriel Nero and of actresses Joely Richardson, Jemma Redgrave and Natasha Richardson, the sister-in-law of director Tony Richardson, actress Kika Markham and Italian actor Franco Nero, her grandfather was silent screen leading man Roy Redgrave. After training at London's Central School of Speech and Drama, Redgrave made her professional debut in a 1962 production of A Midsummer Night's Dream at the Royal Court Theatre. Following a tour of Billy Liar and repertory work in Dundee, she made her West End debut at the Haymarket, in N. C. Hunter's The Tulip Tree with John Clements, she was invited to join the National Theatre for its inaugural season at the Old Vic, working with such directors as Laurence Olivier, Franco Zeffirelli, Noël Coward in roles such as Rose in The Recruiting Officer, Barblin in Andorra, Jackie in Hay Fever, Kattrin in Mother Courage, Miss Prue in Love for Love, Margaret in Much Ado About Nothing which kept her busy for the next three years.
During that time she appeared in films such as Tom Jones, Girl with Green Eyes, The Deadly Affair, the title role in Georgy Girl. For the last of these roles, she gained the New York Film Critics Award, the Golden Globe, an Oscar nomination. In 1967, she made her Broadway debut in Black Comedy with Geraldine Page. London appearances included Michael Frayn's The Two of Us with Richard Briers at the Garrick, David Hare's Slag at the Royal Court, Born Yesterday, directed by Tom Stoppard at Greenwich in 1973. Redgrave returned to Broadway in My Fat Friend. There soon followed Knock Knock with Charles Durning, Mrs. Warren's Profession with Ruth Gordon, Saint Joan. In the 1985-86 season she appeared with Rex Harrison, Claudette Colbert, Jeremy Brett in Aren't We All?, with Mary Tyler Moore in A. R. Gurney's Sweet Sue. In 1983, she played Cleopatra in an American television version of Antony and Cleopatra opposite Timothy Dalton, she was in Misalliance in Chicago with Irene Worth, Twelfth Night at the American Shakespeare Festival, California Suite, The King and I, Hellzapoppin', Les Dames du Jeudi, Les Liaisons Dangereuses, The Cherry Orchard.
In 1988, she narrated a dramatised television documentary, Silent Mouse, which told the story of the creation of the Christmas carol Silent Night. She starred with Stewart Granger and Ricardo Montalban in a Hollywood production of Don Juan in Hell in the early winter of 1991. With her sister Vanessa as Olga, she returned to the London stage playing Masha in Three Sisters in 1991 at the Queen's Theatre and played the title role in a television production of Whatever Happened to Baby Jane? Again with her sister. Highlights of her early film career include The National Health, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex*, The Happy Hooker and Getting It Right. In the United States she was seen in such television series as Teachers Only, House Calls and Chicken Soup, she starred in BBC productions such as The Faint-Hearted Feminist, A Woman Alone, Death of a Son, Calling the Shots and Fighting Back. She played Broadway again in Moon Over Buffalo with co-star Robert Goulet, starred in the world premier of Tennessee Williams' The Notebook of Trigorin, based on Anton Chekhov's The Seagull.
She won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actress in a Play for her performance in Talking Heads. Redgrave became well-known in the United States after appearing in the television series House Calls, for which she received an Emmy nomination, she was sacked from the show after she insisted on bringing her child to rehearsals so as to continue a breastfeeding schedule. A lawsuit was dismissed a few years later. Following that, she appeared in a long-running series of television commercials for H. J. Heinz Company the manufacturer of the weight loss foods for Weight Watchers, a Heinz subsidiary, her signature line for the ads was "This Is Living, Not Dieting!". She wrote a book of her life experiences with the same title, which included a selection of Weight Watchers recipes; the autobiographical section became the basis of her one-woman play Shakespeare for My Father. In 1989, she appeared on Broadway in Love Letters with her husband John Clark, thereafter they performed the play around the country, on one occasion for the jury in the O. J. Simpson case.
In 1993, she appeared on Broad
Joely Kim Richardson is an English actress, known for her role as Julia McNamara in the FX drama series Nip/Tuck, Queen Catherine Parr in the Showtime series The Tudors. She has appeared in films such as 101 Dalmatians, Event Horizon, The Patriot, Return to Me, the Hollywood film adaptation of The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, the remake of Endless Love, the thriller Red Sparrow. Richardson was born in Marylebone, London, to the theatrical Redgrave family, the daughter of actress Vanessa Redgrave and director Tony Richardson, the granddaughter of actors Sir Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson, Lady Redgrave. Actress Natasha Richardson was her sister, through her, she is the sister-in-law of actor Liam Neeson, the aunt of Micheál and Daniel Neeson, she is the niece of actors Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave and cousin of actress Jemma Redgrave, five days younger than Richardson. Joely appeared as an extra at the age of three in the 1968 version of The Charge of the Light Brigade, directed by her father.
Richardson and her sister Natasha's early education began in London at the independent St Paul's Girls' School in Hammersmith. At age 14 Richardson moved to boarding school at the independent Harry Hopman Tennis School in Tampa, Florida. In 1983, she graduated from the Thacher School in Ojai, California returned to London to study at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Possessing an early ambition to become a professional tennis player, she spent two years at a tennis academy in Florida. Richardson turned to acting. In 1985, she portrayed, by flashbacks, the younger version of the leading character played by her mother in the film Wetherby. After a leading role in Peter Greenaway's cult success Drowning by Numbers, her first major role in front of a mass audience was as Joanna Farley in a 1989 television episode of Poirot, based on Agatha Christie's detective series. In a 1989 episode of Jim Henson's The Storyteller, she was cast as a princess, she portrayed a teacher on the verge of a nervous breakdown in the 1989 Channel 4 serial Behaving Badly and fictional Finnish Princess Anna in the 1991 screen comedy King Ralph.
A year she appeared in Shining Through alongside her future brother-in-law, Liam Neeson, with both actors playing Nazis. In 1993, Richardson appeared in the BBC's Lady Chatterley opposite Sean Bean. In 1996, she played fashion designer Anita Campbell-Green in the Disney live-action remake of the animated 101 Dalmatians opposite Glenn Close as Cruella de Vil. In 1998, in the television drama The Echo, she played Amanda Powell; the next year, she played in the science fiction horror film Event Horizon as Lieutenant Starck, executive officer of the research and rescue ship Lewis and Clark, sent to rescue crew of the long-lost experimental ship Event Horizon. One year Richardson appeared opposite Mel Gibson in the film The Patriot, an American film set in the American Revolution. In 2000, she appeared opposite Hugh Laurie in Maybe Baby, Ben Elton's film adaptation of his book Inconceivable, she was cast in the 2001 film The Affair of the Necklace after director Charles Shyer noticed her resemblance to doomed 18th century French Queen Marie Antoinette.
In 2003, Richardson took on the role of Julia McNamara in the television drama Nip/Tuck, based on the lives of two plastic surgeons in Miami. Her mother, Vanessa Redgrave, appeared in several episodes. In 2005, Richardson starred in Lies My Mother Told Me, based on a true story about a murderous con artist. In 2007, she played the mother in The Last Mimzy with Chris O'Neil, she starred in the television drama Wallis & Edward, playing the lead role of Wallis Simpson, lover of Edward, Prince of Wales. In 2009-10, Richardson appeared as Catherine Parr, sixth wife of Henry VIII, in the fourth season of Showtime's hit period drama The Tudors; the role reunited her with her former husband Tim Bevan, part of the show's production team. Joely joined the cast of TV series Titanic - Blood and Steel in which she played the role of Countess Markievicz. In 2015 she co-starred alongside Arnold Schwarzenegger in the zombie thriller film Maggie. Richardson is divorced from film producer Tim Bevan; the couple have a daughter, Daisy Bevan, an actress.
Richardson had an affair with theatre producer Archie Stirling, resulting in the failure of Stirling's marriage to Diana Rigg in 1990. Joely Richardson on IMDb
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection