Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca and it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls. Lucca was founded by the Etruscans and became a Roman colony in 180 BC, the rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, and the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre still may be seen in the Piazza dellAnfiteatro, at the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the sixth century. At one point, Lucca was plundered by Odoacer, the first Germanic King of Italy, Lucca was an important city and fortress even in the sixth century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke who minted his own coins, the Holy Face of Lucca, a major relic supposedly carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742.
During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca was a center of Jewish life, Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, and came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca was the capital of the margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune, for almost 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina, Tuscany in this time was a part of feudal Europe, dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca, in 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca, the Lucchesi expelled him two years later, and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy.
Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracanis death in 1328, on 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florences Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca, Castracanis tomb is in the church of San Francesco. His biography is Machiavellis third famous book on political rule, in 1408, Lucca hosted the convocation intended to end the schism in the papacy. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola, seized by John, Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state with a republican constitution to remain independent over the centuries. In 1805, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as Princess of Lucca, from 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy
Tommaso Michele Francesco Saverio Traetta was an Italian composer. Traetta was born in Bitonto, a town near Bari, near the top of the heel of the boot of Italy. He eventually became a pupil of the composer and teacher Nicola Porpora in Naples, around this time he seems too have come into contact with Niccolò Jommelli. From here on in, Traetta seems to have had regular commissions from all around the country, in 1759, something untoward happened that was to trigger Traettas first operatic re-think. He accepted a post as court composer at Parma, Parma, it has to be said, was hardly an important place in the grand scheme of things, a minor dukedom, but a dukedom with a difference, because the incumbent was Spanish and his wife was French. Parma had regularly changed owners between Austrians and Spaniards and the current Duke was the Infante Felipe, and in one of those inter-dynastic marriages which so complicate the history of Europe, he had married the eldest daughter of Louis XV. With the result there was currently in Parma a craze for all things French.
Which is where the influence of the composer Jean-Philippe Rameau comes in and it was in Parma that Traettas operas first began to move in new directions. And as a result there is no doubt that Antigona, his 1772 opera for St and it was in Parma, at the court of the Bourbon Duke there, that Traetta ran unexpectedly headlong into some fresh air from France. To judge from the stylistic influence in terms of grand scenic effects. To their influence, Traetta added some ingredients of his own, especially a feeling for colour, in the shape of his melodies. The result was a combination of Italian and German elements, the first fruit of this francophilia was the opera Traetta wrote in 1759. Ippolito ed Aricia owes a lot to Rameaus great tragédie lyrique of 1733, but Traettas is no mere translation of Rameau. Through the following decade, the 1760s, Tommaso Traetta composed music unceasingly—not just opera seria, there was a clutch of comedies as well, to say nothing of sacred music composed to imperial order.
For Traetta served from 1768 to 1775 as music director for Catherine the Great of Russia, opera seria was generally what her imperial majesty commanded. Traettas first operas for Catherine the Great seem to have been largely revivals, the theatre was quite close to the Empress own apartments. Too close, in fact, because in 1783, that is to say some time after Traettas departure, she ordered it to be closed, some years before that she had already booted out Rastrelli, who had been the favourite architect of her predecessor. There is a story, told by the Traetta association in Bitonto and he left in time, but his librettist was poisoned
A poet laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, who is often expected to compose poems for special events and occasions. The Italians Albertino Mussato and Francesco Petrarca were the first to be crowned poets laureate after the classical age, in Britain, the term dates from the appointment of Bernard André by Henry VII of England. In modern times, the title may be conferred by an organization such as the Poetry Foundation, over a dozen national governments continue the poet laureate tradition. In ancient Greece, the laurel was used to form a crown or wreath of honour for poets and heroes. This custom, first revived in Padua for Albertino Mussato, was followed by Petrarchs own crowning ceremony in the hall of the medieval senatorial palazzo on the Campidoglio on 8 April 1341. As the concept of the laureate has spread, the term laureate has come in English to signify recognition for preeminence or superlative achievement. As a royal degree in rhetoric, poet laureate was awarded at European universities in the Middle Ages, the term might refer to the holder of such a degree, which recognized skill in rhetoric and language.
The Canadian Parliamentary Poet Laureate is appointed as an officer of the Library of Parliament, the position alternates between an English and French speaking laureate. Candidates must be able to write in both English and French, have a publication history displaying literary excellence and have written work reflecting Canada. The first laureate was George Bowering, in 2002, in 2004, the title was transferred to Pauline Michel, in 2006 to John Steffler until December 3,2008, to Pierre DesRuisseaux on April 28,2009, and to Fred Wah in December 2011. Michel Pleau was installed in January,2014, Poets Laureate of Dominican Republic include, Pedro Mir. Poets Laureate of Ethiopia include, Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, Poets Laureate of Nazi Germany include, Hanns Johst from 1935 to 1946. Sripada Krishnamurty Sastry was the first poet laureate of Andhra Pradesh, kannadasan was the poet laureate of Tamil Nadu at the time of his death. Malek o-Shoarā Bahār was the laureate of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar. He was born in Mashhad in 1884 and was a figure among the modernists.
The closest equivalent is the title Saoi held by up to seven members at a time of Aosdána, a body of those engaged in fine arts, literature. Poets awarded the title include Máire Mhac an tSaoi, Anthony Cronin, the unofficial Poet Laureate of Netherlands is Ester Naomi Perquin as Dichter des Vaderlands. The previous laureate was Anne Vegter, gerrit Komrij was the first Dichter des Vaderlands
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. As a subject of study and a productive civic practice. Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it the faculty of observing in any case the available means of persuasion. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome, arrangement, memory, along with grammar and logic, rhetoric is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a part of Western education. Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times, although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times.
Many contemporary approaches treat rhetoric as human communication that includes purposeful, Public relations, law, marketing and technical writing, and advertising are modern professions that employ rhetorical practitioners. Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a tool to influence politics. Consequently, rhetoric remains associated with its political origins, even the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric. According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic and this method suggested rhetoric could be a means of communicating any expertise, not just politics. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias even applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his opinions of the art.
He criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth, in Gorgias, one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Platos opinion, is merely a form of flattery and functions similarly to cookery, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, and epideictic, when one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
The medieval university disappeared by 1338 and was replaced by three public lectureships which did not award degrees and were suspended in the 1590s for lack of money. The university was not reestablished in Modena until the 1680s and did not receive a charter until 1685. The University of Modena dates back to 1175, a few decades after the birth of the University of Bologna, making it one of the oldest universities in Italy and it was established by the city of Modena, which financed professors contracts through local taxation. The first to be invited to teach was Pillio da Medicina from Bologna, the School of Law was subsequently formed around him and made up the nucleus of the University. In the two centuries that followed, the Studium expanded from legal studies to include the training of notaries, the subsequent history of the University was profoundly marked by the changing fortunes of the ruling Este family. Between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when the Court of Este settled in Ferrara, academic titles were no longer awarded, and the activities of the Studium were greatly reduced.
Only after the Court moved to Modena in 1772 did the University regain its original splendour and academic prestige, the University offered multiple disciplines, including law and surgery, and mathematical and natural sciences. The Department of Economics was established in 1968, followed by the Department of Engineering in 1989, in fact, Reggio Emilia already had an ancient and noble tradition of university studies which ended in 1772 following the reform of Duke Francis II of Este. A School of Law, proposed by the city, is mentioned as early as 1188, in 1532, Emperor Carl V granted the College of Judges the privilege of awarding diplomas and degrees in Law. Duke Alfonse II of Este established a Medical College in 1561 and ten years later, in the seventeenth century, a School of Letters was opened at the Seminary and, in the following century, a chair of Scholastic Theology was established along with schools of grammar and rhetoric. In 1752, the University of Reggio was inaugurated in Palazzo Busetti and consisted of four faculties, Theology and Philosophy.
However, its activities continued only until 1772 when, after the reform of Francis II, its right to grant degrees was taken away and given solely to the University of Modena. The Department of Engineering and Agriculture was established in Reggio Emilia in 1998, followed in 1999, by the Department of Arts and Humanities in Modena
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015,594,733 people lived within the administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious past, part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. The citys rich history in notably its art, music. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of north-west Italy, is one of the countrys major economic centres. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the citys prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, the Genoa area has been inhabited since the fifth or fourth millennium BC.
In ancient times this area was frequented and inhabited by Ligures, Phocaeans and Etruscans. The city cemetery, dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BC, testifies to the occupation of the site by the Greeks, but the fine harbour probably saw use much earlier, perhaps by the Etruscans. In the 5th century BC was founded the first oppidum at the foot of the today called the Castle Hill which now is inside the medieval old town. The ancient Ligurian city was known as Stalia, so referred to by Artemidorus Ephesius and Pomponius Mela, Ligurian Stalia was overshadowed by the powerful Marseille and Vada Sabatia, near modern Savona. Stalia had an alliance with Rome through a foedus aequum in the course of the Second Punic War, the Carthaginians accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the Carthaginian Wars ended in 146 BC. it received municipal rights, the original castrum thenceforth expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory.
Trades included skins and honey, goods were shipped to the mainland, up to major cities like Tortona and Piacenza. Among the archeological remains from the Roman period, an amphitheatre was found, another theory traces the name to the Etruscan word Kainua which means New City and still another from the Latin word ianua, related to the name of the God Janus, meaning door or passage. The latter is in reference to its position at the centre of the Ligurian coastal arch. The Latin name, oppidum Genua, is recorded by Pliny the Elder as part of the Augustean Regio IX Liguria, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Ostrogoths occupied Genoa