Heiden is a village and a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland. Its Biedermeier village around the church square is listed as a heritage site of national significance. Heiden is first mentioned in 1461 as guot genant Haiden. Around 1650 Wolfhalden and Heiden could not agree about the control over the church; this led to the creation of a church in each village in 1652. The founder of the Red Cross, Henry Dunant, spent his last years in Heiden; the former president of the ICRC, Jakob Kellenberger, was born in Heiden. Heiden has an area, as of 2006, of 7.5 km2. Of this area, 52.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 30.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 16.8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is located in the former District of Vorderland on the Kurzenberg, it consists of several hamlets near the village. Heiden has a population of 4,052. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -4.2%. Most of the population speaks German, with Croatian being second most common and Italian being third.
As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Heiden is. 512 people or 12.6% are 6-15, 219 people or 5.4% are 16-19. Of the adult population, 168 people or 4.1% of the population are between 20–24 years old. 1,179 people or 29.0% are 25-44, 966 people or 23.8% are 45-64. The senior population distribution is 491 people or 12.1% of the population are between 65–79 years old, 217 people or 5.3% are over 80. In the 2007 federal election the FDP received 65% of the vote. In Heiden about 68.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Heiden has an unemployment rate of 1.61%. As of 2005, there were 93 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 37 businesses involved in this sector. 708 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 41 businesses in this sector. 1,428 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 189 businesses in this sector.
The historical population is given in the following table: A frequent rack railway, the Rorschach-Heiden-Bahn, leads from Rorschach next to Lake Constance, 400 meters below, to Heiden. Heiden is connected by several frequent Swiss PostAuto lines
Council of States (Switzerland)
The Council of States is the smaller chamber of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, is considered the Assembly's upper house, with the National Council being the lower house. There are 46 Councillors. Twenty of the country's cantons are represented by two Councillors each. Six cantons, traditionally called "half cantons", are represented by one Councillor each for historical reasons; these are Obwalden, Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Appenzell Ausserrhoden and Appenzell Innerrhoden. The Councillors serve for four years, are not bound in their vote to instructions from the cantonal authorities. Under the Swiss Federal Constitution, the mode of election to the Council of States is left to the cantons, the proviso being that it must be a democratic method. All cantons now provide for the councillors to be chosen by popular election, however those eligible to vote varies according to the applicable cantonal law. In all cantons except for Appenzell Innerrhoden, the councillors are elected concurrently with the members of the National Council.
In the Appenzell Innerrhoden the representative is elected by the physically convened popular assembly the April prior to the national vote. With the exception of the cantons of Neuchâtel and Jura, where a proportional representation election system is used, the representatives are elected by majority vote in either one or two rounds of voting. In debates, councilors can choose any of the federal languages the one he is most proficient with: German, Italian, or Romansh. German and French are used; the Council of States represents the federal nature of Switzerland: seats are distributed by state, not by population. Most cantons send 2 representatives; the number of people represented by a single seat in the Council of State varies by a factor of 40, from 15,000 for Appenzell Innerrhoden to 600,000 for Zurich. Notes: ¹ Population data from 2015. ² Relative representation compared to Zürich. List of members of the Swiss Council of States List of members of the Swiss Council of States List of Presidents of the Swiss Council of States The Swiss Confederation – A Brief Guide 2015, Switzerland: Swiss Confederation, Swiss Federal Chancellery FCh of the Federal Chancellor Corina Casanova, 28 April 2015, retrieved 2016-01-04 Official website— The Swiss Parliament— The Law Collection: SR 17 Bundesbehörden/Autorités fédérales/Autorità federali—
Françoise Saudan is a Swiss politician from the FDP. The Liberals. Saudan received her doctorate. After that she worked as a manager. In 1985 she was elected to the Grand Council of Geneva and nominated in the same year as President of the FDP Geneva, she held the presidency until 1995, when she was elected to the Senate on December 4. In 2000-01 she was president of the Council of States. Saudan has two children, she lives in Chêne-Bougeries
2006 Swiss Federal Council election
On 14 June 2006, a by-election was held for the vacant seat of Joseph Deiss on the Federal Council, the government of Switzerland. The joint chambers of the Federal Assembly elected Doris Leuthard of the Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland in the first round of voting with 133 votes out of 234. Doris Leuthard, at that time president of her party and member of the National Council representing the canton of Aargau, was the only official candidate for the seat of Joseph Deiss. Several other members of her party received votes. List of members of the Swiss Federal Council Election website of the Swiss Federal Assembly
Joseph Deiss is an economist, Swiss politician and a member of the Christian Democratic People's Party. From 1999 to 2006, he was a member of the Swiss Federal Council, heading first the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, he was elected President of the United Nations General Assembly for its 65th session in 2010. Joseph Deiss started his political career in 1981 as a representative of his party in the cantonal parliament of Fribourg. In 1991 he became the president of the cantonal parliament for one year. Between 1982 and 1996 Deiss was the mayor of his home village Barberêche. In 1991 he was elected to the National Council. From 1995 to 1996 Deiss was vice president of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Council. In 1996 he was made president of the committee in charge of the total revision of the Swiss Constitution. Deiss was elected to the Swiss Federal Council on 11 March 1999, along with his erstwhile colleague Ruth Metzler-Arnold.
Together with Adalbert Durrer and Remigio Ratti, he was one of three official candidates proposed by the CVP for the seat of retiring Councillor Flavio Cotti. However, the election became a narrow contest between Deiss and Peter Hess, favoured by many conservative representatives. Deiss won after the sixth ballot, by 120 to 119 votes. In office, he has headed the following departments: Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Federal Department of Economic Affairs After the failure of Ruth Metzler to be re-elected in 2003, Metzler challenged him for his seat, but lost by 138 votes to 96, he was subsequently elected President of the Confederation for 2004, one year earlier than would have been regular. He became the only remaining representative of the CVP in the Council. On April 27, 2006, Deiss rather unexpectedly resigned as Federal Councillor; the CVP's seat not being contested by the other parties, he was succeeded by the president of the CVP, Doris Leuthard, who took over from Deiss on 1 August 2006.
Joseph Deiss studied economics and social sciences for his first degree at the University of Fribourg. He continued to complete a doctorate at the same university after which he spent some time doing research at King's College at the University of Cambridge. After this period of research Joseph Deiss took on the post of lecturing Economics at the University of Fribourg. In 1983 he was made visiting professor at a number of Swiss universities: ETH Zurich, University of Lausanne and University of Geneva. From 1993 to 1996 Joseph Deiss acted as National Price Supervisor, he returned to the University of Fribourg to become the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences. At this time at university, Joseph Deiss was the chairman of the Board of Directors at Schumacher AG in Schmitten and chairman of the Raiffeisenbank in Haut-Lac, Courtepin. In 2009 Joseph Deiss was awarded an honorary degree Doctor Honoris Causa from Business School Lausanne in recognition of his achievements to reinforce and expand the political and economic position of Switzerland.
Deiss has three sons. Joseph Deiss is an Honorary Member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation Joseph Deiss is an Honorary Member of AFIS Swiss International Civil Servants Association Manuel d'économie politique, with Danielle Meuwly, 1st edition 1994, reedited. Initiation à l'économie politique: analyse économique de la Suisse, 1st edition 1982, reedited. Economie politique et politique économique de la Suisse, 1st edition 1979, reedited; the regional adjustment process and regional monetary policy, 1978. La théorie pure des termes de l'échange international, doctorate thesis, 1971. Official biography Joseph Deiss in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Profile of Joseph Deiss with election results on the website of the Swiss Federal Council. Biography of Joseph Deiss on the website of the Swiss Parliament. Joseph Deiss in the German National Library catalogue
Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden
The canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden is the smallest canton of Switzerland by population and the second smallest by area, with canton of Basel-City being the smallest. It was the last Swiss canton to grant women the right to vote on local issues, in 1991; the name Appenzell means "cell of the abbot". This refers to the Abbey of St. Gall. By the middle of the 11th century the abbots of St. Gall had established their power in the land called Appenzell, too, became Teutonized, its early inhabitants having been Romanized Raetians. By about 1360, conflicts over grazing rights and tithes were causing concern for both the abbot and the farmers of Appenzell. Both parties wanted to protect their interests by joining the new Swabian League. In 1377 Appenzell was allowed to join the League with the support of the cities of Konstanz and St. Gallen. With the support of the League, Appenzell refused to pay many of the gifts and tithes that the Abbot Kuno von Stoffeln demanded. In response to the loss of revenue from his estates, Kuno approached the Austrian House of Habsburg for help.
In 1392 he made an agreement with the Habsburgs, renewed in 1402. In response, in 1401 Appenzell entered into an alliance with the city of St. Gallen to protect their rights and freedom. Following increasing conflicts between the Appenzellers and the abbot's agents, including the bailiff of Appenzell demanding that a dead body be dug up because he wanted the man's clothes, the Appenzellers planned an uprising. On a pre-arranged day, throughout the abbot's lands, they attacked the bailiffs and drove them out of the land. Following unsuccessful negotiations Appenzell and St. Gallen entered into a treaty, which marked a break between the abbot and his estates. Fearing the Habsburgs, in 1402 the League expelled Appenzell. During the same year, St. Gallen reached an agreement with the abbot, Appenzell could no longer count on St. Gallen's support. Appenzell declared itself ready to stand against the abbot, in 1403 formed an alliance with the Canton of Schwyz, a member of the Old Swiss Confederation that had defeated the Austrians in the previous century.
Glarus authorized any citizen who wished to support Appenzell to do so. In response, the League marched to St. Gallen before heading toward Appenzell. On 15 May 1403, they entered the pass leading to Speicher and outside the village of Vögelinsegg met the Appenzell army. A small force of Appenzell and Confederation troops defeated the League army and the two sides signed a short-lived peace treaty. Following another Appenzell victory on 17 June 1405, at Stoss Pass on the border of Appenzell town, the new canton continued to expand. During the expansion, Appenzell captured the abbot of St. Gall and in response they were excommunicated by the Bishop of Constance. However, while the Bund expanded, the Austrians used the peace to regain their strength. On 11 September 1406 an association of nobles formed a knightly order known as the Sankt Jörgenschild to oppose the rebellious commoners of the Bund. Following a defeat at Bregenz, Appenzell was unable to hold the Bund together; the city of St. Gallen and the Canton of Schwyz each paid off the Austrians to avoid an attack, the Bund was dissolved by King Rupert of Germany on 4 April 1408.
As part of the peace treaty, the abbot gave up his ownership of Appenzell, but was still owed certain taxes. However, it was not until 1410. In 1411 Appenzell signed a defensive treaty with the entire Swiss Confederation, which strengthened their position against the abbot. Appenzell joined the Confederation as an "Associate Member", did not become a full member until 1513. Following another battle, in 1429, Appenzell was granted freedom from the obligations in the future; this treaty represented the end of Appenzell's last financial tie to the Abbey of St. Gall, a movement towards closer relationships with the Confederation. Starting in 1522, followers of Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli began to preach the Protestant Reformation in Appenzell; the early reformers had the most success in the outer Rhoden, a term that in the singular is said to mean a "clearing", occurs in 1070, long before the final separation. Following the initial small success, in 1523 Joachim von Watt began to preach the reformed version of the Acts of the Apostles to friends and fellow clergy.
His preaching brought the Reformation into the forefront of public debate. In October 1523, the Council supported the Protestant principle of scriptural sermons, on 24 April 1524 the Landsgemeinde confirmed the Cantonal Council's decision. However, the work of the Anabaptists in the Appenzell region in 1525 led to government crackdowns; the first police action against the Anabaptists took place in June 1525, followed by the Anabaptist Disputation in Teufen in October 1529. To end the confrontation between the old and new faiths, the Landesgemeinde decided in April 1525 that each parish should choose a faith, but that the principle of free movement would be supported, so that the religious minority could attend the church of their choice regardless of where they lived; the entire Appenzell Ausserrhoden converted to the Reformation in 1529. The Innerrhoden remained with the old faith. While the majority of the residents of Appenzell town remained Catholic under Pastor Diepolt Huter, there was a strong Reformed minority.
In 1531, the minority were nearly succe