Club de Deportes Iquique S. A. D. P. is a Chilean football club based in Iquique, a current member of the Campeonato Nacional. Founded in 1978, the club's home stadium is the Estadio Municipal de Cavancha, which has a 3,500 capacity. Iquique has been Primera División member nineteen times, having its most large period ten years, having integrated thirteen times the Primera B and four times the Tercera División. Among its titles, Iquique has won three Copa Chile titles, they have a fierce local rivalry with San Marcos de Arica. The team was founded on 21 May 1978 by the merger of Estrella de Chile; the following year Iquique integrated the Segunda División, winning it and reaching its promotion to Campeonato Nacional as well as its first professional title. In its first season at top-level, the club finished in the 14th place of eighteen teams and won the Copa Polla Gol, beating in the final to giants Colo-Colo at the Estadio Nacional. Between 1981 and 1987, Iquique remained at the middle-table positions.
In 1988, The Dragons reached the liguilla to qualify to the 1989 Copa Libertadores after finishing in the third place. Iquique lost in the final against Colo-Colo and failed to achieve its first qualification to a continental tournament; that season, team's player, was the tournament goalscorer with eighteen goals. In 1991, following a poor campaign where the team finished in the bottom of the table, were relegated to second-tier. Iquique remained six years there. After only two seasons in the honor division, the team once again lost the category in 1999. However, three years Iquique's situation worsens due to its relegation to third division and, its bankruptcy, issue which the club had to change his name to Municipal Iquique. During its four-year presence at third division, on the positive side, Iquique saw the rice of Chilean international Edson Puch, key player in the title obtention in 2006. Two years Iquique reached its fourth promotion to first-level following beat during the promotion playoffs to Coquimbo Unido at the shootout, broking thereby a ten-year absence in that category.
After an impressive first half at the Apertura, for the incoming tournament Iquique suffered the departure of its stars Puch and Cristian Bogado, only obtained nine points and finished in the annual table’s bottom which meant the club’s return to second-level. In 2010, Iquique won its third second division title and its second Copa Chile title, this last send the club to the 2011 Copa Sudamericana. At first division that year, the team finished in the eleventh place of the general table. In 2012, Iquique participated in the Copa Sudamericana for second consecutive time, reaching the qualification following an impressive third place at the Apertura which featured the return of Puch, incorporations such as Rodrigo Díaz and rising performances like of the young Álvaro Ramos. However, once again the team would be eliminated at the preliminary stage, now by Uruguay’s Nacional after a 4–2 aggregate loss; that season the club achieved its qualification to the Copa Libertadores after finishing third at the annual table.
Following beating Mexican side León in the first stage, Iquique entered in the Group 1 where finished in the bottom. In 2014, Iquique won its third Copa Chile, reaching for third time a Copa Sudamericana qualification, for third time too, its elimination at the preliminary stage after loss against Universitario de Sucre from Bolivia; the team would complete a discreet 2014–15 season where as only landmark had the title snatching to Católica which lost the race for it against Cobresal in the final matchday after drawing 3–3 with them as visitors, a match which Iquique was losing 3–0 at the end of the first half. During the 2015–16 season they finished tenth in the annual table; the Estadio Municipal de Cavancha is the home stadium of the club. The stadium holds 3,500 spectators and was built in 1933, it has been home to Deportes Iquique since the club's founding, in 1978, until 1993, from 2016 until at least 2019. The club played at the Estadio Tierra de Campeones between 1994 and 2016, but this stadium is undergoing a complete reconstruction.
Current squad of Deportes Iquique as of 10 February 2019 Sources: ANFP Official Web Site Manager: Pablo Sánchez The teams of the Chilean Primera Division are limited to five players without Chilean nationality and the same number of foreign players in the field. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Gerardo Pelusso Jorge Garcés Gustavo Huerta José Cantillana Fernando Vergara Jorge Pellicer Christian Díaz Jaime Vera Héctor Pinto Nelson Acosta Jaime Vera Erick Guerrero Miguel Riffo Luis Musrri Pablo Sánchez Copa Chile: 31980, 2010, 2013–14Segunda División de Chile/Primera B: 31979, 1997-C, 2010Tercera División: 12006 Iquique at ANFP official website Official club website
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.
The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number nine – Everton's Dixie Dean a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.
Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10, exemplified by Dennis Bergkamp.
Other number 10s who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are described as an attacking midfielder or the playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the Number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe Roberto Baggio's playing role, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a Number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he is a prolific goalscorer. Second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the Number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly as assist providers.
In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante" or "ponta-de-lança". The position of inside forward was popularly used in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries; the inside forwards would support the centre-forward and making space in the opposition defence, and, as the passing game developed, supporting him or her with passes. The role is broadly analogous to the "hole" or second striker position in the modern game, although here there were two such players, known as inside right and inside left. In early 2–3–5 formations the inside-forwards would flank the centre-forward on both sides. With the advent of
O'Higgins Fútbol Club known as O'Higgins de Rancagua, is a Chilean football club based in Rancagua, a current member of the Campeonato Nacional. The club's home stadium is the Estadio El Teniente, opened in 1945 and renovated for the 2015 Copa América, hosted by Chile. Founded in 1955, the club was named in honour of the country's founding father and supreme director Bernardo O'Higgins, after the merger of the clubs O'Higgins Braden and América de Rancagua. O'Higgins has won two Primera B titles, in 2013 they won their first top-flight championship against Universidad Católica, coached by Eduardo Berizzo; the team has competed four times in the Copa Libertadores, once in the Copa Sudamericana in 2012, once in the Copa Conmebol in 1992. The club emblem is a phoenix standing upon the club's colours; the club has a long-standing rivalry with regional neighbours Rangers de Talca and Curicó Unido, as well as with clubs from Santiago. On 7 April 1955, after the merger of Rancagua's cross–town rival: O'Higgins Braden and América de Rancagua, the club was founded thanks to Carlos Dittborn, the president of the Asociación Central de Football, who offered to put the name of the O'Higgins that represents to the subsidiary and workers of Codelco in the city, under the name of Braden Copper and in reference to the country's founding father and supreme director Bernardo O'Higgins, an important character of the Colonial Chile during the 1810s, identified with the city of Rancagua, after some problems between the former rivals América and Braden.
The colours of the club are from the Instituto O'Higgins, the stadium was named as Estadio El Teniente, before having the name of the company during the 1950s and changing to the current name for the 1962 FIFA World Cup, in which they played as home team at its group the Argentine football team. It was decided that the uniform would be sky blue, based in Uruguay's uniform, earning the nickname of La Celeste. On 21 April 1955, the Asociación Central de Football decided that the team will play in the Primera División for the next season, being his first president, Nicolás Abumohor and his first head coach was Francisco Hormazábal. In his first league tournament, the club finished in the ninth place of the table under of Magallanes, playing the promotion play-offs, in which they failed to be relegated to the Primera B, ending in the second place of the liguilla under of Santiago Morning. In the 1957 season, still only four points of Universidad de Chile and Colo-Colo, teams champion of Primera División tournament, the club under the orders of the Argentine coach José Salerno, finished in third place alongside Santiago Wanderers, four points lower, making this form one of his most successful campaigns in contests of Primera División, with René Meléndez as the key player.
Seasons was relegated to the Segunda División the team after a 1963 Tournament's poor campaign. The next season, with the signings of the defender Federico Vairo and the attacking midfielder Mario Desiderio, both from the Argentine Primera División, the team returned to Primera División. In special, the performances of Vairo consecrated him as the best footballer in the club's history according to the supporters of Rancagua, who chose the Rosarian centre back with the honour in 1999. Vairo discovered Lionel Messi, taking it on trial to River Plate, his former club. In the 1964 season, since the promotion, the club made regular seasons, finishing in mid-table and suffered the departure of Federico Vairo and Mario Desiderio to the Colombian side Deportivo Cali in 1966. In the 1973 season, under the orders of the coaches Luis Vera and Jorge Aretio, behind of Unión Española and Colo-Colo, the team and Huachipato finished in third place, returning to the success of this form. After a notable 1978 tournament, the team reached the qualification to the following edition of the Copa Libertadores, in which they achieved their biggest win for an international contest against Deportivo Galicia, beating to the Venezuelan side at Parque El Teniente in the city of Rancagua, achieved his most important away win for an international tournament, winning 1–0 at Valencia to the same Galicia.
The performances achieved under Luis Santibáñez as head coach was well, after of be eliminated in by Palestino in the first round, failing to qualify to the semifinal against Paraguayan side Olimpia, because the team of La Cisterna won 1–0 to Rancagua's club with a goal of the historic centre back Elías Figueroa. The team directed by Luis Santibáñez reached the fifth place in the Primera División, qualifying to the 1980 Copa Libertadores, via the Libertadores Liguilla, after a notable unbeaten of five matches, finishing in the first position over powerhouse clubs Universidad de Chile and Cobreloa and the mid-club traditional in Chile, Unión Española of the Independencia neighborhood. While managing indifferent league form in the early 1980s, the club had its first South American success in the form of the Copa Libertadores. In the 1980 season, O'Higgins reached the semi-finals; the 1984 edition of the Libertadores, the club finished last of his group, in which Universidad Católica and Blooming integrated the group with the team of Rancagua, whilst for the league tournament, the Primera División, making regular campaigns, the last season, the club defeated 6–1 to Colo-Colo with elite footballers in the 1983 season, establishing of this form an unpublished fact.
After the financial problems of Codelco, the company owner of the club, Rancagua's club relegated to the Pr
Club de Deportes Cobresal or Cobresal, is a Chilean football club based in El Salvador, Atacama, a Chilean mining camp, participates in Campeonato Nacional. The team was founded on 5 May 1979, the name of the club comes from the local copper mine establishment. Since its inception, the club has played its home games at the El Cobre Stadium, which has a capacity of 12,000, more than the entire population of the village. During the history of Cobresal, the club has been champion once and achieved one Copa Chile title in 1987, with players like the Chilean legend Iván Zamorano, Rubén Martínez and the club's historic top-scorer Sergio Salgado, footballers that played in the 1986 Copa Libertadores, until this moment the unique international tournament of the club. Cobresal's classic rival was Regional Atacama, where both teams disputed the III Region derby, but since the disappearance of that team as a result of financial problems, the team now plays the Copper derby with Cobreloa of Calama. On 5 May 1979, Cobresal was founded as an amateur club, with Luis Sugarret as the first president.
The club began to play friendly matches in preparation for the first game of the club against a professional team. On 14 June, the club played the first match of its history against Incabus of Diego de Almagro, debuting with a 3–2 win, playing in August of that year against the professional team of Coquimbo Unido, where Cobresal drew 3–3, playing of well form. On 14 December 1979, Cobresal postulated to the National Association of Professional football for play in the Second Division. For this was necessary that the Club Deportivo Hospital, a club of El Salvador, a mining camp of the Atacama Region, offered its affiliation to the ANFA. On 26 February 1980, the incorporation of Cobresal was confirmed to the Second division as a professional team. In 1980, Cobresal kicked off its inaugural season in the Second Division at the Luis Valenzuela Hermosilla Stadium with a 2–1 away defeat to Regional Atacama on 20 April, with goals of Franklin Lobos and Rubén Gonzáles, under the guidance of Cobresal's first head coach Juan Zárate.
The club's first professional victory was a 2–1 win over Ñublense for the sixth round of the tournament. Cobresal finished his first season in the 14th place with 39 points. After a regular 1981 season, finishing in 10th place of the table, the next season thanks to the 5th place achieved, Cobresal qualified to the Promotion play-offs and the club was promoted to the Chilean Primera División, under the guidance of Manuel Rodríguez Araneda; the club debuted in the Primera División with a 1–0 win over Arturo Fernández Vial at Concepción. However, Cobresal protagonized the best season of its history finishing in the second place of the Group A, qualifying to the Championship play-offs. In the play-offs, Cobresal was runner-up of the tournament, achieving the second place under only two points of Universidad Católica; the 1985 season, the team qualified to the 1986 Copa Libertadores liguilla, qualify to the first international tournament in its history, having in the 1986 year the most successful season in the history of the club, the next season, Cobresal won its first Copa Chile title in 1987 with players like Iván Zamorano, Rubén Martínez and Sergio Salgado.
After of the success in their last seasons, in 1989 suffered the departure Zamorano and Martínez. Cobresal began the 1990s with the left foot, when the club was relegated to the Primera B in 1992, after an eight-year stay in the topflight. For the next season, the club signed again to Manuel Rodríguez Araneda as coach, who achieves the mission of return to Cobresal to the Chilean Primera División, but being relegated again for the poor season of the club in the 15th place, after of lost the Promotion play-offs. With the signing of Sergio Nichiporuk on replace of Rodríguez, the club after two good season in Primera B, returned to the first tier of the Chilean football in 1998, being champion of the tournament of notable form not losing any match in the 1997 season, but again lost the category of be defeated 7–5 by Provincial Osorno in the aggregate result, via the Promotion play-offs. In 2001, thanks to the coach Jorge Socías, the club returned to the Chilean Primera División. With Socías at the bench for the 2002 Apertura Tournament, Cobresal won his first match since his return to the first division, 2–1 to Santiago Morning as visitor with goals of André Gómez and Jorge Baeza, receiving a goal of Carlos Cáceres from the other side.
After a game win to Rangers, the club lost 4–1 their first game in the tournament against Unión San Felipe with a hat-trick of Francis Ferrero and a goal Cristian Leiva, a goal of Jorge Baeza for Cobresal. The club began to lose the games that disputed and made a poor season finishing last of his group in the fifth place with 12 points. After the bad season in the Apertura, in the next tournament still with Socías as coach, Cobresal reached the play-offs quarter-finals, being eliminated by Colo-Colo, who finished be the champion of the Clausura. After the departure of Jorge Socías, because the directive not renewed his contract, arrived Gustavo Huerta as coach, a former footballer of the club that played at Cobresal during the 1980s. After two defeats in the tournament, against Unión Española reached its first victory in the 2003 Apertura Tournament, they won 5–1 in home condition with goals of Juan Silva, Pedro Rivera, the Uruguayan centre back Alejandro Acosta, Damián Araya and Víctor González at El Cobre Stadium.
The next week, Cobresal achieved an important 0–0 away draw with Universidad Católica at San Carlos. After of the draw with Católica in Santiago, the club don't lost several matches, in where the results most important were a 4–0 home win over Coquimbo Unido and a 3–3 draw in the s
Deportes Temuco is a Chilean football club based in Temuco, Araucanía Region. It plays in the chilean second level, holding home games at the new Estadio Municipal Germán Becker; the club was founded on February 22, 1960, as Deportes Temuco and again on March 20, 1965, after a merger with Green Cross. Until 1984, the club was known as Green Cross – Temuco, and, in 2007, changed its name to Deportivo Temuco, only on that season. In 2013, the club fused with Unión Temuco, but the name of Deportes Temuco was kept, along with the logo and traditional white and green colors, making it seem as Deportes Temuco absorbing Unión rather than a fusion. Thanks to the fusion though, Deportes Temuco left the Segunda División and returned to Primera B for season 2013–14, using Unión Temuco's place in that league. On the season 2015–2016 the team won the Primera B championship. Since 2016 until now the club is a member of the top tier Primera División. Deportes Temuco's current stadium is the Estadio Municipal Germán Becker, a renovated 18,500 football stadium located at the "Pablo Neruda" street in Temuco, leased from Temuco City Municipality since 1965.
Deportes Temuco have used other grounds during their history. The club had played their official home games at the Estadio Municipal de Gorbea & Estadio Municipal de Lautaro when the G. Becker Stadium was re-built, in 2008. In 2011 due to the poor condition of the G. Becker Stadium, the club had look again for an alternative stadium to play their home matches; this time the Estadio Municipal de Villarrica and the Estadio Municipal de Victoria, were the "albi-verdes" choice to play their home matches. They played one Copa Chile 2015 home game at the Estadio Alberto Larraguibel de Angol. Primera B: 31991, 2001, 2015–16Copa Apertura Segunda División: 11987 1 Participation in Copa Sudamericana 31 seasons in First Level 16 seasons in Second Level 6 seasons in Third Level & ^ CONMEBOL awarded San Lorenzo a 3-0 win as a result of D. Temuco fielding an ineligible player; the match ended 1-2. Record Primera División victory — 8–0 v. Santiago Morning Record Primera División defeat — 0–9 v. Palestino Record Copa Chile victory — 9–1 v. Fernández Vial Most goals scored — 50, Víctor González Most goals scored in a league season — 25, Luis Ramos Highest home attendance — 32,551 v. Colo-Colo Primera División Best Position — 3rd Copa Chile Best Season — Semifinals Current squad of Deportes Temuco as of 27 February 2018 Sources: ANFP Official Site Manager: Miguel Ponce Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. List of Kit Manufacturers Kappa Adidas Diadora Le Coq Sportif Adidas Training Kappa Lotto Training Joma Penalty Warrior Sports M11 Sports Joma List of Shirt Sponsors Herman Gastellu Igi-Llaima El Diario Austral UFRO Doble ZZ Feria Bernedo Ripley Cerveza Cristal Rosen Cerveza Cristal Gejman Frigorífico Temuco Rosen Green Cross Official website
Israel Elías Poblete Zúñiga is a Chilean footballer who plays as a midfielder for Cobresal of the Chilean Primera División. Poblete was born in Santiago, but began his football career as a youngster with Cobresal, based in the mining town of El Salvador, he made his first-team debut on October 25, 2014, as a second-half substitute in a 3–2 defeat away to Universidad de Concepción in the Primera División, made four substitute appearances in the 2015 Clausura, including the penultimate fixture of the season in which Cobreloa came back from 2–1 down to beat Barnechea 3–2 and clinch their first Primera title. He played regularly over the next two seasons, but when Cobresal were relegated in the 2016–17 season, Poblete remained in the top flight, joining Unión Española on an 18-month loan, he appeared in all but one of the 2017 Torneo de Transición matches – half as starter, half as substitute – and contributed to the team's runners-up placing. Cobresal Chilean Primera División: 2015 ClausuraUnión Española Chilean Primera División runner-up: 2017 Torneo de Transición
Chileans are people identified with the country of Chile, whose connection may be residential, historical, or cultural. For most Chileans, several or all of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their Chilean identity. Chile is a multilingual and multicultural society, home to people of many different ethnicities and religions. Therefore, many Chileans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance to Chile; the overwhelming majority of Chileans are the product of varying degrees of admixture between European ethnic groups with Amerindian peoples indigenous to Chile’s modern territory. Although the historic mestizaje of Europeans and Amerindians is evident across all social strata in the Chilean population, there is a strong correlation between the ratio of a Chilean's European and Amerindian genetic components and his or her socioeconomic situation. There is a marked continuum existing between the lower classes of a high component of Amerindian ancestry and the upper classes of a predominant component of European ancestry.
Indigenous inheritance, whether cultural or genetic, is most pronounced in rural areas and in aspects of culture such as Chilean cuisine and Chilean Spanish. Although post-independence immigrants never made up more than 2% of the population, there are now hundreds of thousands of Chileans with German, French, Italian or Palestinian ancestry, though these have been miscegenated with other groups within the country. Though the majority of Chileans reside in Chile, significant communities have been established in multiple countries, most noticeably Argentina, United States and Canada and countries of the European Union. Although small in number, Chilean people make up a substantial part of the permanent population of Antarctica and the Falkland Islands; as in other Latin American countries, in Chile, from the onset of Spanish colonization and settlement, miscegenation or mestizaje was the norm rather than the exception. Today and racial self-identities are fluid and can differ between persons of the same family, including siblings of the same parentage.
It is dictated not only by strict physical appearance, nor more loosely by ancestry, but by cultural patterns, social class and access, prevailing biases of the era. These factors, lend to the varying ethnic structure figures from one source to the next. Additionally, those various figures refer to different if overlapping, concepts: including racial vs ethnic categories, self-identity vs genetic findings, as well as culturally assigned categories; these concepts should not be confused, the figures represented in one source might not be corresponding to figures of concepts from another source. Thus, for instance, UNAM professor of Latin American studies, Francisco Lizcano, in his social research estimates that a predominant 52.7% of the Chilean population can be classified as culturally European, with an estimated 44% as Mestizo. Other social studies put the total amount of Whites at over 60 percent; some publications, such as the CIA World Factbook, state that the entire population consist of a combined 95.4% of "Whites and White-Amerindians", 4.6% of Amerindians.
These figures are based on a national census held in 2002, which classified the population as indigenous and non-indigenous, rather than as White or Mestizo. General genetic ancestries67.9% European. 64.0% European. 57.2% European. An autosomal DNA study from 2014 found Chile to possess a genepool averaging 51.85% European, 44.34% Amerindian, 3.81% African DNA. The genetic study was conducted across all regions of Chile, while it “ratified the preponderance of mestizaje in Chile”, it found “the indigenous presence is marked by a curve in the Chilean territory. In the north, between Arica and Coquimbo, in the south, between La Araucanía and Aysén, the genes of indigenous Amerindians exceeds 50%. Only in the south central regions, Valparaíso and Magallanes does the European component surpass.” However, the majority of Chile’s population is concentrated in the centre regions of the country. Others genetics topicsIn regard to average admixture by social class and regions, a genetic study indicated that the genepool of the average residents of Santiago, Chile’s capital and geographic centre, to be 51% European and 49% Amerindian DNA for the lower class, 70% European and 30% Amerindian DNA for the middle class, 91% European and 9% Amerindian DNA for the upper class.
Cities with a higher proportion of European immigration, such as Concepción, in south central Chile, exhibited an average middle class genepool of 75% European and 25% Amerindian DNA, while in Valparaíso the average middle class genepool was 77% European and 23% Amerindian DNA. By contrast, in southern and northern regions of the country, the Amerindian component surpassed the European component. Related genetic studies conducted on Santiago’s mtDNA and Y-DNA found a sex bias in the ethnic origin of those sex-specific chromosomes. Thus, across all social classes, an overwhelming 84% of Santiago’s mitochondrial DNA is of Amerindi