Clarence Walker Seamans was an American typewriter manufacturer and executive of several organizations involved in the production and sale of the Remington typewriter, including the Union Typewriter Company and the Remington Typewriter Company. Seamans was born June 5, 1854 in Ilion, New York to Abner Clark Seamans and Caroline Matilda Williams. Seamans began work as a clerk at E. Remington and Sons, the firm at which his father was a purchasing agent, at the age of fifteen. In 1875, he began a three year stint of overseeing a silver mine in Utah. Upon returning to the state of New York, Seamans became a bookkeeper and salesman at Fairbanks & Company, a scale manufacturer. Fairbanks had become the sole marketer of the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, produced by Seaman's former employer, E. Remington and Sons. After 1879, Seamans lived in Brooklyn with his wife Ida Gertrude Watson and their two daughters and Dorothy. In 1881, marketing of the typewriter returned to Remington. Seamans was retained and made manager of sales.
The following year, Seamans partnered with Harry H. Benedict, a Remington director, William O. Wyckoff, a Remington sales agent, to form the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. In 1886, Seamans & Benedict purchased the typewriter business from Remington and, in 1892, formed the Remington Standard Typewriter Company with Seamans as the treasurer and general manager. A year Seamans was made president of the Union Typewriter Company, a trust formed from the merger of Remington Standard with several prominent typewriter manufacturers. Seamans presided over the acquisition of the Wahl Adding Machine Company, which made Union the world's largest typewriter company. Seamans remained president until being elected to chairman of the board in 1913. During this time, Seamans held a director position at several trust companies and an insurance company. Seamans died at his summer home in Pigeon Cove, Massachusetts on May 30, 1915
Lyman Cornelius Smith
Lyman Cornelius Smith was an American innovator and industrialist. He is buried in a mausoleum in Oakwood Cemetery in New York. L. C. Smith’s first business venture occurred in 1873, when he opened a livestock commission in New York City; the business failed within two years. Undeterred, Smith next attempted to establish a lumber business in Syracuse in 1875, his success in lumber was limited. Again on the verge of financial failure, Smith decided to enter into the lucrative business of producing firearms. Although he and members of his family manufactured guns, they are not the'Smith' from Smith & Wesson. Instead, Lyman Smith was the namesake of the famous L. C. Smith Shotgun. In 1877, L. C. and his older brother Leroy joined forces with an established firearms designer, William H. Baker, to form W. H. Baker & Co. and for the next three years, the firm produced shotguns. However, in 1880, Leroy Smith and W. H. Baker left the company, founded Ithaca Gun Company; the defection of Leroy Smith and Baker from the company did not hamper business, as they were replaced by Smith’s younger brother, a new designer Alexander T. Brown.
The company was renamed the L. C. Smith Shotgun Company of Syracuse and went on to produce several popular breech-loading shotguns. In 1886, the company produced its first hammerless shotgun; this proved to be their most successful design. Despite the success of the company, Smith decided to sell the manufacturing rights for the entire line of L. C. Smith shotguns to Hunter Arms Company in 1889. Hunter Arms would produce the line until 1945. Marlin halted production of L. C. Smith shotguns in 1950, they revived the brand in 1967, before retiring it for good in 1972. Smith went on to found the Smith-Premier Typewriter Company, which would become Smith-Corona Typewriter Company, he funded the Smith Tower in Seattle, WA, there are several buildings and the L. C. Smith College of Engineering and Computer Science at Syracuse University named after him. Smith Corona or the SCM Corporation is a US calculator company; the company experienced a decline in sales since the mid-1980s upon the introduction of PC-based word processing.
Its competitors include Brother, Olivetti and IBM. Michael McIntosh, Best Guns: Revised and Updated Edition.: 59-74. Rev. William M. Beauchamp, S. T. D. Past and Present of Syracuse and Onondaga County, New York: From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of 1908, Vol. 2.: 6-9. RootsWeb, "Descendants of JOHN SMITH" History of the Smith Tower HistoryLink, "Seattle's Smith Tower building permit is issued on October 20, 1910." Media related to Lyman C. Smith at Wikimedia Commons
E. Remington and Sons
E. Remington and Sons was a manufacturer of firearms and typewriters. Founded in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington in Ilion, New York, on March 1, 1873 it became known for manufacturing the first commercial typewriter. There are two versions of the origin story of the first Remington rifle barrel. One holds that the younger Remington wanted to purchase a rifle and lacked the money to buy one so he made his own; the other states that he forged a barrel from wrought iron to see if he could build a better rifle than he could buy. Both versions have him taking the barrel to a gunsmith to have it rifled. Eliphalet II forged his first rifle barrel as a young blacksmith in 1816 and finished second place in a local shooting match with it. Despite not winning the match, he proceeded to make barrels to meet the growing demand for flintlock rifles in the Mohawk Valley. With the completion of the Erie Canal, connecting Buffalo with Albany, commerce in the Mohawk Valley expanded remarkably as did the demand for rifle barrels.
To meet the increased demand for rifle barrels, in 1828 the Remingtons moved their forge and foundry from its rural setting to 100 acres of land they had purchased astride the canal and abutting the Mohawk River near a town called Morgan's Landing, New York. The move coincided with the elder Eliphalet's death, Eliphalet II assumed control of the business. In 1839 Eliphalet was joined by his oldest son, Philo Remington, in 1845 his second son, Samuel joined the company, afterwards called "E. Remington & Sons". Remington's third son, Eliphalet III, would join the company as well. During this period, the Remingtons specialized exclusively in the manufacture of rifle barrels; these barrels, marked with the distinctive "REMINGTON" stamp near their breeches, were recognized for their quality and reasonable price. Many, if not most, of the independent gunsmiths in the Mohawk Valley purchased completed barrels from Remington and assembled them into firearms custom ordered by their customers; as demand increased, the Remingtons added other parts to their inventory, first percussion locks made in Birmingham, England but marked with their stamp "REMINGTON", sets of brass gun furniture, including trigger guards, butt plates, patch boxes.
After 1846, first martial longarm and revolver production dominated the company's workforce. In 1848, the company purchased gun making machinery from the Ames Manufacturing Company of Chicopee and took over a contract for Jenks breechloading percussion carbines for the U. S. Navy. Remington supplied the U. S. Navy with its first breech-loading rifle. Remington supplied the U. S. Army with rifles in the Mexican–American War. Shortly after, Remington took over a defaulted contract for 5,000 U. S. Model 1841 Percussion Mississippi rifles. Based on the success of filling these orders, subsequent contracts followed in the 1850s. In 1856 the business was expanded to include the manufacture of agricultural implements. Upon Eliphalet's death in 1861, his son, took over the firm during the Civil War, diversified the product line to include sewing machines and typewriters, both of which were exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. On June 23, 1868 a patent was granted to Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, Samuel W. Soule for a "Type-Writer", developed into the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first device that allowed an operator to type faster than a person could write by hand.
The patent was sold for $12,000 to Densmore and Yost, who made an agreement with E. Remington and Sons, to commercialize what was known as the Sholes and Glidden Type-Writer. Remington started production of their first typewriter on March 1873 in Ilion, New York; the Type-Writer introduced the QWERTY, designed by Sholes, the success of the follow-up Remington No. 2 of 1878 – the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters via a shift key – led to the popularity of the QWERTY layout. E. Remington & Sons supplied a large proportion of the small arms used by the United States government in the Civil War. On March 7, 1888, ownership of E. Remington & Sons left possession of the Remington family and was sold to new owners and Graham of New York, New York and the Winchester Repeating Arms Company of New Haven, Connecticut. At which time the name was formally changed to the Remington Arms Company. Remington in addition was one of the most successful gun manufacturers in the world arms trade between 1867 and 1900 through the export of the Remington Rolling Block action rifle.
This single-shot, large-caliber black-powder cartridge rifle was exported in the millions all over the world, including shipments to France, Denmark, Sweden, Argentina and the Papal States. It was an important gun supplier of small arms used by the United States government in World War I and World War II In 1886, E. Remington and Sons sold its typewriter business to the Standard Typewriter Manufacturing Company, Inc. Included were the rights to use the Remington name; the buyers were William O. Wyckoff, Harry H. Benedict and Clarence Seamans, all of whom worked for Remington. Standard Typewriter changed its name in 1902 to Remington Typewriter Company; this company merged in 1927 with Rand Kardex Bureau to form Remington Rand, which continued to manufacture office equipment and became a major computer company, as well as manufacturing electric razors
Frank Haven Hall
Frank Haven Hall was an American inventor and essayist, credited with inventing the Hall braille writer and the stereographer machine. He invented the first successful mechanical point writer and developed major functions of modern day typography with kerning and tracking. Born in Mechanic Falls, Maine he served in the Union Army's Maine Volunteers during the American Civil War. After the war he attended Bates College in Lewiston before initiating a teaching career. From 1862 to 1867, he thought at public schools throughout the greater Illinois area. While in Illinois, he the political offices of postmaster, township treasurer, clerk, he owned and operated a general store, a lumberyard, a creamery. In between his teaching and business interests he began to pursue a career in invention. Hall focused on experimental typefaces, type design, display configurations with ink on paper and metal placings which subsequently led to his first invention: the Hall Braille writer, he publicly announced his invention in May 1892 and unveiled it at the World's Columbian Exposition on October 1893.
His furthered development of the Hall Braille Writer revolutionized Braille communication by speeding up the rate by which one could produce Braille characters. His research and development in the tactile writing system used by people who are blind or visually impaired, has been hailed as "the most innovative development of communications for the blind in the 19th century." Frank Haven Hall was born on February 1841 in Mechanic Falls, Maine. During the American Civil War Hall served in the Union Army's Twenty-Third Maine Volunteers, as a hospital steward at Edward's Ferry. After the service, Hall attended Bates College from 1863 to 1864, he married Sybil Hall. He began teaching primary school in 1864. Two years he moved his family from Maine to Earlville, Illinois so Hall could advance his career in school administration. While working for the Sugar Grove public schools, Hall owned and ran a general store, a lumberyard, a creamery, held the political offices of postmaster, township treasurer, clerk.
Hall and his wife remained active in their local church. Hall's first school administration post was as principal of Towle Academy in Maine. In 1866 he moved to Illinois, where he served as principal and teacher at public schools in Earlville, Sugar Grove, Jacksonville and Milwaukee. On May 27, 1892, he introduced the Hall Braille Writer to the public. Hall traveled to Milwaukee, Wisconsin to take up a position as an academic administrator but soon detoured to continue his research in Braille and commercial typewriters, he was present at a typewriter exhibition by Christopher Latham Sholes and saw the first prototype in January 1867. He compared the technical specifications of his earlier prototypes of the Braille writer and say modes to fashion it into a commercial type writer, he was introduced to Christopher Latham Sholes by Carlos Gladden and along with Samuel W. Soule began construction of what would be contested as the first commercial type writer in the United States. In 1868 their typewriter was debuted in Wisconsin to critical acclaim.
Hall stood by the begin and overall function of the typewriter while Sholes and Gladden soon disowned the machine and refused to use, or to recommend it. It looked "like something like a cross between a piano and a kitchen table."The working prototype was made by the machinist Matthias Schwalbach, but standardized by Hall. The patent was sold for $12,000 to Densmore and Hall who made an agreement with E. Remington and Sons to commercialize the machine as the Sholes and Glidden typewriter. Hall would go on to take his standardized version to Aurora, Illinois where a new position in academia was awaiting him. After seven successful years in Aurora, he was asked to head the Sugar Grove Industrial School, a work-and-learn agricultural school nearby. Hall spent twelve years as head of the school. From his work around Aurora and Sugar Grove he learned the value of experiential learning and began to lecture at teachers' institutes around the country, challenging the "learning by rote" forms of education dominant at the time.
For a short time he became superintendent of schools in Petersburg, Menard County before moving back to Aurora. Hall's most distinguished post in academic began in 1890 as Superintendent of the School for the Blind in Jacksonville, despite his lack of training or experience with education for the blind, he was a quick study, visiting several schools for the blind on the east coast, decided that blind students required vocational and experiential learning much the same as any student. A political power shift in Illinois from the Republican party to the Democratic party caused Hall to lose his post. From 1893 to 1897, during the governorship of Democrat John Peter Altgeld, Hall served as superintendent of the Waukegan schools; when the Republicans returned to power in 1897, Hall was reappointed to his post at the School for the Blind. He remained at the school until 1902. Hall's work led him to advocacy, most persuading Chicago school administrators to create the first public school day class for blind students in 1900.
This created an alternative to segregated boarding schools for the blind. Hall was an advocate of integrating agriculture into academic and studious life, he served as the official Illinois state delegate to the Farmers' National Congress in 1908 and the National Farm Land Congress in 1909, was a member of the National Conservation Commission. On May 27, 1892, while working as superintendent for the Illino
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type. A typewriter has an array of keys, pressing one causes a different single character to be produced on the paper, by causing a ribbon with dried ink to be struck against the paper by a type element similar to the sorts used in movable type letterpress printing. A separate type element corresponds to each key, but the mechanism may use a single type element with a different portion of it used for each possible character. At the end of the nineteenth century, the term typewriter was applied to a person who used a typing machine; the first commercial typewriters were introduced in 1874, but did not become common in offices until after the mid-1880s. The typewriter became an indispensable tool for all writing other than personal handwritten correspondence, it was used by professional writers, in offices, for business correspondence in private homes. Typewriters were a standard fixture in most offices up to the 1980s.
Thereafter, they began to be supplanted by the computer. Typewriters remain common in some parts of the world, are required for a few specific applications, are popular in certain subcultures. In many Indian cities and towns, type writers are still used in road side and legal offices due to a lack of continuous reliable electricity; the asdf QWERTY keyboard continues to be the standard used in computers too. Notable typewriter manufacturers included E. Remington and Sons, IBM, Imperial Typewriter Company, Oliver Typewriter Company, Royal Typewriter Company, Smith Corona, Underwood Typewriter Company, Adler Typewriter Company and Olympia Werke. Although many modern typewriters have one of several similar designs, their invention was incremental, developed by numerous inventors working independently or in competition with each other over a series of decades; as with the automobile and telegraph, a number of people contributed insights and inventions that resulted in more commercially successful instruments.
Historians have estimated that some form of typewriter was invented 52 times as thinkers tried to come up with a workable design. Some early typing instruments include: In 1575, an Italian printmaker, Francesco Rampazetto, invented the scrittura tattile, a machine to impress letters in papers. In 1714, Henry Mill obtained a patent in Britain for a machine that, from the patent, appears to have been similar to a typewriter; the patent shows that this machine was created: " hath by his great study and paines & expence invented and brought to perfection an artificial machine or method for impressing or transcribing of letters, one after another, as in writing, whereby all writing whatsoever may be engrossed in paper or parchment so neat and exact as not to be distinguished from print. In 1802, Italian Agostino Fantoni developed a particular typewriter to enable his blind sister to write. In 1808, Italian Pellegrino Turri invented a typewriter, he invented carbon paper to provide the ink for his machine.
In 1823, Italian Pietro Conti di Cilavegna invented a new model of typewriter, the tachigrafo known as tachitipo. In 1829, American William Austin Burt patented a machine called the "Typographer" which, in common with many other early machines, is listed as the "first typewriter"; the London Science Museum describes it as "the first writing mechanism whose invention was documented", but that claim may be excessive, since Turri's invention pre-dates it. In the hands of its inventor, this machine was slower than handwriting. Burt and his promoter John D. Sheldon never found a buyer for the patent, so the invention was never commercially produced; because the typographer used a dial, rather than keys, to select each character, it was called an "index typewriter" rather than a "keyboard typewriter". Index typewriters of that era resemble the squeeze-style embosser from the 1960s more than they resemble the modern keyboard typewriter. By the mid-19th century, the increasing pace of business communication had created a need for mechanization of the writing process.
Stenographers and telegraphers could take down information at rates up to 130 words per minute, whereas a writer with a pen was limited to a maximum of 30 words per minute. From 1829 to 1870, many printing or typing machines were patented by inventors in Europe and America, but none went into commercial production. American Charles Thurber developed multiple patents, of which his first in 1843 was developed as an aid to the blind, such as the 1845 Chirographer. In 1855, the Italian Giuseppe Ravizza created a prototype typewriter called Cembalo scrivano o macchina da scrivere a tasti, it was an advanced machine. In 1861, Father Francisco João de Azevedo, a Brazilian priest, made his own typewriter with basic materials and tools, such as wood and knives. In that same year the Brazilian emperor D. Pedro II, presented a gold medal to Father Azevedo for this invention. Many Brazilian people as well as the Brazilian federal government recognize Fr. Azevedo as the inventor of the typewriter, a claim, the subject of some controversy.
In 1865, John Pratt, of Centre, built a machine called the Pterotype which appeared in an 1867 Scientific American article and inspired other inventors. Between 1864 and 1867
Christopher Latham Sholes
Christopher Latham Sholes was an American inventor who invented the QWERTY keyboard, along with Samuel W. Soule, Carlos Glidden and John Pratt, has been contended as one of the inventors of the first typewriter in the United States, he was a newspaper publisher and Wisconsin politician. Born in Mooresburg, in Montour County, Sholes moved to nearby Danville and worked there as an apprentice to a printer. After completing his apprenticeship, Sholes moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1837, to Southport, Wisconsin, he became a newspaper publisher and politician, serving in the Wisconsin State Senate from 1848 to 1849 as a Democrat, in the Wisconsin State Assembly from 1852 to 1853 as a Free Soiler, again in the Senate as a Republican from 1856 to 1857. He was instrumental in the successful movement to abolish capital punishment in Wisconsin, he was the younger brother of Charles Sholes, a newspaper publisher and politician who served in both houses of the Wisconsin State Legislature and as mayor of Kenosha.
In 1845, Sholes was working as editor of the Southport Telegraph, a small newspaper in Kenosha, Wisconsin. During this time he heard about the alleged discovery of the Voree Record, a set of three minuscule brass plates unearthed by James J. Strang, a would-be successor to Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Strang asserted that this proved that he was a true prophet of God, he invited the public to call upon him and see the plates for themselves. Sholes accordingly visited Strang, examined his "Voree Record," and wrote an article about their meeting, he indicated that while he could not accept Strang's plates or his prophetic claims, Strang himself seemed to be "honest and earnest" and his disciples were "among the most honest and intelligent men in the neighborhood." As for the "record" itself, Sholes indicated that he was "content to have no opinion about it." Typewriters with various keyboards had been invented as early as 1714 by Henry Mill and have been reinvented in various forms throughout the 1800s.
It is believed to be Sholes among others, who have invented the first one to be commercially successful, however many contest it and couple his inventions with that of Frank Haven Hall, Samuel W. Soule, Carlos Glidden, Giuseppe Ravizza and John Pratt. Sholes became the editor of a newspaper. Following a strike by compositors at his printing press, he tried building a machine for typesetting, but this was a failure and he abandoned the idea, he arrived at the typewriter through a different route. His initial goal was to create a machine to number pages of a book, so on, he began work on this at Kleinsteubers machine shop in Milwaukee, together with a fellow printer Samuel W. Soule, they patented a numbering machine on November 13, 1866. Sholes and Soule showed their machine to Carlos Glidden, a lawyer and amateur inventor at the machine shop working on a mechanical plow, who wondered if the machine could not be made to produce letters and words as well. Further inspiration came in July 1867, when Sholes came across a short note in Scientific American describing the "Pterotype", a prototype typewriter, invented by John Pratt.
From the description, Sholes decided that the Pterotype was too complex and set out to make his own machine, whose name he got from the article: the typewriting machine, or typewriter. For this project, Soule was again enlisted, Glidden joined them as a third partner who provided the funds; the Scientific American article had figuratively used the phrase "literary piano". It had white keys, laid out in two rows, it did not contain keys for the numerals 0 or 1 because the letters O and I were deemed sufficient: The first row was made of ivory and the second of ebony, the rest of the framework was wooden. It was in this form that Sholes and Soule were granted patents for their invention on June 23, 1868 and July 14; the first document to be produced on a typewriter was a contract that Sholes had written, in his capacity as the Comptroller for the city of Milwaukee. Machines similar to Sholes's had been used by the blind for embossing, but by Sholes's time the inked ribbon had been invented, which made typewriting in its current form possible.
At this stage, the Sholes-Glidden-Soule typewriter was only one among dozens of similar inventions. They wrote hundreds of letters on their machine to various people, one of whom was James Densmore of Meadville, Pennsylvania. Densmore foresaw that the typewriter would be profitable, offered to buy a share of the patent, without having laid eyes on the machine; the trio sold him one-fourth of the patent in return for his paying all their expenses so far. When Densmore examined the machine in March 1867, he declared that it was good for nothing in its current form, urged them to start improving it. Discouraged and Glidden left the project, leaving Sholes and Densmore in sole possession of the patent. Realizing that stenographers would be among the first and most important users of the machine, therefore best in a position to judge its suitability, they sent experimental versions to a few stenographers; the most important of them was James O. Clephane, of Washington D. C. who tried the instruments as no one else had tried them, subjecting them to such unsparing tests that he destroyed them, one after another, as fast as they could be made and sent to him.
His judgments were c