Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Quilmes is a city in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, on the coast of the Rio de la Plata on the south east of the Greater Buenos Aires. It is the seat of the eponymous county, has a population of 230,810, it is located 17 km south of the capital of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The Quilmes were a native tribe. In the 17th century, after repeated attempts by the Spanish invaders to control their lands, the Quilmes were defeated and were forced to settle in a restricted colony near Buenos Aires, where the authorities could control them; the settlement was thus established in 1666 as Exaltación de la Santa Cruz de los Kilme. The 1,000 km journey from Tucumán was made on foot, causing hundreds of Quilmes to die in the process; the colony had become a ghost town. The land was divided in parcels and the town of Quilmes was established in 1818. During the first British invasion, lasting 46 days in 1806, the British arrived from Montevideo through Quilmes and went to Buenos Aires from there.
Quilmes was inhabited by British immigrants. Juan Clark, born in Yorkshire, was president of the municipality in 1855; the Clark's were owners of land in Quilmes, were linked to the Irish and Scottish community, established in the area since 1830s. In 1898 was established in the area the St. George's College, a private educational institution run by the Reverend Joseph Thomas Stevenson; the town's development accelerated during the wave of immigration in Argentina during the late 19th century, Quilmes was considered as the location for a new provincial capital during the Federalization of Buenos Aires of 1880. The Argentine Air Force established a 220 ha base in East Quilmes in 1943. In 1944, Impa opened Argentina's first airplane plant at Quilmes. Impa had been blacklisted by the United States government due to its connections to Nazi-occupied Austria and fascist figures within Argentina itself; the airplanes were considered of "antiquated design" according to the New York Times. Quilmes proper consists of two main parts and west, which are divided by the tracks of the Metropolitano passenger train line.
East Quilmes has several wealthy areas and a large shopping district. As one travels east toward the Río de la Plata, neighborhoods become poor, two large villas miseria are found close to the river; these areas experience severe flooding. Quilmes is the home of two football teams: Quilmes Atlético Club and Club Atlético Argentino de Quilmes; the first was founded in the 19th century by Cannon J. T. Stevenson, the second one was founded by Argentines who were not allowed to play for the QAC, they are two of the oldest Argentine football teams. The city has been chosen by FIH to host the 2014 Men's Hockey Champions Trophy; the city gives its name to the Cerveza Quilmes beer company, as this is where it was first brewed in 1888 where the brewery was started by Otto Bemberg. Other significant manufacturers in Quilmes include textile maker La Bernalesa, glass maker Cattorini, construction materials maker Cerámica Quilmes, climate control equipment maker Rheem. Famous Quilmeños include television variety show host Susana Giménez, football forward Sergio Agüero, painter Carlos Morel, sculptor Victor de Pol, boxer Sergio Martínez, the rock band Vox Dei.
Aníbal Fernández, born in Quilmes, served as mayor from 1991 to 1995, from 2003 as Minister of Interior, of Justice, as Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers, Senator. List of twin towns and sister cities in Argentina - New York Times article from 1944 about new airplane factory at Quilmes Municipality of Quilmes - Official Quilmes website UKULA Travel Section - Quilmes Travelogue Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina
Cybersix is an Argentine comic book series published in 1992, drawn by Carlos Meglia and written by Carlos Trillo for the Italian comics magazine Skorpio. The series first appeared in Spanish in November 1993, it follows Cybersix, an eponymous leather-clad genetic engineering survivor, who disguises herself as a male high school literature teacher by day, battles monstrous biological weapons of her creator by night. The series was adapted into a 1995 live-action television series, an animated miniseries by TMS/NOA, with positive critical reception from sources like the Pulcinella Awards. Dr. Von Reichter is a member of Schutzstaffel and Nazi Party genetic engineer, who works at concentration camps in World War II, implanting cybernetic organs on prisoners and attempting to resurrect Adolf Hitler's army. However, Reichter continues to use experiments in South America after the war. From one of the experiments emerged the Cyber Series, an artificial humanoids with superhuman strength and agility.
The 5000 original Cybers became mimicked human emotions and making free will of their own. When they disobey orders from Reichter, he orders all of the Cyber Series to be destroyed. After the death of Cyber-29, Reichter transfers his brain into the body of a panther. Cyber-6 is one of the survivors, who arrives in the city of Meridiana. After Reichter kills the black slave, Cybersix disguises herself as a male school teacher Adrian Seidelman, after the real one is killed in a car wreck. While saving the city from Reichter's creations, Cybersix defeats Frankenstein-like monsters called "Fixed Ideas" and drinks a green life-giving fluid called "Sustenance", in order to survive. Along the way, she meets a young orphaned boy named Julian, Reichter's cloned son José, high school teacher Lucas Amato; the Cybersix comics were published in Italy on the magazine Skorpio in 113 weekly 12-pages installments from May 1992 to July 1994, followed by 45 96-pages comic books between November 1994 and January 1999.
Material parts were published in Argentina and in Spain. Collections were released in French, with twelve volumes distributed by Editions Vents d'Ouest between 1994 and 1998; the series debuted in Argentina on 15 March 1995. It was produced by Luis Gandulfo, Sebastián Parrotta, Fernando Rascovsky and Andre Ronco, written by Ricardo Rodríguez, Carlos Meglia and Carlos Trillo; the series was cancelled after only a few episodes due to low ratings. Cybersix was played by former model and actress Carolina Peleritti, José was played by Rodrigo de la Serna, Doguyy was played by Mario Moscoso; the series debuted in Canada and Argentina on 6 September 1999, was subsequently dubbed for French, Japanese and Thai. It was animated by Tokyo Movie Shinsha and NOA. Original music was composed by Robbi Finkel, character designs were overseen by Teiichi Takiguchi; the show was aimed at children by toning down the comics' darker themes. Two seasons were planned, but it was cancelled after the first season due to conflicts between production studios.
The title sequence and closing credits featured music composed by Finkel and lyrics written by Robert Olivier, which were sung by jazz vocalist Coral Egan. On 28 April 2001, Cybersix won "Special Mention for the Best Science Fiction Program" at the Pulcinella Awards in Italy for that year's competition; the series was licensed to DVD by Discotek Media on 26 August 2014. The box set features commentary by Cathy Weseluck and Brady Hartel on episodes 1 and 13. Cathy Weseluck as Cybersix Michael Dobson as Lucas Amato Terry Klassen as Von Reichter Andrew Francis as Julian Alex Doduk as José Janyse Jaud as Lori Anderson L. Harvey Gold as TerraAdditional voices were provided by Brian Drummond and Chantal Strand; the method by which Cybersix obtains sustenance is different among the series' incarnations. In the comic book, Cybersix sucks sustenance directly from the neck of those she hunts as if she were a vampire. Conversely, in the animated series, Von Reichter's creations carry glowing vials of Sustenance with them, which Cybersix drinks it.
Cybersix's outfit was taken from a Techno prostitute in the comics, while the origin is not mentioned in the animated series. Some of the more mature story elements, such as José's sexuality, Von Reichter's past, or specific events of Cybersix's youth, are not revealed in the animated series, but some of these elements are suggested through dialogue, flashbacks or visual clues, such as the military-style Goose-Stepping that both José and Von Reichter engage in, José's Hitler Youth style of clothing. Meglia and Trillo filed a lawsuit against James Cameron and Fox Broadcasting Company, claiming that Cameron's 2000 television series Dark Angel plagiarized Cybersix. Trillo and Meglia accused the show of stealing most of the plot from the comic and its most recognizable elements. In a 2007 interview, Trillo stated that he and Meglia weren't able to carry on with the lawsuit due to lack of financial resources, so they dropped it, although the issue is still a matter of controversy. Cybersix on IMDb Cybersix at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Telecom's official Cybersix page Telecom's official Cybersix page
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an