Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Folkways Records was a record label founded by Moses Asch that documented folk and children's music. It is now part of Smithsonian Folkways; the Folkways Records & Service Co. was founded by Moses Asch and Marian Distler in 1948 in New York City. Harold Courlander was editor of the Folkways Ethnic Library at the time and is credited with coming up with the name "Folkways" for the label. Asch sought to music from everywhere in the world. From 1948 until Asch's death in 1986, Folkways Records released 2,168 albums. In 1964, Asch helped MGM Records start Verve Folkways Records which evolved in 1967 into Verve Forecast Records; the Folkways catalog includes traditional and contemporary music from around the world as well as poetry, spoken word, language instruction, field recordings of people and nature. Folkways was an early supporter of Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Lead Belly, who formed the center of the American folk music revival. Folkways influenced a generation of folk singers by releasing old-time music from the 1920s and 1930s, such as Dock Boggs, Clarence Ashley, contemporary performers like the New Lost City Ramblers.
The Anthology of American Folk Music appeared on Folkways, as did the accompanying album to The Country Blues by Samuel Charters. Folkways was one of the earliest companies to release albums of world music, including the Music of the World's Peoples collection edited by Henry Cowell, it released many spoken word albums, other unusual repertoire. The albums came with a pull-out leaflet containing extensive liner notes; the Smithsonian Institution Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage in Washington, D. C. acquired Asch's Folkways recordings and business files after his death in 1986. This acquisition was initiated by Ralph Rinzler of the Smithsonian before Asch's death and completed by the Asch Family to ensure the sounds and artists would be preserved for future generations; as a result, it was agreed to continue Asch's policy that all of the 2,168 titles would stay in print indefinitely regardless of market sales. The Smithsonian Folkways website uses the internet to make the recordings available as streaming samples, DRM-free digital downloads in MP3 and lossless FLAC format, on CDs via mail order.
A complete set of the Folkways recordings was donated to the University of Alberta where Michael Asch, Moses Asch's son, was an anthropology professor. FolkwaysAlive, a joint initiative between the University and the Smithsonian, is involved in digitization and archiving of the collection as well as maintaining a research center and sponsoring student research scholarships and an annual concert series. Since acquiring Folkways, the Smithsonian has expanded Asch's collection by adding several other record labels, including Cook, Fast Folk, Dyer-Bennet, Paredon Records, they have released over 300 new recordings. Smithsonian Folkways states that their mission "is the legacy of Moses Asch, who founded Folkways Records in 1948 to document'people's music.'" They "are dedicated to supporting cultural diversity and increased understanding among peoples through the documentation and dissemination of sound", that "musical and cultural diversity contributes to the vitality and quality of life throughout the world."
By making these recordings available, they intend to "strengthen people's engagement with their own cultural heritage and to enhance their awareness and appreciation of the cultural heritage of others."Smithsonian Folkways has produced or co-produced a number of radio series based on Folkways collections. "The Folkways Collection" and "Sounds to Grow On" are co-produced with CKUA radio. "Sounds to Grow On" is hosted by Michael Asch, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Alberta and the son of Moses Asch. Moses Asch Smithsonian Folkways Smithsonian Folkways Recordings official website FolkwaysAlive at the University of Alberta website "Tapestry of the Times" podcast "Sounds to Grow On" podcast "The Folkways Collection" podcast "Sound Sessions" podcast
Wainscott, New York
Wainscott is a census-designated place that corresponds to the hamlet with the same name in the Town of East Hampton in Suffolk County, New York, on the South Fork of Long Island. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP population was 650; the CDP was created for the 2000 census. The hamlet was named after Wainscott, Kent, a village north of Maidstone, England, an area immortalized in Charles Dickens' Great Expectations and from which most of the early settlers of East Hampton came; the Wainscott School, founded in 1730, was the last public one-room schoolhouse operating in New York until an annex was built in 2008. Facing the Atlantic Ocean to the south, Wainscott has some of the most expensive property in the world. On its west is the village of Sagaponack, on the east is the village of East Hampton. Other communities that border Wainscott are the CDPs of East Hampton North and Northwest Harbor to the northeast, the village of Sag Harbor to the north, the CDPs of Noyack and Bridgehampton to the west.
The east side of Wainscott faces Georgica Pond. The exclusive Georgica Association has a 100-acre subdivision on the west side of the pond; the Association's most famous house, called the "Michael Kennedy house", was the beach house featured in the 2004 film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. The PBS children's show It's a Big Big World is taped in the industrial park at the East Hampton Airport, in Wainscott; the Wainscott railroad station on the Montauk Branch closed in the 1930s. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 7.2 square miles, of which 6.7 square miles is land and 0.50 square miles, or 6.87%, is water. Wainscott has a different landscape than East Amagansett; the town is flat: houses border on potato or corn fields that border on the dune and the ocean. Main Street used to have a Post Office; the post office moved to a new building on Montauk Highway and the old post office became a private residence. Before 1935, Main Street was lined with sycamores.
The day after the hurricane it was posted that free firewood could be had on Main Street, if you were willing to chop it. All demographic figures refer to permanent inhabitants of the CDP, not second-home owners or other visitors; as of the census of 2010, there were 650 people, 264 households, 148 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 97.0 per square mile. There were 876 housing units at an average density of 130.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 93.1% White, 2.3% African American, 1.7% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.9% some other race, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.3% of the population. There were 264 households out of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were headed by married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.9% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.3% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30, the average family size was 2.91.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 20.0% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 20.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 115.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.6 males. For the period 2007-2011, the estimated median annual income for a household in the CDP was $82,083, the median income for a family was $79,375. Males had a median income of $64,688 versus $79,167 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $51,876. About 2.0% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 2.3% of those age 65 or over