Canoe sprint is a sport in which athletes race canoes or kayaks on calm water. Race categories vary by the number of athletes in the boat, the length of the course, whether the boat is a canoe or kayak. Canoe sprints are sometimes referred to as flat water racing; the distances recognized by the ICF for international canoe sprint races are 200m, 500m, 1000m. These races take place on straight courses with each boat paddling in its own designated lane. Longer marathon races do exist, notably the 5000m – these have athletes starting in a large pack at a start line before paddling around a set course with marked turning points. For each race a number of heats, semi-finals and a final may be necessary, depending on the number of competitors; the sport is governed by the International Canoe Federation. The International Canoe Federation is the worldwide canoeing organization and creates the standard rules for the different disciplines of canoe/kayak competition; the ICF recognizes several competitive and non-competitive disciplines of canoeing, of which Sprint and Slalom are the only two competing in the Olympic games.
National organizations include the United States Canoe Association, Canoe Kayak Canada, the British Canoe Union (now British Canoeing, Singapore Canoe Federation, Croatian Canoe Federation, Australian Canoeing, the Pakistan Canoe and Kayak Federation. On the whole, Europe has dominated the sport; the official boats recognized by the ICF as'International Boats' are: K1, K2, K4, C1, C2 and C4, where the number indicates the number of paddlers, “K” stands for kayak and “C” for canoe. The ICF rules for these boats define, among others, the maximum length, the minimum weight and the shape of the boats – for instance, a K1 must be 520 cm long and weighs at least 8 kg for marathons or 12 kg for sprints. Width restrictions were enforced. Modern boats are made of carbon fiber, aramid fiber with epoxy resin, or variants of high-performance fiber-glass. In a kayak, the paddler is seated in the direction of travel, uses a double-bladed paddle. Kayaks have a rudder for steering and course adjustment, operated by the feet of the paddler in the front.
The paddle used is a'wing paddle' – wing paddles have blades which are shaped to resemble a wing or spoon, creating lift and increasing the power and stability of the stroke. There are many variations of wing paddles, ranging from longer and narrower options for more stability throughout the entire stroke to more extreme'teardrop' shaped paddles for a firmer application of power at the start of the stroke. In a canoe the paddler kneels on one knee with the other leg forward and foot flat on the floor of the boat, paddles a single-bladed paddle on one side only with what is known as a'J-stroke' to control the boat's direction. In Canada, a racing class exists for the C-15 or WC or "War Canoe", as well as a designed C-4. An antiquated boat class is the C-7, resembling a large C4, debuted by the ICF with little success. For racing canoes, the blade is short and broad, with a'power face' on one side, either flat or scalloped out; the shaft will be longer than a tripping canoe paddle, because the kneeling position puts the paddler higher above the surface of the water.
More recent designs of canoe racing paddles have a slight bent shaft 12–14 degrees.. Many high-performance canoe paddlers prefer the feel of a wooden handle with a carbon fiber shaft and blade, while nearly all high-performance kayak paddlers use paddles made of carbon fiber
2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event, held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China. A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees competed in 28 sports and 302 events; this was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia. Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee after two rounds of voting; the Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed for use at the Games.
The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities; the official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, is the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi; the opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, by many accounts "the greatest in the history of Olympics". An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall.
The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia. Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round. Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested. In addition, a number of IOC delegates, athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application; the Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion. On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", equivalen
Račice (Litoměřice District)
Račice is a village in Ústí nad Labem Region, Czech Republic, close to the left bank of the Labe River. It is located 2 km northwest of Štětí or 41 km north of Prague and has a population of 308, it is the major flatwater canoeing venue in the Czech Republic. Račice hosted the 1993 World Rowing Championships and 2017 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships, as well as the 2017 European Rowing Championships and the 2006 and 2015 Canoe Sprint European Championships, it is set to host the 2022 World Rowing Championships. Racice Sports Centre
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań is among the largest cities in Poland; the city's population is 538,633, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by 1.1 million people. The Larger Poznań Metropolitan Area is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno and Września, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is a centre of trade, education and tourism.
It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University - the third largest Polish university. Poznań is the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country; the city hosts the Poznań International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Poznań Cathedral and the Imperial Castle. Poznań is classified as a Gamma - global city by World Cities Research Network, it has topped rankings as a city with high quality of education and a high standard of living. It ranks in safety and healthcare quality; the city of Poznań has many times, won the prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a high quality city brand. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveller and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders".
The official patron saints of Poznań are Saint Peter and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours – the patron of the main street Święty Marcin is regarded as one of the patron saints of the city; the name Poznań comes from a personal name and would mean "Poznan's town". It is possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may mean "known town"; the earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis and ab urbe Posnani. The city's name appears in documents in the Latin nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247; the phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań is known as Posen in German, was called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918.
The Latin names of the city are Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first recorded ruler of the Polans, of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of the first in Poland. Poznań was the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan; the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno, although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs, of Przemysł I and King Przemysł II; the pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death in 1034 left the region weak, in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.
Poland was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland; this period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies changed hands. In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. In 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas brought a large number of German settlers to aid in
Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Brazil; the International Olympic Committee oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, bronze medals are awarded for third place; the Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics. The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896, to 306 events with 11,238 competitors from 206 nations in 2016; the Summer Olympics has been hosted on five continents by a total of nineteen countries. The Games have been held four times in the United States; the IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the Summer Olympics for a second time in 2020. The 2024 Summer Olympics will be held in Paris, for a third time one hundred years after the city's last Summer Olympics in 1924.
The IOC has selected Los Angeles, California, to host its third Summer Games in 2028. To date, only five countries have participated in every Summer Olympic Games – Australia, Great Britain and Switzerland; the United States leads the all-time medal table for the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted the Summer Olympic Games four times: the 1904 Games were held in St. Louis, Missouri; the 2028 Games in Los Angeles will mark the fifth occasion on which the Summer Games have been hosted by the U. S. In 2012, the United Kingdom hosted its third Summer Olympic Games in the capital city, which became the first city to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times; the cities of Los Angeles and Athens have each hosted two Summer Olympic Games. In 2024, France will host its third Summer Olympic Games in its capital, making Paris the second city to have hosted three Summer Olympics. In 2028, Los Angeles will become the third city to have hosted the Games three times. Australia, France and Greece have all hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice.
The IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the 2020 Summer Olympics, when it will become the first city outside the Western world to have hosted the Summer Olympics more than once, having hosted the Games in 1964. The other countries that have hosted the Summer Olympics are Belgium, China, Finland, Mexico, South Korea, Soviet Union, Sweden. Asia has hosted the Summer Olympics three times, in Tokyo, Seoul, South Korea, Beijing, China; the Summer Olympics has been held predominantly in English-speaking countries and European nations. Tokyo will be the first city outside these regions to have hosted the Summer Olympics twice; the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro, were the first Summer Olympics to be held in South America and the first that were held during the local winter season. The only two countries in the Southern Hemisphere to have hosted the Summer Olympics have been Australia and Brazil. Africa has yet to host a Summer Olympics. Stockholm, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1912 Games, hosting the equestrian events at the 1956 Summer Olympics.
Amsterdam, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1928 Games and hosting two of the sailing races at the 1920 Summer Olympics. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Hong Kong provided the venues for the equestrian events, which took place in Sha Tin and Kwu Tung; the modern Olympic Games were founded in 1894 when Pierre de Coubertin sought to promote international understanding through sporting competition. He based his Olympics on the Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games, contested in Much Wenlock since 1850; the first edition of de Coubertin's games, held in Athens in 1896, attracted just 245 competitors, of whom more than 200 were Greek, only 14 countries were represented. No international events of this magnitude had been organised before. Female athletes were not allowed to compete, though one woman, Stamata Revithi, ran the marathon course on her own, saying "If the committee doesn't let me compete I will go after them regardless"; the 1896 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated in Athens, from 6 to 15 April 1896.
It was the first Olympic Games held in the Modern era. About 100,000 people attended for the opening of the games; the athletes came with most coming from Greece. Although Greece had the most athletes, the U. S. finished with the most champions. 11 Americans placed first in their events vs. the 10 from Greece
2013 Mediterranean Games
The 2013 Mediterranean Games known as the XVII Mediterranean Games, was an international multi-sport event held in the tradition of the Mediterranean Games, as governed by the International Committee of Mediterranean Games. The host city of the Games was Mersin, Turkey, as announced after an on-line poll conducted on 23 February 2011 by the ICMG; the games were held from 20 to 30 June 2013. Mersin is the second city in Turkey. All 24 member National Olympic Committees of the ICMG participated in the Games; the official programme for the Games is featuring events in 27 different sports. The Mediterranean Games is a multi-sport event, much like the Summer Olympics, with participation from countries around the Mediterranean Sea where Europe and Asia meet; the Games are held every four years. The idea of holding the Mediterranean Games originated with Muhammed Taher Pasha, the chairman of the Egyptian Olympic Committee and the vice-president of the International Olympic Committee, at a meeting during the 1948 London Olympics.
The Games "were designed to bring together the Muslim and European countries surrounding the Mediterranean basin" to promote understanding through sporting competition. The first edition of the Mediterranean Games was held in the Egyptian city of Alexandria in 1951 and attracted 734 competitors from 10 nations; the female athletes were not allowed to compete. Beginning by the fifth game in Tunis female athletes were allowed. Turkey hosted the Games for the first time in 1971 in Izmir—the sixth edition of the Games. Cities from three countries submitted their bids to host the 2013 Mediterranean Games. Two Greek cities and Larisa, made a combined bid; this was the fourth attempt by the Croatian city of Rijeka to host the Mediterranean Games. Rijeka had lost its bids in 1995 for the 1997 games, in 1999 for the 2001 games and in 2003 for the 2009 Mediterranean Games; the voting for the selection of the host of the 2013 Games was held in Pescara, host of the 2009 Mediterranean Games, on 27 October 2007.
The election was conducted by the Mediterranean Games Bid Committee. At the end of the first round of voting, only Volos-Larisa and Rijeka remained. In the first round, Volos-Larisa and Rijeka received 24 votes, respectively. In the second round, the Greek bid of Volos-Larisa received enough votes to be elected as the host; the final round was comparatively more competitive, demonstrated by a three-vote difference between the final two bids. Greece was stripped of the hosting rights on 28 January 2011 because of its financial crisis; the ICMG cited Greece's inability to conform the organisational requirements as a reason for this action. Culture and Tourism Minister of Greece Pavlos Geroulanos said that the proposed budget "would have wasted money on a big, spendthrift party, here are much better things could spend that money on in the current situation". ICMG conducted an on-line poll on 23 February 2011 to decide the new host. Three cities—Tarragona and Mersin—offered to host the 2013 Mediterranean Games.
Citizens of the 21 member nations of the ICMG cast their votes to select the host. Mersin was selected after it received more than half of the total votes, on 4 March 2011, ICMG president Amar Addad handed over the hosting rights of the 2013 Games to Mersin; the organising committee of the 2013 Mediterranean Games consists of eight members: president of the committee is Minister of Youth and Sports Suat Kılıç, Hakan Hakyemez, Governor of Mersin Hasan Basri Güzeloğlu, Mehmet Baykan, Mersin Metropolitan Municipality Mayor Macit Özcan, rector of the Mersin University K. Aydin Süha, Hasan Albayrak and president of the Turkish Olympic Committee Uğur Erdener, it is in charge of "organising and controlling the essential preparations". After the success of the bid in February 2011, the Ministry of Youth and Sports spent 215 million on building the venues and infrastructure up to 31 December 2012; the Ministry has allocated a budget of 400 million to cover building the venues and infrastructure for the Games.
The official logo of this edition of the Mediterranean Games features a loggerhead sea turtle getting out of sea, with water underneath it. An orange is shown above its back, which represents the dry summer subtropical climate of Mediterranean. Karetta is the official mascot of the Mersin Games; the organisers of the 2013 Games have taken steps to promote the Games through its mascot. It was used in various events like Third Citrus Festival and others; the main stadium of the 2013 Mediterranean Games is Mersin Olympic Stadium in Yenişehir district of Mersin. The stadium will host both the closing ceremonies. A total of 38 venues will be used to host the events during the Games, 13 of them for training purposes only; the events will take place in several venues at different districts of Mersin and neighboring city of Adana. There are significant changes in the programme for the Mersin Games in comparison to that of the 2009 Mediterranean Games held in Pescara. Three new sports, archery and taekwondo, are the special additions.
The programme for the Games will feature a total of 27 different sports. Two disabled sports—athletics and swimming—will be contested by the athletes with physical disabilities. Though it
Zoltán Kammerer is a Hungarian sprint canoeist who has competed since the mid-1990s. Competing in five Summer Olympics, he won a silver medal. Kammerer twelve medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships with three golds, four silvers, five bronzes. A member of the Győr club, he weighs 86 kg. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Kammerer carried the Hungarian flag at the opening ceremonies; this was planned to be given to his fellow canoeist György Kolonics who had died a month before the Games. In June 2015, he competed in the inaugural European Games, for Hungary in canoe sprint, more Men's K-2 1000m with Tamas Szalai and K-4 1000m with Dávid Tóth, Tamás Kulifai, Dániel Pauman, he earned gold medals in both areas. Masterly youth athlete: 1995 Hungarian kayaker of the Year: 2000, 2006, 2010 Honorary Citizen of Göd Honorary Citizen of Győr Orders and special awards Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary – Officer's Cross Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary – Commander's Cross Order of Merit of Hungary – Commander's Cross with Star Canoe09.ca profile ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 1: flatwater: 1936–2007 at WebCite.
Additional archives: Wayback Machine. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 2: rest of flatwater and remaining canoeing disciplines: 1936–2007 at WebCite Kataca.hu profile Photo 1 of Kammerer Photo 2 of Kammerer Evans, Hilary. "Zoltán Kammerer". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC