The Flash (2014 TV series)
The Flash is an American superhero television series developed by Greg Berlanti, Andrew Kreisberg, Geoff Johns, airing on The CW. It is based on the DC Comics character Barry Allen / Flash, a costumed superhero crime-fighter with the power to move at superhuman speeds, it is a spin-off from existing in the same fictional universe. The series follows Barry Allen, portrayed by Grant Gustin, a crime scene investigator who gains super-human speed, which he uses to fight criminals, including others who have gained superhuman abilities. Envisioned as a backdoor pilot, the positive reception Gustin received during two appearances as Barry on Arrow led to executives choosing to develop a full pilot to make use of a larger budget and help flesh out Barry's world in more detail. Colleen Atwood, costume designer for Arrow, was brought in to design the Flash's suit; the creative team wanted to make sure that the Flash would resemble his comic book counterpart, not be a poor imitation. The series is filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Flash premiered in North America on October 7, 2014, where the pilot became the second-most watched premiere in the history of The CW, after The Vampire Diaries in 2009. It has been well received by critics and audiences, won the People's Choice Award for "Favorite New TV Drama" in 2014; the series, together with Arrow, has spun characters out to their own show, Legends of Tomorrow, which premiered on January 21, 2016. On April 2, 2018, The CW renewed the series for a fifth season, which premiered on October 9, 2018. On January 31, 2019, The CW renewed the series for a sixth season. In season one, after witnessing his mother's supernatural murder, Barry Allen is taken in by Detective Joe West and his family. Barry becomes a brilliant but awkward crime scene investigator for the Central City Police Department. A particle accelerator malfunctions, bathing the city center with a radiation during a thunderstorm, Barry is struck by lightning. Awakening after a coma, he discovers. Harrison Wells, the accelerator's designer, describes Barry's nature as "metahuman".
Barry vows to use his gifts to protect Central City. As the Flash, Barry pursues his mother's murderer, the Reverse-Flash. In season two, after a singularity event occurs, the Flash is recognized as Central City's hero. However, the event brings a new threat from a parallel earth: Zoom, a demonic speedster who seeks to eliminate all speedsters throughout the multiverse. Harrison Wells' parallel universe counterpart nicknamed "Harry", his daughter Jesse, work to help Barry stop Zoom and explore the multiverse. Joe and his daughter, struggle with the arrival of Iris's brother Wally West. After Zoom kills Barry's father, following Zoom's defeat, Barry travels back in time to save his mother's life. In season three, by changing his past, Barry creates the alternate timeline "Flashpoint". Though he is somewhat able to restore the timeline, this creates new threats, including the emergence of Savitar, a god-like speedster with a grudge against Barry. After Harry and Jesse return to Earth-2, another Wells doppelgänger is recruited: the novelist "H.
R." Wells. Both Wally and Caitlin Snow begin to manifest metahuman abilities; when Barry accidentally travels to the future and sees Iris killed by Savitar, he becomes desperate to change the future to prevent that from happening. After saving Iris and defeating Savitar, Barry takes his place in the Speed Force in order to repent for his creation of Flashpoint. In season four, following Barry's departure and Cisco have been able to protect Central City; when a new foe defeats them requesting a battle against the Flash, the team decides to bring Barry back. While they manage to do so, Barry's return releases dark matter, turning a dozen people on a city bus into metahumans. One of these metas is private detective Ralph Dibny; the team encounters Clifford DeVoe, an adversary with the fastest mind alive, who has orchestrated Barry's return from the Speed Force as well as the creation of the bus metas. Harry Wells, with his parallel universe counterparts, establish an alliance coined the Council of Wells to assist Team Flash in stopping DeVoe.
Though they fail to stop DeVoe from stealing the bus metas' powers, they succeed in foiling his scheme, the Enlightenment. Following this, the team is approached by Barry and Iris' daughter from the future, Nora West-Allen, who claims to have made "a big, big mistake". In season five, Nora claims. However, the team discovers that Nora's presence not only altered the timeline, but unleashed a new threat in the form of Cicada, a serial killer bent on killing metahumans. In addition, they discover that meta-technology was created following their battle with the Thinker, meaning anyone wielding meta-tech can utilize the power of a metahuman; the Council of Wells sends one of their doppelgängers, detective Sherloque Wells, to aid Team Flash in countering these crises. Grant Gustin as Barry Allen / The Flash: A Central City assistant police forensic investigator. Moments after an explosion at the S. T. A. R. Labs particle accelerator, Barry is struck by lightning in his laboratory and doused by chemicals affected by the accident.
When he awakens from a nine-month coma, he has superhuman speed. In September 2013, Grant Gustin was cast in the titular role. Andy Mientus, who would be cast as Hartley Rathaway auditioned for the role. Gustin began researching the character during the audition process, reading as many comics as possible. Gustin focused
Arrow (TV series)
Arrow is an American superhero television series developed by writer/producers Greg Berlanti, Marc Guggenheim, Andrew Kreisberg, based on the DC Comics character Green Arrow. The series premiered in the United States on The CW on October 10, 2012, with international broadcasting taking place in late 2012. Filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Arrow follows billionaire playboy Oliver Queen, five years after being stranded on a hostile island, returns home to fight crime and corruption as a secret vigilante whose weapon of choice is a bow and arrow; the series takes a new look at the Green Arrow character, as well as other characters from the DC Comics universe. Although Oliver Queen/Green Arrow had been featured in the television series Smallville from 2006 to 2011, on the CW, the producers decided to start clean and find a new actor to portray the character. Arrow focuses on the humanity of Oliver Queen, how he was changed by time spent shipwrecked on an island. Most episodes in the first five seasons have flashback scenes to the five years in which Oliver was missing.
After Oliver's flashback arc is completed, episodes starting during season seven, have flash-forward scenes twenty years ahead focus on Oliver's unknown son William and aged protégé Roy Harper, exploring Green Arrow's legacy through them. Arrow has received positive reviews from critics; the series averaged about 3.68 million viewers over the course of the first season and received several awards and multiple nominations. To promote it, a preview comic book was released before the television series began, while webisodes featuring a product tie-in with Bose were developed for the second season; the first six seasons are available on DVD and Blu-ray in regions 1, 2 and 4. In October 2014, a spin-off series entitled The Flash premiered. In August 2015, an animated spin-off, was released, while a second live-action spin-off, Legends of Tomorrow, premiered in January 2016, featuring several characters from Arrow and The Flash. All four shows are set in a shared universe collectively known as the Arrowverse.
The seventh season premiered on October 15, 2018. In January 2019, The CW renewed the series for an eighth season. In March, it was announced this would serve as the final season of the series, with an abbreviated ten-episode order; the series follows Oliver Queen, billionaire playboy of Starling City, discovered on the mysterious island of Lian Yu five years after he and his father were shipwrecked. Upon his return to Starling City, he is reunited with his mother, Moira Queen, his sister, Thea Queen, his friends, Tommy Merlyn and Laurel Lance. In the first season, Oliver rekindles relationships and spends nights as a hooded vigilante hunting wealthy criminals listed in his father's notebook, he uncovers Malcolm Merlyn's plot to destroy "The Glades", a poorer, crime-ridden section of the city. John Diggle and Felicity Smoak assist Oliver's crusade. Oliver reconnects with old flame Dinah Laurel Lance, who blames him for her sister's death; the season features flashbacks to Oliver's first year on the island, how it changed him, while trying to stop a mercenary force targeting the Chinese economy.
In season two, Oliver has vowed to stop killing criminals. His family and allies are attacked by Slade Wilson, a man from Oliver's time on the island who returns to destroy his life. Oliver accepts aspiring vigilante Roy Harper as his protégé, gains assistance from Laurel's father, Quentin. Oliver teams with a woman in black, revealed to be Laurel's sister, who survived the shipwreck. Flashbacks depict Oliver's continued time on the island with Slade and the archer Shado, along with the origins of his feud with Slade. In season three, Oliver's company Queen Consolidated is sold to businessman and aspiring hero Ray Palmer. After Sara is found murdered, Oliver becomes embroiled in a conflict with Ra's al Ghul, he struggles to reconnect with his sister, who knows Malcolm is her father, Laurel sets out to follow Sara as the Black Canary. Meanwhile, Diggle struggles as a family man and Felicity becomes Vice President of Palmer Technologies. In flashbacks, Oliver is forced to work for A. R. G. U. S. Leader Amanda Waller in Hong Kong.
In season four, Oliver ends a short retirement and becomes the "Green Arrow". His team fights the terrorist group H. I. V. E. Headed by the mystically enhanced Damien Darhk, attacking Star City. Diggle discovers his brother Andy is alive and a H. I. V. E. Soldier. Oliver's life as a vigilante and with Felicity are complicated by his mayoral run and the discovery of his son. Laurel dies in a fight with Damien, Oliver discovers his plan to detonate nuclear weapons and rule the Earth's remains. In flashbacks, Oliver returns to Lian Yu to infiltrate Shadowspire for Waller, encounters a mystical idol used by Darhk in the present-day narrative. In season five, Oliver trains young heroes Wild Dog, Mister Terrific and Ragman to join his war on crime following Laurel's death and Thea's resignation, he recruits a new Black Canary. Oliver tries to balance vigilantism with his new role as mayor, yet is threatened by the mysterious and deadly Prometheus, who has a connection to Oliver's past. Oliver is forced to contend with Prometheus' ally Black Siren, a twisted doppelganger of Laurel Lance with a sonic scream.
In flashbacks, Oliver joins the Bratva in Ru
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Barry Allen (Arrowverse)
Barry Allen is a fictional character in the television series The Flash, based on the DC Comics superhero of the same name, created by Robert Kanigher and Carmine Infantino. Adapted for television in 2014 by Greg Berlanti, Andrew Kreisberg and Geoff Johns, Barry Allen has been continually portrayed by Grant Gustin and is the alter-ego of the superhero The Flash. In the series, Barry is portrayed as a smart and tardy character, who works at the Central City Police Department as a crime scene investigator; the series begins by showing his backstory depicting the murder of his mother by a supernatural yellow blur and the false imprisonment of his father for the crime. Barry is struck by lightning created by the explosion of the particle accelerator sending Barry to a nine-month coma. After waking up he finds himself in S. T. A. R. Labs and develops metahuman powers. Throughout the series, he is training himself to control and enhance his powers, he uses his powers along with his team to fight criminals and other metahumans who have misused their powers.
Barry Allen and his superhero persona have appeared in a digital comic book series, with Gustin appearing in crossovers on the television series Arrow, Legends of Tomorrow and the animated web series Vixen, all set within the Arrowverse. Gustin has won an IGN award for his performance. Barry Allen travels to Star City to investigate a superhuman-related crime in hopes that it is related to his mother's murder and to meet his vigilante idol, the Arrow, he helps his team to begin uncover the Mirakuru plot orchestrated by Slade Wilson. After returning to Central City, he gets struck by lightning which puts him in a nine-months coma and becomes The Flash. Barry Allen's first appearance on The Flash is in the episode "Pilot". Barry is introduced as quite a goofy and kind character, quite brilliant at his job as a crime scene investigator for the Central City Police department, his obsession for the particle accelerator and interest in Harrison Wells began before his superhuman abilities. After the explosion that led to Barry being struck by lightning, he wakes up and discovers that he has developed meta-human abilities, in particular the power of speed.
This season portrays Barry's development in his superpowers, he has his setbacks in the beginning, in "Fastest Man Alive" he begins fainting, which he only finds out that it is because his body is burning more energy than he could intake. Throughout the episode, Barry's character develops and he is able to better control his powers through training at the S. T. A. R Labs, with his team the STAR team: Caitlin Snow, Cisco Ramon and Harrison Wells. Barry's once platonic relationship with Iris is turned complicated after the episode "The Man in the Yellow Suit" when Barry confesses his love to her. In the episode "Crazy for You" however, Barry begins a relationship with Linda Park, who in the next episode suspects that Barry is still in love with Iris West. Season two introduced to a new villain, Hunter Zolomon, from Earth-2 and was the enemy of the Earth-2 Flash, Jay Garrick. Jay becomes an important mentor for Barry, but in fact, he is Hunter Zolomon / Zoom an evil killer who had misused a drug that made him terminal, which meant his only chance of survival and to regain his speed was to befriend Barry and steal his speed.
Both sides of Hunter Zolomon had a great impact on Barry's character, Garrick, an older and experienced mentor and Zoom, the villain who made him choose between his speed and Wally West’s life. This was a true test of character for Barry and depicted that his powers have not changed the kind-hearted person he was; this season featured both different and familiar chemistries, Barry begins first dating Patty Spivot but after her departure, Barry returned to old flames. Iris reciprocates the feelings Barry has for her, but due to Henry's death, Barry had to choose to alter history changing the storyline of Iris's love for him; this season began with a new reality identified as Flashpoint, in this reality, Barry's mother was not murdered as Barry had run back in time to save her. In this season Barry's character is faced with a vital moral dilemma, he has to choose either to save his friends who are not doing so well in this reality or to keep living in this timeline where his parents are alive.
He chooses to ask Eobard Thawne to go back and murder his mother again in the hopes of restoring his original timeline. A new reality is created again due to Barry's changes in history and the timeline, this resulted in the death of Cisco's brother and Caitlin gaining frost powers; the team at first distrust Barry for these changes but forgives him after they have to team up to fight Savitar. The season places himself in the speed force prison. Team Flash rescues Barry out of the speed force prison and Barry is given a new suit. Barry and Iris attend couples therapy in attempts to mend their relationship. Barry and Caitlin are kidnapped by two different people and the team has to choose who to save, Barry escapes and the team are seen celebrating at the West House. Barry, however, is framed and arrested for the murder of DeVoe, he is deemed guilty by the jury and sentenced to life in prison. Barry and Iris are back together but Barry is still in Jail. Barry is released from prison after Ralph appeals Barry's case.
The season ends when Barry and Iris discover that the mystery girl who appeared throughout the series is, in fact, their daughter from the future. Team Flash is introduced to Iris's daughter, Nora West Allen. Barry learns from Nora that she had only known Iris. Barry is introduced to a new villain, Cic
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music. The creation, performance and the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the first published use of the term "gospel song" appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane, Fanny Crosby. Gospel music publishing houses emerged; the advent of radio in the 1920s increased the audience for gospel music. Following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.
Gospel blues is a blues-based form of gospel music. Southern gospel used all tenor-lead-baritone-bass quartet make-up. Progressive Southern gospel is an American music genre that has grown out of Southern gospel over the past couple of decades. Christian country music, sometimes referred to as country gospel music, is a subgenre of gospel music with a country flair, it peaked in popularity in the mid-1990s. Bluegrass gospel music is rooted in American mountain music. Celtic gospel music infuses gospel music with a Celtic flair, is quite popular in countries such as Ireland. British black gospel refers to Gospel music of the African diaspora, produced in the UK; some proponents of "standard" hymns dislike gospel music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, with historical distance, there is a greater acceptance of such gospel songs into official denominational hymnals. Gospel music features Christian lyrics; some modern gospel music, isn't explicitly Christian and just utilizes the sound.
Subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel, Southern gospel, modern gospel music. Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are of a statelier measure, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and a more syncopated rhythm. Several attempts have been made to describe the style of late 19th and early 20th century gospel songs in general. Christ-Janer said "the music was tuneful and easy to grasp... rudimentary harmonies... use of the chorus... varied metric schemes... motor rhythms were characteristic... The device of letting the lower parts echo rhythmically a motive announced by the sopranos became a mannerism". Patrick and Sydnor emphasize the notion that gospel music is "sentimental", quoting Sankey as saying, "Before I sing I must feel", they call attention to the comparison of the original version of Rowley's "I Will Sing the Wondrous Story" with Sankey's version.
Gold said, "Essentially the gospel songs are songs of testimony, religious exhortation, or warning. The chorus or refrain technique is found." According to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff, the singing of psalms in Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out" – where one person sang a solo and others followed – into the call and response of gospel music of the American South. Coming out of the African-American religious experience, American gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with foundations in the works of Dr. Isaac Watts and others. Gospel music has roots in the black oral tradition, utilizes a great deal of repetition, which allows those who could not read the opportunity to participate in worship. During this time and sacred songs were lined and repeated in a call and response fashion, Negro spirituals and work songs emerged. Repetition and "call and response" are accepted elements in African music, designed to achieve an altered state of consciousness we sometimes refer to as "trance", strengthen communal bonds.
Most of the churches relied on foot-stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Guitars and tambourines were sometimes available, but not frequently. Church choirs became a norm only after emancipation. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the most famous gospel-based hymns were composed in the 1760s and 1770s by English writers John Newton and Augustus Toplady, members of the Anglican Church. Starting out as lyrics only, it took decades for standardized tunes to be added to them. Although not directly connected with African-American gospel music, they were adopted by African-Americans as well as white Americans, Newton's connection with the abolition movement provided cross-fertilization; the first published use of the term "Gospel Song" appeared in 1874 when Philip Bliss released a songbook entitled Gospel Songs. A Choice Collection of Hymns and Tunes, it was used to describe a new style of church music, songs that were easy to grasp and more singable than the traditional church hymns, which came out of the mass revival movement starting with Dwight L. Moody, whose musician was Ira D. Sankey, as well as the Holiness-Pentecostal movement.
Prior to the meeting of Moody and
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
Supergirl (TV series)
Supergirl is an American superhero action-adventure television series developed by Ali Adler, Greg Berlanti and Andrew Kreisberg that aired on CBS and premiered on October 26, 2015. It is based on the DC Comics character Supergirl, created by Otto Binder and Al Plastino, stars Melissa Benoist in the title role. Supergirl is a costumed superheroine, Superman's cousin and one of the last surviving Kryptonians; the series is set in the Arrowverse, sharing continuity with the other television series of the franchise. The series was picked up on May 6, 2015, after receiving a series commitment in September 2014, received a full season order on November 30, 2015. Since the second season, ordered in May 2016, the series has aired on The CW; the show has received positive reviews from critics, who have praised the creative direction, the themes addressed. In April 2018, The CW renewed the series for a fourth season, which premiered on October 14, 2018. In January 2019, the series was renewed for a fifth season.
Kara Zor-El was sent to Earth from Krypton as Alura. Krypton was exploding, Kara's parents sent Kara in a spacecraft to Earth after her cousin. Kara was meant to protect her infant cousin Kal-El, but her spacecraft was knocked off course and forced into the Phantom Zone, where it stayed for 24 years. By the time the spacecraft crash landed on Earth, Kal-El had become Superman; the series begins eleven years when the now 24-year-old Kara is learning to embrace her powers and has adopted the superheroic alias "Supergirl". In the first season, Kara is forced to reveal her powers, becomes National City's protector. Kara discovers that hundreds of the criminals her mother imprisoned are hiding on Earth, including her aunt Astra and Astra's husband Non. Kara works with her adoptive sister Alex Danvers to fight these criminals, alongside the Green Martian J'onn J'onzz, her cousin's friend James Olsen, tech genius Winn Schott, Jr. In the second season and her allies deal with feuds between Earth's native populace and extraterrestrial community, investigate the shadowy organization Project Cadmus, masterminded by Lillian Luthor, mother of Lex Luthor.
At the same time, Kara befriends Lillian's stepdaughter Lena Luthor, the new CEO of LuthorCorp, struggles with romantic feelings for recent Earth arrival Mon-El, a princely survivor from Krypton's neighboring planet Daxam whose parents wish to reclaim him. James becomes the masked streetfighting vigilante Guardian. In the third season, Kara struggles with the loss of Mon-El; when Mon-El returns, he reveals that he has time-traveled to the 31st century and founded the Legion, alongside marrying Imra Ardeen. J'onn discovers his father M'yrnn J'onzz is alive and Alex deals with her heartbreak after breaking up with Maggie. Kara and Alex's new friend, Samantha Arias, is unknowingly another Kryptonian survivor, begins a transformation from a loving single mother into the world-killing weapon known as Reign, who serves a coven headed by Selena. In the fourth season, Kara deals with a new wave of anti-extraterrestrial bigotry instigated by Agent Liberty and Lex Luthor's accomplices Mercy and Otis Graves, forcing her to fight for civil and political rights.
In the nation of Kasnia, a duplicate of Kara is being trained by its military to fight Supergirl as part of a complex scheme orchestrated by Lex Luthor, who has manipulated recent events from behind the scenes. Kara and Alex rival with the DEO's new addition, Col. Lauren Haley, sent to monitor the DEO's progress under Alex's direction. Col. Haley and the President try to force Supergirl to reveal her identity, clash with her and Alex when she refuses. Melissa Benoist as Kara Danvers / Kara Zor-El / Supergirl: A 24-year-old Kryptonian living in National City, who must embrace her powers after hiding them, she assists her adoptive sister as part of the Department of Extra-Normal Operations as she discovered the truth that her adoptive father worked for the DEO so they would not take her, while Alex's co-workers at the DEO help her perfect her powers. Kara worked as Cat Grant's assistant at CatCo. Benoist expressed her excitement over portraying the character, being able to " a story about a human being realizing their potential and their strength".
At the end of season one, Kara was promoted by Cat and became a junior reporter at the beginning of season two. Malina Weissman and Izabela Vidovic portray a young Kara. Mehcad Brooks as James Olsen: A former Daily Planet photographer, James moved to National City and became the new art director for his former colleague, Cat Grant, at CatCo Worldwide Media, he is a potential love interest for Kara. Among his reasons for moving across the country are his breakup with his fiancée, Lucy Lane, keeping an eye on the newly revealed Supergirl for Superman. While working at the Daily Planet, James received the Pulitzer Prize for taking the first photograph of Superman. In the second season, James becomes Guardian, he becomes the acting CEO of CatCo after Cat Grant takes a leave of absence. Chyler Leigh as Alex Danvers: Kara's human adoptive sister, she is a scientist and government agent who serves as Hank Henshaw's right-hand at the DEO. Having been extensively trained in combat by Henshaw, Alex in turn provides rigorous training to Kara in order to decrease her over-reliance on her powers.
She and Kara grow suspicious of the DEO upon learning that their missing father was forced to work there in order