Robert F. Fisher
Robert F. Fisher, served in the California legislature and during the Spanish–American War he served in the United States Army. Fisher was born in Plymouth, Devon on February 18, 1879 and emigrated to America in 1885 with his parents, Charles Ponsford Fisher and Harriet Oyns Fisher; the family settled in the mountains outside of California. In 1898 Fisher enlisted in the Army during the Spanish–American War and served 13 months in the Philippines with the Third Artillery. After the war, he ran a ligterage company for 12 years, he met Bess Hayne Dawson in Manila. The young couple took over management of his family's newly purchased ranch near Carlotta in Humboldt County, California. Fisher was the first president of the Humboldt County Farm Bureau and an early member of the Fortuna Rotary Club. Mrs. Fisher was active in the community and in the Humboldt County and California State Federation of Women's Clubs. Fisher ran for state Assembly in Humboldt County the first time in 1926, won the seat and retained it for the next two elections in 1928 and 1930, serving until 1932.
He was a member of the Republican party. In 1962, the couple celebrated fifty years of marriage and lived in Carlotta for the rest of their lives. In 1969, the California Assembly named Bridge 04-089, built the previous year over Yager Creek in Carlotta, after Fisher; when he died, he was the last Spanish–American War veteran in Humboldt County. The Fishers are buried in Ocean View Cemetery Alcove C, Niche 1
The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U. S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U. S. predominance in the Caribbean region, resulted in U. S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U. S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and in the Philippine–American War. The main issue was Cuban independence. Revolts had been occurring for some years in Cuba against Spanish rule; the U. S. backed these revolts upon entering the Spanish–American War. There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873, but in the late 1890s, American public opinion was agitated by reports of gruesome Spanish atrocities; the business community had just recovered from a deep depression and feared that a war would reverse the gains. It lobbied vigorously against going to war. President William McKinley sought a peaceful settlement.
The United States Navy armored cruiser USS Maine mysteriously sank in Havana Harbor. McKinley signed a joint Congressional resolution demanding Spanish withdrawal and authorizing the President to use military force to help Cuba gain independence on April 20, 1898. In response, Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U. S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba. Both sides declared war; the ten-week war was fought in both the Pacific. As U. S. agitators for war well knew, U. S. naval power would prove decisive, allowing expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison facing nationwide Cuban insurgent attacks and further wasted by yellow fever. The invaders obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill. Madrid sued for peace after two Spanish squadrons were sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay and a third, more modern, fleet was recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.
The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U. S. which allowed it temporary control of Cuba and ceded ownership of Puerto Rico and the Philippine islands. The cession of the Philippines involved payment of $20 million to Spain by the U. S. to cover infrastructure owned by Spain. The defeat and loss of the last remnants of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of'98; the United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism. The combined problems arising from the Peninsular War, the loss of most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th-century Spanish American wars of independence, three Carlist Wars marked the low point of Spanish colonialism. Liberal Spanish elites like Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Emilio Castelar offered new interpretations of the concept of "empire" to dovetail with Spain's emerging nationalism.
Cánovas made clear in an address to the University of Madrid in 1882 his view of the Spanish nation as based on shared cultural and linguistic elements – on both sides of the Atlantic – that tied Spain's territories together. Cánovas saw Spanish imperialism as markedly different in its methods and purposes of colonization from those of rival empires like the British or French. Spaniards regarded the spreading of civilization and Christianity as Spain's major objective and contribution to the New World; the concept of cultural unity bestowed special significance on Cuba, Spanish for four hundred years, was viewed as an integral part of the Spanish nation. The focus on preserving the empire would have negative consequences for Spain's national pride in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. In 1823, the fifth American President James Monroe enunciated the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further efforts by European governments to retake or expand their colonial holdings in the Americas or to interfere with the newly independent states in the hemisphere.
S. would respect the status of the existing European colonies. Before the American Civil War, Southern interests attempted to have the United States purchase Cuba and convert it into a new slave territory; the pro-slavery element proposed the Ostend Manifesto proposal of 1854. It was rejected by anti-slavery forces. After the American Civil War and Cuba's Ten Years' War, U. S. businessmen began monopolizing the devalued sugar markets in Cuba. In 1894, 90% of Cuba's total exports went to the United States, which provided 40% of Cuba's imports. Cuba's total exports to the U. S. were twelve times larger than the export to her mother country, Spain. U. S. business interests indicated that while Spain still held political authority over Cuba, economic authority in Cuba, acting-authority, was shifting to the US. The U. S. became interested in a trans-isthmus canal either in Nicaragua, or in Panama, where the Panama Canal would be built, realized the need for naval protection. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an influential theorist.
S. built a p
Arcata Union Town or Union, is a city adjacent to the Arcata Bay portion of Humboldt Bay in Humboldt County, United States. At the 2010 census, Arcata's population was 17,231. Arcata, located 280 miles north of San Francisco, is home to Humboldt State University. Arcata is the location of the Arcata Field Office of the Federal Bureau of Land Management, responsible for the administration of natural resources and mineral programs, including the Headwaters Forest, on 200,000 acres of public land in Northwestern California. Arcata has been notably progressive in its political makeup, was the first city in the United States to elect a majority of its city council members from the Green Party; as a result of the progressive majority, Arcata capped the number of chain restaurants allowed in the city. Arcata was the first municipality to ban the growth of any type of Genetically Modified Organism within city limits, with exceptions for research and educational purposes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.0 square miles, of which 9.1 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water.
Arcata contains major shopping areas within the city. They include: the Downtown/Plaza Area and Valley West. There are additional named neighborhoods encompassed by the city: They include: Aldergrove, Arcata Bottoms, portions of Bayside, California Heights, the Creamery District, Fickle Hill, the Marsh District, Redwood Park, Sunny Brae and Westwood. Arcata has the Arcata Marsh, a preserve located on the City's bay shore. Arcata has a cool summer mediterranean climate, dominated by marine influences associated with Humboldt Bay and the Pacific Ocean. On average, Arcata experiences 40 to 50 inches of rain per year, though there is a short but pronounced dry season from June to September. Northerly winds keep the spring cool and create a coastal upwelling of deep, cold ocean water; this upwelling in turn results in foggy conditions throughout the summer, with high temperatures in the 50s and low 60s. Yet just a few miles inland the temperatures may fall. Winter high temperatures average in the low 40s with lows in the mid-30s to lower 40s.
Temperatures infrequently dip below 30 °F in the winter, nearly as infrequently climb above 72 °F in the summer and fall. Changing populations have happened in timber and mining towns in the American West as a result of boom and bust economic cycles; some towns decrease in population following a bust, while some, like Arcata, experience a change in demographics. In the case of Arcata, the peak and the bust were close due to Arcata's late entry into the timber industry, its domination by mechanization; the population of the city of Arcata was 3,729 during its peak 1950, when lumber was exported throughout the country and abroad. For the County of Humboldt, the age distribution for urban residents, which would include Arcata, had 23.7% of the population under the age of 15. Those that would be considered young workers made up 14% of the population. “Normal” aged workers made up 23.9% of the population. Older working age made up 19.4% of the population. Pre-retirement aged made up 9.7% of the population.
Those of retirement age made up 9.1% of the population. For Arcata those age 65 and older were 8.3% of the population in 1950, the median age was 29.4 years. After the bust, in 1955, the population of Arcata in 1960 was 5,235. In Arcata the population under the age of 15 was 28.1%. Those age 15–24 made up 22.8% of Arcata's population. Those age 25–39 made up 19.4% of the population. Those age 40–54 made up 16% of Arcata's population; those age 55–64 made up 6.7% of Arcata's population. Those age 65 and over made up 6.9% of Arcata's population. Overall, census data reflects a lowering in the age of the Arcata population, due to an influx of young workers, due to there not being enough time after the bust for older workers to leave, in the decade between 1950 and 1960, during which the timber industry peaked and busted; the 2010 United States Census reported that Arcata had a population of 17,231. The population density was 1,567.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcata was: 14,094 White, 2,000+ Hispanic or Latino, 1,135 from two or more races, 769 from other races, 454 Asian, 393 Native American, 351 African American, 35 Pacific Islander,The Census reported that 15,486 people lived in households, 1,745 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 7,381 households, out of which 1,275 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,651 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 649 had a female householder with no husband present, 325 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 764 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 75 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,730 households were made up of individuals and 524 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10. There were 2,625 families; the population dispersal was wit
Bayview, Humboldt County, California
Bayview is a census-designated place located adjacent to the City of Eureka in Humboldt County, United States. The population was 2,510 at the 2010 census, up from 2,359 at the 2000 census. Many locals consider this area as part of "Pine Hill." According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.7 square miles, all of it land. A post office operated at Bayview from 1925 to 1935; the 2010 United States Census reported that Bayview had a population of 2,510. The population density was 3,429.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Bayview was 1,959 White, 28 African American, 119 Native American, 88 Asian, 5 Pacific Islander, 185 from other races, 126 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 425 persons; the Census reported that 2,489 people lived in households, 10 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 11 were institutionalized. There were 1,023 households, out of which 333 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 369 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 167 had a female householder with no husband present, 66 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 112 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 11 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 310 households were made up of individuals and 100 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43. There were 602 families; the population was spread out with 601 people under the age of 18, 224 people aged 18 to 24, 714 people aged 25 to 44, 678 people aged 45 to 64, 293 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. There were 1,074 housing units at an average density of 1,467.6 per square mile, of which 1,023 were occupied, of which 649 were owner-occupied, 374 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%. 1,565 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 924 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,359 people, 936 households, 586 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 3,203.0 people per square mile.
There were 981 housing units at an average density of 1,332.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 83.68% White, 0.59% Black or African American, 4.87% Native American, 2.16% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 3.65% from other races, 4.87% from two or more races. 7.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 936 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.0 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,023, the median income for a family was $32,941. Males had a median income of $27,542 versus $22,463 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $14,119. About 20.6% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature, Bayview is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. Federally, Bayview is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. California portal
Blue Lake, California
Blue Lake is a city in Humboldt County, United States. Blue Lake is located on the Mad River, 16 miles northeast of Eureka, at an elevation of 131 feet; the population was 1,253 at the 2010 census, up from 1,135 in 2000. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.6 square miles, over 95% of, land. Present Blue Lake comprises "old" Blue Lake and Scottsville. In 1854, Augusta Bates settled in the Scottsville area and sold to Brice M. Stokes in 1862. In 1861, the 13-acre Blue Lake was formed from flooding of the north fork of Mad River, it gave the town a resort atmosphere; as the river changed course in the 1920s, the lake disappeared to become what today is a small pond on private property. In 1866, William Scott purchased land from Brice M. Stokes and established "Scott's Farm," becoming Scottsville. Powersville was established in 1869 by David Powers on land claimed by Augusta Bates, Brice M. Stokes and William Scott. In 1876 a post office opened, named "Mad River."
The post office named Blue Lake was established in 1878. The town of Blue Lake was incorporated on April 11, 1910; the lumber industry shipped wood down the Mad River Railroad. During the 1950s, timber shipped from Blue Lake included from Levitt Brothers own lumberyard and nail factory from which lumber and nails were sent to the four Levittown developments in the eastern U. S; the 2010 United States Census reported that Blue Lake had a population of 1,253. The population density was 2,015.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Blue Lake was 1,094 White, 5 African American, 55 Native American, 13 Asian, 4 Pacific Islander, 24 from other races, 58 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 82 persons; the Census reported that 1,253 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 542 households, out of which 152 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 215 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 63 had a female householder with no husband present, 32 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 45 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 12 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 161 households were made up of individuals and 45 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31. There were 310 families; the population was spread out with 248 people under the age of 18, 102 people aged 18 to 24, 361 people aged 25 to 44, 415 people aged 45 to 64, 127 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. There were 572 housing units at an average density of 920.1 per square mile, of which 542 were occupied, of which 301 were owner-occupied, 241 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 712 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 541 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,135 people, 504 households, 297 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,884.2 people per square mile.
There were 556 housing units at an average density of 923.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.72% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 5.37% Native American, 1.32% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.15% from other races, 2.82% from two or more races. 2.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 504 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.9% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, the median income for a family was $37,500. Males had a median income of $35,924 versus $25,563 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,603. About 6.3% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature, Blue Lake is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. Federally, Blue Lake is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. Carlo Mazzone-Clementi, founder of Dell'Arte International School of Physical Theatre Garth Iorg, American baseball player Dane Iorg, American baseball player Robert F. Benson, renowned artist and College of the Redwoods Art Instructor. Official website
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a