The Surf Line is a railroad line that runs from San Diego north to Orange County along California's Pacific Coast. It was so named because much of the line was near the Pacific Ocean, within less than 100 feet in places; the tracks are now owned by the Southern California Regional Rail Authority and the North County Transit District, hosts Metrolink's Orange County Line and Inland Empire–Orange County Line, the San Diego Coaster, Amtrak Pacific Surfliner passenger trains. The BNSF Railway operates freight over the line using trackage rights. Construction of the Surf Line between Los Angeles and San Diego began on October 12, 1880, with the organization of the California Southern Railroad Company. On January 2, 1882, the California Southern commenced passenger and freight service between National City and Fallbrook Junction, just north of Oceanside. From Oceanside the line turned northeast for a winding route through the Temecula Canyon, was finished on August 21, 1882; the line became part of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad's transcontinental rail line in 1885 via an extension of the California Southern from Colton north over the Cajon Pass to Barstow.
From 1886 to 1888, the Riverside, Santa Ana and Los Angeles Railway built a branch from Highgrove southwest via Riverside to Santa Ana and from Orange northwest to Los Angeles. In 1888 the San Bernardino and San Diego Railway completed its line from Oceanside north to Santa Ana, completing what was called the Los Angeles-San Diego Short Line; the now-downgraded old route was destroyed by floods in 1891 and the new line named the Surf Line, was now the only line to San Diego from the north. In 1910, the Fullerton and Richfield Railway built a short cutoff of the San Bernardino-Los Angeles route from Atwood west to Fullerton, giving the Surf Line its northern terminus of Fullerton. For much of the 20th century, the Surf Line was to the Santa Fe what the New York City–Philadelphia corridor was to the Pennsylvania Railroad. Daily traffic could reach a density of ten trains during the summer months; the route hosted AT&SF San Diegan passenger trains, renamed the Pacific Surfliner by Amtrak in 2000.
The Santa Fe installed Centralized traffic control in 1943–1944 which increased capacity on the line. In the 1990s the SCRRA and the San Diego Northern Railway bought the sections of the line in Orange and San Diego Counties and began operating commuter trains; these are not all the stations that operate. Many of these stations no longer exist and new ones have opened. For a list of stations that operate, see the articles for Metrolink's Orange County Line and the Coaster. Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal Santa Fe Springs Fullerton Anaheim Orange Santa Ana Irvine San Juan Capistrano San Clemente Oceanside Carlsbad Encinitas Del Mar Linda Vista Union Station The Coast Line, continuing north from Los Angeles to San Francisco, it is owned by the SCRRA between Los Angeles and Moorpark, Union Pacific from Moorpark onwards. Duke, Donald. Santa Fe... The Railroad Gateway to the American West. 1. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books. ISBN 0-8709-5110-6. OCLC 32745686. Jordan, Keith. "The Surf Line 1940–1950".
The Warbonnet. 2: 4–24. Jordan, Keith. "The Surf Line Part II: 1950–1965". The Warbonnet. 2: 11–24. Jordan, Keith. "Santa Fe Surf Line, 1940". Trains. 64: 64–69. ISSN 0041-0934. Richardson, Don. "The secret borax train". Classic Trains. 6: 36–39. California Southern Railway History Photos of Amtrak, BNSF on the Surf Line
A single-track railway is a railway where trains traveling in both directions share the same track. Single track is found on lesser-used rail lines branch lines, where the level of traffic is not high enough to justify the cost of constructing a second track. Single track is cheaper to build, but has operational and safety disadvantages. For example, a single-track line that takes 15 minutes to travel through would have capacity for only two trains per hour in each direction. By contrast, a double track with signal boxes four minutes apart can allow up to 15 trains per hour in each direction, provided all the trains travel at the same speed; this hindrance on the capacity of a single track may be overcome by making the track one-way on alternate days, if the single track is not used for public passenger transit. Long freight trains are a problem. Other disadvantages include the propagation of delays, since one delayed train on a single track will delay any train waiting for it to pass. A single track does not have a "reserve" track that can allow a reduced capacity service to continue if one track is closed.
If a single-track line is designed to be used by more than one train at a time, it must have passing loops at intervals along the line to allow trains running in different directions to pass each other. These consist of short stretches of double track long enough to hold one train; the capacity of a single-track line is determined by the number of passing loops. Passing loops may be used to allow trains heading in the same direction at different speeds to overtake. In some circumstances on some isolated branch lines with a simple shuttle service a single-track line may work under the "one train working" principle without passing loops, where only one train is allowed on the line at a time. On single-track lines with passing loops, measures must be taken to ensure that only one train in one direction can use a stretch of single track at a time, as head-on collisions are a particular risk; some form of signalling system is required. In traditional British practice, single-track lines were operated using a token system where the train driver had to be in possession of a token in order to enter a stretch of single track.
Because there was only one unique token issued at any one time for each stretch of single track, it was impossible for more than one train to be on it at a time. This method is still used on some minor lines but in the longest single-track lines in Britain this has been superseded by radio communication. In the early days of railways in North America it was common to rely upon simple timetable operation where operators knew where a train was scheduled to be at a particular time, so would not enter a single-track stretch when they were not scheduled to; this worked but was inflexible and inefficient. It was improved with the invention of the ability to issue train orders. Converting a single-track railway to double track is called duplication or doubling. A double-track railway operating only a single track is known as single-line working. Building bike trails on rail corridors has occurred in limited examples, however developing rail right of ways for a bike trail can restrict a train corridor to a single track.
Reclaiming a railway corridor to use trains again, that have become bike paths, limits the use of double tracks. The bike path is where the second track would be. An example of a bike, single-track corridor is the E&N Railway in Canada. Rails to trails
Carlsbad Village station
Carlsbad Village is a commuter rail station in Carlsbad, California served by the North County Transit District COASTER line. Along with Encinitas station, this is one of two single-track stations on the Coaster line, causing a bottleneck for rail traffic; the 1887-built Carlsbad station, used by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway until 1960, is located 0.1 miles to the south. The former station now serves as the city's visitor center, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993 as Carlsbad Santa Fe Depot. On October 7, 2013, the Amtrak Pacific Surfliner began stopping at four Coaster stations: Carlsbad Village, Carlsbad Poinsettia and Sorrento Valley; the Carlsbad Poinsettia and Encinitas stops were discontinued on October 9, 2017. The Carlsbad Village and Sorrento Valley stops were dropped on October 8, 2018 due to changes with the cross-ticketing arrangement with Coaster. Media related to Carlsbad Village station at Wikimedia Commons COASTER Stations
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Sorrento Valley station
Sorrento Valley is a commuter rail station in Sorrento Valley neighborhood of San Diego, California served by the North County Transit District COASTER line. The station is served by Coaster Connection shuttles to the businesses to the east of the station, the Southern area of Torrey Pines, UTC mall. On October 7, 2013, the Amtrak Pacific Surfliner began stopping at four Coaster stations: Carlsbad Village, Carlsbad Poinsettia and Sorrento Valley; the Carlsbad Poinsettia and Encinitas stops were discontinued on October 9, 2017. The Carlsbad Village and Sorrento Valley stops were dropped on October 8, 2018 due to changes with the cross-ticketing arrangement with Coaster. Media related to Sorrento Valley station at Wikimedia Commons COASTER Stations
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
San Luis Obispo station
San Luis Obispo is a passenger rail station in the city of San Luis Obispo, United States. The station is staffed with ticketing and checked baggage services; the present Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style depot was built by the Southern Pacific Railroad and completed in 1942. It replaced the original SP depot, located just south of the current one, that had opened in 1895; when the present depot was opened, the former depot was utilized as a freight depot until 1968, when it was shuttered. It was demolished to make room for a parking lot in 1971; the station is the northern terminus of Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner from San Luis Obispo to San Diego and it serves the Coast Starlight from Seattle, Washington to Los Angeles. Four Pacific Surfliner trains and two Coast Starlight trains serve the station daily. Of the 74 California stations served by Amtrak, San Luis Obispo was the 27th-busiest in FY2012, boarding or detraining an average of 297 passengers daily. Media related to San Luis Obispo at Wikimedia Commons Amtrak California Station Info PageSan Luis Obispo, CA – Amtrak San Luis Obispo --Great American Stations