In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement. Large faults within the Earths crust result from the action of tectonic forces. Energy release associated with movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. A fault plane is the plane that represents the surface of a fault. A fault trace or fault line is the intersection of a plane with the ground surface. A fault trace is the line commonly plotted on maps to represent a fault. Since faults do not usually consist of a single, clean fracture, the two sides of a non-vertical fault are known as the hanging wall and footwall. By definition, the wall occurs above the fault plane. This terminology comes from mining, when working a tabular ore body, because of friction and the rigidity of rocks, they cannot glide or flow past each other easily, and occasionally all movement stops. A fault in ductile rocks can release instantaneously when the rate is too great.
The energy released by instantaneous strain-release causes earthquakes, a common phenomenon along transform boundaries, slip is defined as the relative movement of geological features present on either side of a fault plane, and is a displacement vector. A faults sense of slip is defined as the motion of the rock on each side of the fault with respect to the other side. In practice, it is only possible to find the slip direction of faults. Based on direction of slip, faults can be categorized as, strike-slip. Dip-slip, offset is predominantly vertical and/or perpendicular to the fault trace, oblique-slip, combining significant strike and dip slip. The fault surface is usually vertical and the footwall moves either left or right or laterally with very little vertical motion. Strike-slip faults with left-lateral motion are known as sinistral faults. Those with right-lateral motion are known as dextral faults
The Baltic Shield, sometimes referred to as the Fennoscandian Shield, is located in Fennoscandia, northwest Russia, northern Denmark and under the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Shield is defined as the exposed Precambrian northwest segment of the East European Craton and it is composed mostly of Archean and Proterozoic gneisses and greenstones which have undergone numerous deformations through tectonic activity. The Baltic Shield contains the oldest rocks of the European continent, the lithospheric thickness is about 200-300 km. During the Pleistocene epoch, great continental ice sheets scoured and depressed the surface, leaving a thin covering of glacial material and innumerable lakes. The Baltic Shield is still rebounding today following the melting of the glaciers during the Quaternary Period. The Baltic Shield is divided into five provinces, the Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian provinces in Fennoscandia, the latter three are divided further into several blocks and complexes and contain the oldest of the rocks, at 2.
5–3.4 Ga. The Vodlozero block in south-eastern Karelia has been dated to 3.4 Ga, the youngest rocks belong to the Sveconorwegian province, at 900–1700 Ma old. Sometimes included as part of the Baltic Shield is the East European Platform, according to the Swedish Museum of Natural History, the oldest rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield are found in the northeast, in the Kola peninsula and northeastern Finland. These Archean rocks are gneisses and greenstone belts, ca. Within this area, there are some Paleoproterozoic cover rocks,1. 9-2.5 Ga, and the ca.1.9 Ga collisional Lapland granulite belt. Some Archean rocks are found in northernmost Sweden, and Archean crust probably underlies much of that area. Most of northern and central Sweden, belongs to the Svecofennian province, the bedrock here formed 1. 75-1.9 Ga during the Svecofennian orogeny. This bedrock includes both metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and several generations of granitoids, and hosts the Bergslagen ore deposits and this area contains some younger Rapakivi granites as well as Jotnian sandstones.
The Transscandinavian Igneous Belt consists of largely undeformed granitoids and associated porphyries formed in at least three different episodes between c.1800 and 1650 Ma ago. It stretches from Småland in southern Sweden through Värmland and western Dalarna, southwest the TIB follows the Southwestern gneiss province, which has a long and complex evolution ranging from ca.1.7 to 0.9 Ga ago. Most of the bedrock formed in the Gothian orogeny 1. 7-1. The Southwestern gneiss province is divided into several north-south-trending segments by Sveconorwegian deformation zones, in western Norway, these gneisses were again deformed during the Caledonian orogeny ca.400 Ma. Areas of Caledonian deformation, which include the Precambrian gneisses of western Norway
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
The Carlsberg Group is a brewing company founded in 1847 by J. C. The companys first headquarters were located in Copenhagen, since Jacobsens death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation. The companys flagship brand is Carlsberg Beer but it brews Tuborg, Somersby cider, Russias best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen abbey beers, and more than 500 local beers. After merging with the assets of Norwegian conglomerate Orkla ASA in January 2001. After a failed attempt by Orkla, Carlsberg became the sole owner after purchasing Orklas share in the brewery in 2004. It is the leading beer seller in Russia with about a 40 percent share of the market, in 2009 Carlsberg ranked fourth worldwide, and employed around 45,000 people. Carlsberg was founded by J. C, Jacobsen, a philanthropist and avid art collector. With his fortune he amassed an art collection which is now housed in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in central Copenhagen. The first brew was finished on 10 November 1847, and the export of Carlsberg beer began in 1868 with the export of one barrel to Edinburgh, Jacobsens son Carl opened a brewery in 1882 named Ny Carlsberg forcing him to rename his brewery Gamle Carlsberg.
The companies were merged and run under Carls direction in 1906, Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875, which worked on scientific problems related to brewing. It featured a Department of Chemistry and a Department of Physiology, the species of yeast used to make pale lager, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, was isolated by Emil Christian Hansen at the laboratory in 1883 and bears its name, this was shared freely by Carlsberg. The Carlsberg Laboratory developed the concept of pH and made advances in protein chemistry, in 1972, the Carlsberg Research Centre was established and the Carlsberg Laboratory is now an independent unit of the Centre. Because of a conflict with his son Carl, Jacobsens brewery was left to the Foundation upon his death in 1887, the first brewery to be built outside Denmark was in Blantyre, Malawi in 1968. Carlsberg merged with Tuborg breweries in 1970 forming the United Breweries AS, Carlsberg became the sole owner of Carlsberg-Tetley in 1997. In 2008 Carlsberg Group, together with Heineken, bought Scottish & Newcastle, in 2013 the company joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers commitments to reducing harmful drinking.
The old brewery in Copenhagen is currently open for tours, famous visitors have included Winston Churchill in 1950, Queen Elizabeth II in 1957, and Yuri Gagarin in 1962. The Carlsberg Group divides their operations into three areas, Northern & Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. Baltic Beverages Holding is currently owned by Carlsberg, previously, it was a joint venture between Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle in Russia
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can refer generally to the study of the features of any terrestrial planet. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life. Geology plays a role in engineering and is a major academic discipline. The majority of data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These typically fall into one of two categories and unconsolidated material, the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three types of rock, igneous and metamorphic. The rock cycle is an important concept in geology which illustrates the relationships between three types of rock, and magma. When a rock crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock, the sedimentary rock can be subsequently turned into a metamorphic rock due to heat and pressure and is weathered, eroded and lithified, ultimately becoming a sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock may be re-eroded and redeposited, and metamorphic rock may undergo additional metamorphism, all three types of rocks may be re-melted, when this happens, a new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once again crystallize. Geologists study unlithified material which typically comes from more recent deposits and these materials are superficial deposits which lie above the bedrock. Because of this, the study of material is often known as Quaternary geology. This includes the study of sediment and soils, including studies in geomorphology and this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading, and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity. This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics provided a basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features could be explained as plate boundaries, mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, were explained as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart.
Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes were explained as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts under another, transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes. Plate tectonics provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift and they provided a driving force for crustal deformation, and a new setting for the observations of structural geology
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
GEUS is an abbreviation for Danmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse, the Danish name for the independent sector research institute under the Ministry of Climate and Energy. GEUS works in close corporation with Geologisk Institut and Geologisk Museum, in 1888 Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse was founded. In 1946, Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse was created, on June 14,1965, law no.238 created GGU. On December 23,1987, law no.864 merged GGU into DGU, on June 14,1995, Law no.408 disbanded law no.238. On December 20,1995, law no.1076 concerning Danish sector research institutes created GEUS by merging DGU and GGU, Geography of Denmark Geography of Greenland Gemstone industry in Greenland Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, official website