The S-train is a type of hybrid urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to transit systems. There is no definition of an S-train system. S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway stopping at all existing stations inside and they are slower than mainline railways but usually serve as fast crosstown services within the city. Most S-train systems are built on older local railways, or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway. Most use existing local mainline railway trackage, but a few branches can be purpose built S-train lines, S-trains typically use overhead lines or a third rail for traction power. In Hamburg the S-trains use both the methods, depending on which line is powered. Busy S-train corridors sometimes have sections of exclusive trackage of their own, a good example of this is the part of Berlins S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction and has a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn.
However, in more lightly used sections outside the city center, the S-trains stop at all stations, while other mainline trains only stop at the largest stations. S-trains are generally service the hinterland of a city, rather than connecting different cities. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main railway system for Leipzig but connects to Halle. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system, many of the larger S-train systems have central sections that individual suburban branches feed into, creating high frequency corridors. For instance, on weekdays, the section of the Copenhagen S-train has five services connecting to. Further out from the parts of a city the individual services branch off into lines with distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail. This allows the S-train to serve a dual purpose, local transport within a city center. The rolling stock used in S-Trains reflect its hybrid purpose. The interior is designed for short journeys with provision for standing passengers but may have space allocated to larger.
Integration with other local transport for ticketing and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros is typical for S-trains
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. It covers an area of 3.76 km², and has a population of 51,466, the district is located west of the city center at the location of the old Western Gate, access way into the old city. The name Vesterbro literally translates into English as Western Bridge, Vesterbro is the area of the bridge into the city of Copenhagen, which was a much smaller city at the time when the name was created. At that time, the city was ringed by a moat which exist today as the Tivoli lake, the area is under the process of being renovated to a great extent and the renovation will end in 2017. The environment and sustainability is one of the reasons for the renovation. Vesterbro has a location that makes it a favored place to live. The area is known as the easy place to get drugs in Copenhagen. Vesterbro was originally the name of the country road that led into the city center from the west. Few country roads in those days were paved, but the amount of traffic into the capital necessitated it.
Until 1853 after the epidemic that had hit Copenhagen, there had been a no build zone outside Copenhagen’s old part of town. This Demarcation Line indicated an area beyond the city’s centuries old defense wall system where Copenhagen’s defense forces could strike the enemy unhindered, until there was little development outside the center of the city, except with special permission. Even though much of the area was used as grazing land,1,000 inhabitants of the area, as well as a number of commercial enterprises, and the house of the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society and Danish Brotherhood. The society received permission to build outside the old city limits in the 1750s, and this movement came first to the inner ring of areas outside the center, the Indre Østerbro, the Indre Nørrebro and Frederiksberg. At that time the name Vesterbro began being used for the area around the street named Vesterbro
Havneholmen is a mixed-use development located on reclaimed land off Kalvebod Brygge in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just east of the shopping centre Fisketorvet from which it is separated by a narrow canal, Havneholmen is connected to Islands Brygge on the other side of the harbor by Brygge Bridge, a foot and cycling bridge. Tømmergraven Canal deparates it from Enghave Brygge to the south, the area was formerly known as Kalvebod Pladsvej and was an industrial site. The plan for its redevelopment was adopted by the City in 2003, a masterplan for the area was created by Gert Wingårdh and construction began in 2006. The development comprises about 91,000 square metres of buildings and it consists of a mixture of housing, offices and a hotel. The Havneholmen Housing Estate was built by Sjælsø Group between 2005 and 2009 and it was designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and received the RIBA European Award in 2001. Another residential project, consisting of 148 apartments distributed on four buildings in a fan-like arrangement perpendicular to the water, is designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter, Aller House is the headquarters of Aller Media and was designed by PLH Arkitekter.
376-roomm Hotel Copenhagen Island is located on its own island and it was designed by Kim Utzon for the Arp-Hansen Hotel Group. Havneholmen Atrium and Havneholmen Towers were designed by Wingårdh, the nearest S-train station is Dybbølsbro station. The station is served by the A, B, C, E and H trains, nearby bus lines include 1A which travls along Ingerslevsgade on the other side of the railway tracks on its way to Kongens Nytorv. The super bikeway Søruten connects Havneholmen and the Brygge Bridge to Østerbrogade along the west side of The Lakes, on the other side of the harbor, the Lake Route connects to Universitetsruten and Havneruten, which continues to University of Copenhagens Søndre Campus and along the harbourfront respectively. The new bicycle bridge Cykelslangen, opened at Havneholmen in 2014 to ensure fast, the structure was designed by Dissing + Weitling
Farum station is the terminus of the Hareskovbanen radial of the S-train network around Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located about 1 km east of the old village Farum, but is the center of the modern Farum, the station opened in 1906 as an intermediate station on the Copenhagen-Slangerup railway. The line between Farum and Slangerup closed in 1954, the station was remodeled completely prior to the lines conversion to S-trains in 1977. Media related to Farum Station at Wikimedia Commons
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales. If a station is on a line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as stops or, in parts of the world. Stations may be at level, underground, or elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other modes such as buses. In British usage, the station is commonly understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In the United States, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station, Railway station and railroad station are less frequent. Outside North America, a depot is place where buses, trains, or other vehicles are housed and maintained and from which they are dispatched for service. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore.
The oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, as the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is slightly older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road. The station was the first to incorporate a train shed, the station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal, the first stations had little in the way of buildings or amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, manchesters Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses, dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, such stations were known as flag stops or flag stations.
Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the architecture of the time. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations often imitated 19th-century styles, various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles
Enghave Plads is a central public square of the Vesterbro district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located where Istedgade reaches Enghavevej, which separates the square from Enghave Park, Enghave Plads School opened on the square in 1892. Completed in 1900, Christ Church was the church to be built in the rapidly growing Vesterbro neighbourhood. A fountain, Boy with fiasco, designed by Jens Lund, was installed in the centre of the square in 1903, for many years, the square played host to an annual fun fair. The tram line was extended to Frederiksholm in 1915 and again from Frederiksholm to Mozarts Plads in 1937, the area on the other side of Enghavevej remained open land. The Royal Danish Horticultural Society established 478 allotments at the, the square was renovated and pedestrianized in 1995. The 114-year-old chestnut tree, which for decades had dominated the square, was removed in October 2011 to make way for the construction of Enghave Station, after a merger with Mathæusgade School in 2008, Enghave Plads School is now part of Tove Ditlevsens School.
Both buildings were designed by city architect Ludvig Fenger, Christ Church was designed by Valdemar Koch in an Italian style. He designed the two buildings that flank it on both sides. The buildings on the side of the square are from 1898 and were designed by Christian Mandrup-Poulsen. Jens Christian Kofoed contributed to the buildings around the square, a cluster of low buildings that were formerly used by the tram workers have been converted into a kindergarten
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
Vesterbros Torv is a public square located at the corner of Vesterbrogade and Gasværksvej in the heart of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is dominated by Elijahs Church, the square was established in 1850. Its triangular shape of the space was determined by a series of walks which used to be located at the site. The two buildings which flank Elijahs Church date from the establishment of the square, the church was completed as an infill in 1907. It is designed by Martin Nyrop, the theatre was inaugurated in 1908 and is built to a design which mixes Art Nouveaux with other styles. The Hercules Fountain dates from 1915 and was a gift from the society Hovedstadens forskønnelse and it was designed by the sculptor Rasmus Harboe who had previously created the reliefs on the facade of Elijahs Church. 55A commemorates the World War II resistance fighter Erik Koch Michelsen and he was shot at the site on 3 March 1945. In 1901 city architect Ludvig Fenger fitted the square with underground lavatories, similar facilities were constructed at the City Hall Square and Nyhavn
An island platform is a station layout arrangement where a single platform is positioned between two tracks within a railway station, tram stop or transitway interchange. Island platforms are popular on twin-track routes due to pragmatic and cost-effective reasons, an alternative arrangement is to position side platforms on either side of the tracks. The historical use of island platforms depends greatly upon the location, the island platform layout is a popular, cost-effective and practical solution in modern railway systems. Island platforms allow facilities such as escalators, shops and this is essential for wheelchair accessible stations. An island platform makes it easier for users and the infirm to change services between tracks. Additionally, an island platform layout eliminates the need to construct a crossover or subway between two platforms, island platforms may become overcrowded, especially at busy stations, and this can lead to safety issues such as Clapham Common and Angel on the London Underground.
However, for the tracks to diverge around the platform, extra width is required along the right-of-way on each approach to the station. Track centers vary for rail systems throughout the world but are normally 3 to 5 meters, if the island platform is 6 meters wide, the tracks have to slew out by the same distance. While this is not a problem on a new line that is being constructed, in addition, a single island platform makes it quite difficult to have through tracks, which are usually between the local tracks. A common configuration in busy locations on high speed lines is a pair of island platforms, high-speed trains can therefore pass straight through the station, while slow trains pass around the platforms. This arrangement allows the station to serve as a point where trains can be passed by faster trains. The purpose of this design was to reduce unnecessary passenger congestion at a station with a high volume of passengers. Many of the stations on the Great Central Railway were constructed in this form and this was because the line was planned to connect to a Channel Tunnel.
Island platforms are a normal sight on Indian railway stations. Almost all railway stations in India consist of island platforms, in Toronto,29 subway stations use island platforms. A slight disadvantage is that crossovers have to be rather long, in southern New Jersey and Philadelphia, PATCO uses island platforms in all of its 13 stations, to facilitate one-person train operation. Most elevated stations in Singapores Mass Rapid Transit system use island platforms, the exception is Dover MRT Station, which uses side platforms as it is built on an existing rail line. The planned Canberra MRT Station will use side platforms, as it be built on an existing rail line