Interstate 35 is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. As with most interstates that end in a five, it is a major cross-country, north-south route stretching from Laredo, Texas, at the Mexican-American border to Duluth, Minnesota, at Minnesota Highway 61 and 26th Avenue East; the highway splits into Interstate 35E and Interstate 35W in two separate places, the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex in Texas and at the Minnesota twin cities of Minneapolis–Saint Paul. At 1,568 mi, Interstate 35 is the ninth-longest Interstate Highway following Interstate 94, it is the third-longest north-south Interstate Highway, following Interstate 75 and Interstate 95. Though the route is considered to be a border to border highway, this highway does not directly connect to either international border. I-35's southern terminus is a traffic signal in Laredo, just short of the Mexican–American border. Travelers going south can take one of two toll bridges across the Rio Grande and the Mexican border, either straight ahead into the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge, or via Interstate 35 Business through downtown Laredo into the Gateway to the Americas International Bridge.
To the north, I-35 terminates in Duluth, with connections to Canada from the interstate's terminus via Minnesota Highway 61 to Grand Portage, or north to the border at International Falls, Minnesota via U. S. Route 53 in Duluth, but that route is more accessed from the south by Minnesota Highway 33 at Cloquet, Minnesota. In addition to the Dallas-Fort Worth and Minneapolis-Saint Paul areas, the major cities that I-35 connects to include San Antonio. I-35 northbound begins at a traffic-signaled intersection with Business Spur I-35 in Laredo, just north of the Rio Grande and the international border between Mexico and the US, it has a 17-mile concurrency with U. S. Highway 83. Through Webb, La Salle, Frio counties, it has a north-northeastern course, turning more northeastly around Moore, it cuts across the corners of Medina and Atascosa counties before entering Bexar County and San Antonio. I-35 is named the Pan Am Expressway in San Antonio. There, it has brief concurrencies with I-10 and I-410, it serves as the northern terminus of I-37.
I-35 heads northeast out of the city towards Austin. In Austin, I-35 is the Interregional Highway and has a concurrency with US 290 through Downtown Austin. Throughout Austin, elevated express lanes were constructed on either side of the original freeway. Prior to this expansion, this section included an at-grade railroad crossing, unusual for a freeway. From Austin, I-35 goes through Round Rock, Temple and Waco. In Belton, south of Temple, it serves as the current eastern terminus for I-14. In Waco, I-35 is known as the Jack Kultgen Freeway, begins its concurrency with US 77; the campuses of both the University of Texas at Austin and Baylor University are located adjacent to I-35. I-35 heads to Hillsboro, where it splits into I-35W and I-35E and runs through the Dallas–Fort Worth area; the official mile markers, along with the route of US 77, follow I-35E through Dallas—I-35W, 85 miles in length, carries its own mileage from Hillsboro to Denton, as though it were an x35 loop. In Dallas, I-35E is the R.
L. Thornton Freeway south of I-30, which picks up the name heading east. North of I-30, it is the Stemmons Freeway. After passing through Dallas and Fort Worth, I-35's two forks branches in Denton near the University of North Texas campus; the unified Interstate continues north to Gainesville before crossing the Red River into Oklahoma. In Oklahoma, I-35 runs from the Red River at the Texas border to the Kansas state line near Braman, it passes adjacent to many of the state's major cities. From south to north these cities include Ardmore, Pauls Valley, Norman, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Edmond, El Reno, Guthrie and Ponca City. In Downtown Oklahoma City, I-35 has a major junction with I-40 and spurs into I-235 through the north central inner city as heavy traffic follows through the city into the northern area of the state. Between the Oklahoma state line and Emporia, I-35 is part of the Kansas Turnpike; this section of interstate passes through the Flint Hills area. At Emporia, I-35 branches off on its own alignment.
This free section of I-35 provides access to Ottawa before entering the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, where it serves Johnson County, Kansas City, Kansas. Of note on the route, at several points between Cassoday and Emporia in the Flint Hills dirt driveways that provide direct access without a ramp, for cattle trucks, may be found in either direction along the highway. BETO Junction is a highway intersection in Coffey County, Kansas, the intersection of U. S. Highway 75 and I-35, it derives its name from the four major cities nearest the intersection: Burlington, Emporia and Ottawa. It is located 16 miles north of Burlington at exit 155; the intersection referred to as "BETO Junction" before I-35 was constructed was located on the old US 75 highway alignments 2 miles south and 2 miles east, near Waverly, Kansas. I-35 enters Missouri two miles southwest of Kansas City's Central Business District as a six-lane highway. After merging with Southwest Trafficway and Broadway, it becomes eight lanes and continues north to downtown Kansas City, where it serves as the west and north legs of the downtown freeway loop.
Along the north edge of the loop, I-35 joins with I-70 west of Broadway and carries six lanes of traffic with a s
Fond du Lac Indian Reservation
The Fond du Lac Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in northern Minnesota near Cloquet in Carlton and Saint Louis counties. Off-reservation holdings are located across the state in Douglas County, in the northwest corner of Wisconsin; the total land area of these tribal lands is 153.8375 square miles. It is the land-base for the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. Before the establishment of this reservation, the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa were located at the head of Lake Superior, closer to the mouth of the Saint Louis River, where Duluth has developed; the tribe ceded land to the US as part of an 1837 treaty along with other Ojibwa bands. As part of the Treaty of La Pointe in 1842, the Fond du Lac Band and other Ojibwa tribes ceded large tracts of land located in the Lake Superior watershed in Wisconsin and the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan; as part of an 1854 treaty, the tribe and the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa ceded more land to the US. Under this 1854 treaty, the US established the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation farther up the Saint Louis River, at its present location.
The original Nagaajiwanaang Reservation was 1.25 times the current size. In treaty discussions the US representatives were recorded as promising the inclusion of the Perch and Big lakes, but these were excluded from the original reservation, its boundaries extended westward to the western boundaries of the 1854 Ceded Territory. Upon appeal by the tribe, the US extended the reservation boundaries southward to include the two said lakes, but as a concession, the tribe had to agree to a reduction in the western boundaries, which were placed at the current location, it established a reservation for the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa. The FDL adopted a written constitution with an elected government, its tribal council has x members. The FDL operates social services, tribal housing, a tribal police force, a natural resource building, a gas station, three community centers, a private health clinic and pharmacy called Min No Aya Win Health Center; the tribe operates two satellite health clinics, one in Duluth, named The Center for American Indian Resources, another in Minneapolis, the Mashkiki Waakaaigan Pharmacy.
It has numerous members. The tribe owns two casinos: Black Bear Casino in Carlton and Fond du Luth Casino in Duluth. Big Lake Brookston Cloquet Mahnomen Arrowhead Township Brevator Township Brookston Cloquet Culver Township North Carlton unorganized territory Perch Lake Township Stoney Brook Township Twin Lakes Township Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Fond du Lac Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Minnesota/Wisconsin, United States Census Bureau Fond du Lac Reservation 2000 US Census Tract Map for the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the 1854 Treaty establishing the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the letter requesting to modify the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the Executive Order modifying the Fond du Lac Reservation Black Bear Casino Resort
Douglas County, Wisconsin
Douglas County is a county located at the northwest corner of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,159, its county seat is Superior. Douglas County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Douglas County, named after Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas, was established on February 8, 1854, from the larger La Pointe County and the City of Superior was selected as the county seat. In Wisconsin's 1952 U. S. Senate primary, Douglas County was one of two counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,480 square miles, of which 1,304 square miles is land and 176 square miles is water. A portion of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation is located within Douglas County. Solon Springs Municipal Airport serves surrounding communities. Richard I. Bong Airport Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 44,159 people residing in the county. 93.2% were White, 2.0% Native American, 1.1% Black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.7% of two or more races.
1.1% were Hispanic or Latino. 20.7% were of German, 11.2% Norwegian, 9.7% Swedish, 7.8% Irish, 6.4% Finnish and 6.1% Polish ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 43,287 people, 17,808 households, 11,272 families residing in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile. There were 20,356 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.35% White, 0.57% Black or African American, 1.82% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.8% had German, 13.5% Norwegian, 11.5% Swedish, 8.5% Irish, 8.2% Finnish, 6.8% Polish and 5.1% United States or American ancestry. 96.7% spoke English and 1.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 17,808 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.10% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.70% were non-families.
29.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.40 males. Superior Lake Nebagamon Oliver Poplar Solon Springs Superior Brule Gordon The last Republican presidential candidate to win Douglas County was Herbert Hoover in 1928; the county gave both Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis the second highest percentage of votes in Wisconsin, second only to Menominee County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Douglas County, Wisconsin Pokegama Bay Douglas County website Superior–Douglas County Convention and Visitors Bureau Superior–Douglas County Chamber of Commerce Map of Douglas County, Wisconsin Department of Transportation
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Duluth is a major port city in the U. S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of Saint Louis County. Duluth is the 4th largest city in Minnesota, it is the 2nd largest city on Lake Superior. The largest is Thunder Bay, Canada, it has the largest metropolitan area on the lake, with a population of 279,771 in 2010, the second-largest in the state. Situated on the north shore of Lake Superior at the westernmost point of the Great Lakes, Duluth is accessible to oceangoing vessels from the Atlantic Ocean 2,300 miles away via the Great Lakes Waterway and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Duluth forms a metropolitan area with Wisconsin; the cities share the Duluth–Superior harbor and together are the Great Lakes' largest port, transporting coal, iron ore, grain. A tourist destination for the Midwest, Duluth features the United States' only all-freshwater aquarium, the Great Lakes Aquarium; the city is the starting point for vehicle trips along Minnesota's North Shore. The city is named for Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, the first known European explorer of the area.
The Anishinaabe known as the Ojibwe or Chippewa, have inhabited the Lake Superior region for more than 500 years. They were preceded by the Dakota, Menominee and Gros Ventre peoples, whom they pushed out of the area. Established as traders, after the arrival of Europeans, the Anishinaabe found a niche as the middlemen between the French fur traders and other Native peoples, they soon became the dominant Indian nation in the region, forcing out the Dakota Sioux and Fox and winning a victory against the Iroquois west of Sault Ste. Marie in 1662. By the mid-18th century, the Ojibwe occupied all of Lake Superior's shores. For both the Ojibwe and the Dakota, interaction with Europeans during the contact period revolved around the fur trade and related activities; the Ojibwe are known for their crafting of birch bark canoes, use of copper arrow points, cultivation of wild rice. In 1745, they adopted guns from the British for use against the Dakota nation of the Sioux, whom they pushed to the south; the Ojibwe Nation was the first to set the agenda with European-Canadian leaders for signing more detailed treaties before many European settlers were allowed too far west.
The settlement in Ojibwe is Onigamiinsing, a reference to the small and easy portage across Minnesota Point between Lake Superior and western Saint Louis Bay, which forms Duluth's harbor. According to Ojibwe oral history, Spirit Island, near the Spirit Valley neighborhood, was the "Sixth Stopping Place", where the northern and southern branches of the Ojibwe Nation came together and proceeded to their "Seventh Stopping Place" near the present city of La Pointe, Wisconsin; the "Stopping Places" were the places the Native Americans occupied during their westward migration as the Europeans overran their territory. Several factors brought fur traders to the Great Lakes in the early 17th century; the fashion for beaver hats in Europe generated demand for pelts. French trade for beaver in the lower Saint Lawrence River had led to the depletion of the animals in that region by the late 1630s, so the French searched farther west for new resources and new routes, making alliances with the Native Americans along the way to trap and deliver their furs.
Étienne Brûlé is credited with the European discovery of Lake Superior before 1620. Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers explored the Duluth area, Fond du Lac in 1654 and again in 1660; the French soon established fur posts near Duluth and in the far north where Grand Portage became a major trading center. The French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, whose name is sometimes anglicized as "DuLuth", explored the Saint Louis River in 1679. After 1792 and the independence of the United States, the North West Company established several posts on Minnesota rivers and lakes, in areas to the west and northwest, for trading with the Ojibwe, the Dakota, other native tribes; the first post was where Superior, Wisconsin developed. Known as Fort Saint Louis, the post became the headquarters for North West's new Fond du Lac Department, it had stockaded walls, two houses of 40 feet each, a shed of 60 feet, a large warehouse, a canoe yard. Over time, Indian peoples and European Americans settled nearby, a town developed at this point.
In 1808, the American Fur Company was organized by German-born John Jacob Astor. The company began trading at the Head of the Lakes in 1809. In 1817, it erected a new headquarters at present-day Fond du Lac on the Saint Louis River. There, portages connected Lake Superior with Lake Vermillion to the north, with the Mississippi River to the south. After creating a powerful monopoly, Astor got out of the business about 1830, as the trade was declining, but active trade was carried on until the failure of the fur trade in the 1840s. European fashions had changed and many American areas were getting over-trapped, with game declining. Two Treaties of Fond du Lac were signed by natives with the United States in the present neighborhood of Fond du Lac in 1826 and 1847, by which the Ojibwe ceded land to the American government; as part of the Treaty of Washington with the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa, the United States set aside the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation upstream from Duluth near Cloquet, Minnesota.
The Ojibwe population was moved there. As European Americans continued to settle and encroach on Ojibwe lands, the U. S. gove
Saint Louis River
The Saint Louis River is a river in the U. S. states of Minnesota and Wisconsin that flows into Lake Superior. The largest U. S. river to flow into the lake, it is 192 miles in length and starts 13 miles east of Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota. The river's watershed covers 3,634 square miles. Near the Twin Ports of Duluth and Superior, the river becomes a freshwater estuary; the lower St. Louis is the only river in the state with whitewater rafting opportunities. According to Warren Upham, the Ojibwe name of the river is Gichigami-ziibi, he notes: "The river was so named by Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, a active explorer, in the years 1731 and onward. Shortly before his death the king of France in 1749 conferred on him the cross of Saint Louis as a recognition of the importance of his discoveries, thence the name of the Saint Louis River appears to have come. On Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin's map and Philippe Buache's map, it is called the Rivière du Fond du Lac, the map by Gilles Robert de Vaugondy and Jonathan Carver's map are the earliest to give the present name."
The river was a vital link connecting the Mississippi River waterways to the west with the Great Lakes to the east. Jay Cooke State Park is located near the mouth of the river and is the site of a canoe portage used by Native Americans, European explorers, fur traders, coureurs des bois, missionaries of the 18th and 19th centuries, it was a rough trail of steep hills and swamps that began at the foot of the rapids above the neighborhood of Fond du Lac and climbed some 450 feet to the present day city of Carlton. Above Carlton travelers continued on to Lake Vermillion and the Rainy River. Or they may have traveled southwest up the East Savanna River, portaged the grueling 6 mile long Savanna Portage, paddled on to the Mississippi River. By the mid 20th century, the lower Saint Louis River became one of the most polluted waterways in the state. Holling Clancy Holling, in his 1941 book Paddle-to-the-Sea, illustrated the polluted state of the Saint Louis River. By 1975, the river became an Environmental Protection Agency Area of Concern.
The Western Lake Superior Sanitary District was established in 1971 to address serious pollution problems in the lower Saint Louis River Basin. WLSSD's regional wastewater treatment plant began operating in 1978. Within two years, fish populations rebounded and anglers began returning to the river. Through the 1980s and 1990s, additional cleanups took place. In 2013 the State of Minnesota abruptly pulled out of a project intended to research the mercury problem in the river; the cooperating agencies including Wisconsin DNR and the Fond du Lac Tribe were not in agreement with the ending of the study. The level of mercury is so high that strong limitations on consumption of the fish are in effect by the Minnesota Department of Health which for example limit consumption of walleye for a 50-pound child to 1/6 of a pound per month or no more than one pound every six months; the Saint Louis River was listed in 1987 as an "Area of Concern" by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement 1987 Amendment. Nine of 14 Beneficial Use Impairments were identified in the Saint Louis River AOC.
The AOC designation has led to the Remedial Action Plan process outlined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The most recent update is the 2013 RAP Update: A Roadmap to Delisting and can be found on the WI Department of Natural Resources and Minnesota Pollution Control Agency webpages listed below; this document outlines the BUI removal strategies and list of actions to delist the Saint Louis River as an AOC by 2025. "Rationale for Listing: Fish samples taken from the St. Louis River and Lake Superior exceed standards established by Minnesota and Wisconsin for the unrestricted consumption of sport fish; each of the two states issues consumption advisories for various population groups, based on fish species and size classes. Advisories are collectively issued for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish tissue residues of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls exceed the 0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg standards established in the 1978 GLWQA for the protection of aquatic life and fish consuming birds."
The river is fished for walleye, northern pike, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, black crappie, channel catfish populations. Other species of rough fish include White Sucker; the river is frequented by those traveling the Minnesota DNR Saint Louis River Water Trail, which has campsites and angling. Attempts to introduce sturgeon are under way. While native to the river at one time and pollution wiped them out many years ago. In 1983 the DNR, the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, others began rebuilding spawning habitat and introducing baby sturgeon into the river. In 2016 MPR reported, "Slowly numbers increased as the stocked fish took hold in the river. Five years ago, tribal biologists found their first fry from reproducing sturgeon, a sign that a healthy fish population could grow on its own. Minnesota began allowing catch-and-release fishing last year."The Saint Louis River Trail Association is planning construction of a long-distance hiking trail along more than half the length of the river.
Construction of the first 36-mile segment began in early 2012, with cooperation from the Minnesota DNR. List of rivers of M
St. Louis County, Minnesota
St. Louis County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,226, its county seat is Duluth. It is the largest county by total area in Minnesota, the largest in the United States east of the Mississippi River. St. Louis County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Major industries include pulpwood tourism. Surface mining of taconite and processing it into high grade iron ore remains an important part of the economy of the Iron Range. Parts of the federally recognized Bois Forte and Fond du Lac Indian reservations are in the county; this area was long inhabited by Algonquian-speaking tribes: the Ojibwe and Potawatomi peoples were loosely affiliated in the Council of Three Fires. As American settlers entered the territory, the Native Americans were pushed to outer areas; the Minnesota Legislature established St. Louis County on February 20, 1855, as Doty County, changed its name to Newton County on March 3, 1855.
It consisted of the area east and south of the St. Louis River, while the area east of the Vermilion River and north of the St. Louis River was part of Superior County. Superior County was renamed St. Louis County. On March 1, 1856, that St. Louis County was renamed as Lake County. Newton County had that eastern area added to it. On May 23, 1857, St. Louis County took its current shape when Carlton County was formed from parts of St. Louis and Pine counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,860 square miles, of which 6,247 square miles is land and 612 square miles is water. By area, it is the largest county in Minnesota and the largest in the U. S. east of the Mississippi River. Voyageurs National Park, established in 1975, is located in its northwestern corner, on the south shore of Rainy Lake on the Canada–US border; the county includes parts of Superior National Forest, established in 1909, the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness on the border, established in 1978.
The BWCAW is a 1,090,000-acre wilderness area designated for fishing, camping and canoeing, is one of the most visited wilderness areas in the United States. St. Louis County has more than 500 lakes, including Rainy, Namakan, Sand Point, Crane lakes; the largest lakes are Vermilion. The "Hill of Three Waters" on the Laurentian Divide lies northeast of Hibbing. Rain falling on this hill runs to three watersheds: Hudson Bay to the north, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the east, or the Gulf of Mexico to the south and west; the county is drained by the St. Louis and other rivers. Duluth on Lake Superior is one of the most important fresh-water ports in the United States and located in this county; the county encompasses part of the Iron Range. It has had a significant taconite mining industry in the city of Virginia. Rainy River District, Canada Lake County Douglas County, Wisconsin Carlton County Aitkin County Itasca County Koochiching County Superior National Forest Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Voyageurs National Park The county has a humid continental climate moderated by its proximity to Lake Superior.
Winters are long and cold seeing maximum temperatures remaining below 32 °F on 106 days. Due to global warming, in January 2019 Tracy Twine, professor at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Soil and Climate, said "we just don’t expect temperatures to be below 10 degrees Fahrenheit in Duluth anymore. Public schools and other government offices shut down on January 29-30, 2019 because of wind chills of -70°F; as of the 2010 census, there were 200,226 people residing in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 94.0% White, 2.2% Native American, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 1.2% were Hispanic or Latino. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the ancestral makeup was 24.3% German, 15.9% Norwegian, 13.0% Swedish, 10.2% Irish. As of the 2000 census, there were 200,528 people, 82,619 households, 51,389 families residing in the county; the population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 95,800 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.86% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 2.03% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. 0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.60% of households included children under the age of 18, 49.30% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families. 31.20% of all households consisted of individuals and 13.00% of individuals 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.90. The population spread by age was 22.40% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,306, the median income for a family was $47,134.
Males had a median income of $37,934 versus $24