Pavenham is a small village and civil parish on the River Great Ouse in the Borough of Bedford in Bedfordshire, about 6 miles north-west of Bedford. Village amenities consist of St Peter's Church, a pub, Village hall, tennis Club, Cricket Club and golf club; the village is home to many clubs and societies including an active WI. The village has two nature reserves, Stevington Marsh, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, Pavenham Osier Beds, managed by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire. Time Line 1086: Domesday Book identifies Pavenham in the ancient hundred of Buckelowe 1205: Church first mentioned as a chapel or daughter church to Felmersham 13th Century: Church exists only as a nave and chancel 14th Century: The tower and the chapel north of the chancel added to the Church 15th Century: North aisle and south transept added to the Church 1578: Churchwardens report Trinity College for letting the Church fall into disrepair 1665: The year that the Pavenham Old Yew Tree believed to have been planted, the year of the Great Plague 1770: Pavenham Enclosure Act 1798: Workhouse first mentioned 1813: Water Mill closed 1827: Sunday School Started 1853: Church of England School opened, provided by Squire Tucker 1857: Wesleyan Chapel built 1877: Vicarage built, designed by Bedford architect John Usher 1888: Cricket Club Founded 1920: War memorial unveiled 1935: Electricity came to the village 1938: The Cock Inn rebuilt 1955: Roof to the nave of the Church replaced 1959: Village Hall re-opened after improvements made 1960: Pavenham Bury demolished 1961: The Old Yew Tree transplanted 15 feet from its original position as part of a road improvement scheme 1965: Pavenham Women's Institute plant oak in the playing fields to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of the Women's Institute 1967: Pavenham Sports Pavilion Opened - built by local builder Charles Cartlidge.
1972: Vicarage demolished 1980: New Village Hall opened 1983: Village school closed Pavenham is the origin village of Pavenham Football Club, established in 2010. The club was promoted to Bedfordshire County Football Premier Division after their 3rd successive promotion. Pavenham village website
Carlton is a village in north Bedfordshire in England. It is part of the Carlton with Chellington parish with the adjacent village of Chellington; the River Great Ouse runs just to the north of the village. Nearby places are Harrold, Turvey and Odell. Carlton was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as a parish within the Hundred of Willey, it was for some time spelt Carleton. In 1934, the separate parishes of Carlton and Chellington merged to become one the parish named Carlton with Chellington; the village has been laid out in a rectangular road pattern, the main parts of the village being around the roads of Bridgend and the High Street, with The Moor and The Causeway making up the rectangle's other sides. During the twentieth century the areas in between were filled out with housing along the roads of Rectory Close, Carriers Way, Street Close, Beeby Way. Carlton Park is located in Rectory Close and features three swings, a small basketball court, a football pitch and a 1.5 meter slide. It features one of the main landmarks of Carlton, its giant oak tree.
Carlton's church is Saint Mary the Virgin, dating from 950AD with a font from c. 1150 is sited outside the current village. Carlton has The Royal Oak and The Fox. There is a Post village shop located on Carlton's busiest through road, Bridgend. There is one school, Carlton C of E primary school, and village hall, used as the school's assembly and sports hall. The village has an Emmaus community which includes a busy cafe / restaurant, furniture repair workshop and secondhand shop with furniture, china and bric-a-brac; the village was struck by an F1/T2 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. Village web site History of Carlton Carlton History
Turvey is a village and civil parish on the River Great Ouse in Bedfordshire, about 6 miles west of Bedford. The village is on the A428 road between Bedford and Northampton, close to the border with Buckinghamshire; the 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 1,225. Turvey is recorded in Domesday Book of 1086 as a parish in the Hundred of Willey. There are eight separate entries including a total of 44 households; the Mordaunt family obtained the manor by marriage in 1197 and were ennobled as Barons of Turvey in the 16th century. The Mordaunt family house, Turvey Old Hall, was replaced by Turvey House in 1792, by which time the estate had passed to the Higgins family, it was extended in the 19th century and still stands. There is a second large house in the village called Turvey Abbey, a family house, but is now a Benedictine monastery; the Church of England parish church of All Saints has Saxon origins but is certainly a post-Norman building. It is the largest church in the deanery of Sharnbrook and was in the Diocese of Lincoln until it was transferred to the Diocese of Ely in 1837.
Since 1914 it has been in the Diocese of St Albans. It has a 13th-century door with its original ironwork, a Norman baptismal font, a wall painting of the crucifixion and some notable monuments, including monumental brasses; the Norman church was enlarged in the 15th centuries. Turvey has a strong history of lace-making: there is evidence of a 19th-century lace-making school. In the 19th century the Bedford to Northampton Line of the Midland Railway was built through the parish and opened in 1872. There was a Turvey railway station in Station Road about 1 mile east of the centre of the village. British Railways closed the line in 1962; the Three Fyshes – built in 1487 and first sold beer in 1624. The Three Cranes – an historic building next to the church; the Laws Hotel – built 1836–40 the Laws Hotel, now no longer a pub. The Tinker of Turvey – in the High Street, now the village stores, it was an inn until the early 19th century. The Kings Arms -- in Jacks Lane a private house. Turvey has a village store and post office, village hall and two public houses: the Three Fyshes and The Three Cranes.
There is long-established pre-school, Turvey Pre-School Playgroup, that looks after children from 2 years old and runs a Before and After School Club for children at the local school. Turvey Primary School is a school for children from reception to year six; the Warren Nursery is a nursery for children from 6 weeks to 5 years. Stagecoach in Bedford bus route 41 bus between Northampton serves the village; the population of Turvey was 758 in 1801, rising to 1,028 in 1851 and falling to 782 by 1901. In 1951 it had dropped further to 733 but rose to 1,043 by 1991. Turvey electoral ward includes the villages of Kempston Rural, its borough councillor is Mark Smith. Jones, Lawrence E. A Guide to Some Interesting Old English Churches. London: Historic Churches Preservation Trust. P. 9. Page, W. H. ed.. A History of the County of Bedford. Victoria County History. 3. Westminster: Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 109–117. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Bedfordshire and the County of Huntingdon and Peterborough; the Buildings of England.
Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 158–161. ISBN 0-14-0710-34-5; the Turvey Website - the History and Families of Turvey, Bedfordshire All Saints Turvey - the official website of All Saints' Church, Turvey
River Great Ouse
The River Great Ouse is a river in the United Kingdom, the longest of several British rivers called "Ouse". From Syresham in central England, the Great Ouse flows into East Anglia before entering the Wash, a bay of the North Sea. With a course of 143 miles flowing north and east, it is the one of the longest rivers in the United Kingdom; the Great Ouse has been important for commercial navigation, for draining the low-lying region through which it flows. Its lower course passes through drained wetlands and fens and has been extensively modified, or channelised, to relieve flooding and provide a better route for barge traffic. Though the unmodified river changed course after floods, it now enters the Wash after passing through the port of King's Lynn, south of its earliest-recorded route to the sea; the name Ouse is from the Celtic or pre-Celtic *Udso-s, means "water" or slow flowing river. Thus the name is a pleonasm; the lower reaches of the Great Ouse are known as "Old West River" and "the Ely Ouse", but all the river is referred to as the Ouse in informal usage.
The river has several sources close to the village of Syresham in Northamptonshire. It flows through Brackley through Oxfordshire and into Buckinghamshire, through Buckingham, Milton Keynes at Stony Stratford, Newport Pagnell and Kempston in Bedfordshire, the current head of navigation. Passing through Bedford, into Cambridgeshire through St Neots, Huntingdon, Hemingford Grey and St Ives, it reaches Earith. Here, the river enters a short tidal section before branching in two; the artificial straight Old Bedford River and New Bedford River, which remain tidal, provide a direct link north-east towards the lower river at Denver in Norfolk. The old course of the river passes through Hermitage Lock into the Old West River. After joining the Cam near Little Thetford, north of Cambridge, the course passes the cathedral city of Ely and Littleport, to reach the Denver sluice. Below Denver the river passes Downham Market to enter The Wash at King's Lynn; the river is navigable from the Wash to Kempston Mill, just beyond Bedford, a distance of 72 miles.
This section includes 17 locks which are maintained by the Environment Agency, the navigation authority and who attempt to attract more boaters to the river. It has a catchment area of 3,240 square miles and a mean flow of 15.7 m3/s as measured at Denver Sluice. Its course has been modified several times, with the first recorded being in 1236, as a result of flooding. During the 1600s, the Old Bedford and New Bedford Rivers were built to provide a quicker route for the water to reach the sea. In the 20th century, construction of the Cut-Off Channel and the Great Ouse Relief Channel have further altered water flows in the region, helped to reduce flooding. Improvements to assist navigation began with the construction of sluices and locks. Bedford could be reached by river from 1689. A major feature was the sluice at Denver, which failed in 1713, but was rebuilt by 1750 after the problem of flooding returned. Kings Lynn, at the mouth of the river, developed as a port, with civil engineering input from many of the great engineers of the time.
With the coming of the railways the state of the river declined so that it was unsuitable either for navigation or for drainage. The navigation was declared to be derelict in the 1870s. A repeated problem was the number of authorities responsible for different aspects of the river; the Drainage Board created in 1918 had no powers to address navigation issues, there were six bodies responsible for the river below Denver in 1913. When the Great Ouse Catchment Board was created under the powers of the Land Drainage Act in 1930, effective action could at last be taken. There was significant sugar beet traffic on the river between 1925 and 1959, with the last known commercial traffic occurring in 1974. Leisure boating had been popular since 1904, the post-war period saw the creation of the Great Ouse Restoration Society in 1951, who campaigned for complete renovation of the river, it was re-opened to Bedford in 1978, is now managed by the Environment Agency. The Ouse Washes are an internationally important area for wildlife.
Sandwiched between the Old Bedford and New Bedford rivers, they consist of washland, used as pasture during the summer but which floods in the winter, are the largest area of such land in the United Kingdom. They act as breeding grounds for lapwings and snipe in spring, are home to varieties of ducks and swans during the winter months; the river has been important both for drainage and for navigation for centuries, these dual roles have not always been complementary. The course of the river has changed significantly. In prehistory, it flowed from Huntingdon straight to Wisbech and into the sea. In several sequences, the lower reaches of the river silted, in times of inland flood, the waters would breach neighbouring watersheds and new courses would develop – in a progressively eastwards fashion. In the Dark Ages, it turned to the west at Littleport, between its present junctions with the River Little Ouse and the River Lark, made its way via Welney and Outwell, to flow into The Wash near Wisbech.
At that time it was known as the Wellstream or Old Wellenhee, parts of that course are marked by the Old Croft River and the border between Cambridgeshire and Norfolk. After major inland flood events in the early 13th century it breached anot
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni
Borough of Bedford
Bedford is a unitary authority area with borough status in the ceremonial county of Bedfordshire, England. Its council is based at the county town of Bedfordshire; the borough contains one large urban area, the 71st largest in the United Kingdom that comprises Bedford and the adjacent town of Kempston, surrounded by a rural area with many villages. 75% of the borough's population live in the Bedford Urban Area and the five large villages which surround it, which makes up less than 6% of the total land area of the Borough. The borough is the location of the Wixams new town development, which received its first residents in 2009; the District of Bedford was formed on 1 April 1974 as a merger of the existing borough of Bedford, along with Kempston urban district and Bedford Rural District. In 1975 the district was granted a royal charter granting borough status as North Bedfordshire; the borough was renamed as Borough of Bedford in 1992. Over half of the former municipal borough of Bedford is unparished.
However, Brickhill is a parish, Queens Park as well as Cauldwell & Kingsbrook elect their own urban community councils, which have similar functions to parish councils. The rest of the district including Kempston is parished; the Department for Communities and Local Government have reorganised Bedfordshire's administrative structure as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England, meaning that Bedford Borough Council became a unitary authority in April 2009. This means Bedford Borough has assumed responsibility in areas such as education, social services and transport which were provided by Bedfordshire County Council. Unlike most English districts, Bedford's council is led by a directly elected mayor of Bedford, Dave Hodgson since 16 October 2009; the first elections for the new unitary Bedford Borough Council were held on 4 June 2009 when 36 councillors in addition to the mayor were elected. Since an electoral review which came into effect for the local elections in 2011, Bedford Borough has had 40 councillors in addition to the mayor.
Since the 2011 elections, Bedford Borough Council’s executive committee is headed by the mayor and includes 9 members from the Liberal Democrat, Labour and Independent groups, only one Independent Member sits in opposition. From 2009 to 2011, Independents were included in the executive committee, while Conservative members sat in opposition on the council; the urban part of the borough consisting of most of the Bedford/Kempston Urban Area is divided into 13 wards, some of which are civil parishes: The wards and constituent civil parishes in the rural part of the borough are as follows: List of places in Bedfordshire St Paul's Church, Bedford Bedford Borough Website
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th