Marine protected area
Marine protected areas are protected areas of seas, estuaries or large lakes. MPAs restrict human activity for a purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. Such marine resources are protected by local, territorial, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations. This variation includes different limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits and bans on removing or disrupting marine life. In some situations, MPAs provide revenue for countries, potentially equal to the income that they would have if they were to grant companies permissions to fish.55 million km2 in the Ross Sea. MPA is a term for protected areas that includes some area of marine landscape and/or biodiversity. Several types of compliant MPA can be distinguished, A totally marine area with no significant terrestrial parts, an area containing both marine and terrestrial components, which can vary between two extremes, those that are predominantly maritime with little land, or that is mostly terrestrial.
Marine ecosystems that contain land and intertidal components only, for example, a mangrove forest would contain no open sea or ocean marine environment, but its river-like marine ecosystem nevertheless complies with the definition. IUCN offered seven categories of protected area, based on management objectives, related protected area categories include the following, World Heritage Site – an area exhibiting extensive natural or cultural history. Maritime areas are represented, with only 46 out of over 800 sites. Man and the Biosphere – UNESCO program that promotes a relationship between humans and the biosphere. Under article 4, biosphere reserves must encompass a mosaic of ecological systems, in structure they are similar to Multiple-use MPAs, with a core area ringed by different degrees of protection. Ramsar site – must meet criteria for the definition of Wetland to become part of a global system. These sites do not necessarily receive protection, but are indexed by importance for recommendation to an agency that could designate it a protected area.
While area refers to a single location, terms such as network, system. At the 2004 Convention on Biological Diversity, the agreed to use network on a global level. The network is a mechanism to establish regional and local systems, no take zones, are areas designated in a number of the worlds MPAs, where all forms of exploitation are prohibited and severely limits human activities. These no take zones can cover an entire MPA, or specific portions, for example, the 1,150,000 square kilometres Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, the worlds largest MPA, is a 100% no take zone
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
California Department of Fish and Wildlife
The California Department of Fish and Wildlife, formerly known as the California Department of Fish and Game, is a state agency under the California Natural Resources Agency. The Department of Fish and Wildlife manages and protects the fish, plant. It is responsible for related recreational, scientific, and it works to prevent illegal poaching. The Game Act was passed in 1852 by the California State Legislature, the Game Act closed seasons in 12 counties for quail, partridge and wood ducks, elk and antelope. A second legislative action enacted the same year protected salmon runs, in 1854, the Legislature extended the act to include all counties of California. In 1860, protection controls were extended for trout, Lake Merritt was made the first game refuge of California in 1869, believed to be the first in the United States. In 1870, the Legislature, with the support of Governor Henry Huntly Haight, the Board stipulated that fish ladders were now required at state dams. The Board outlawed explosives or other substances, and created a $500 fine for violations.
In 1870, the first fish ladder in the state was built on a tributary of the Truckee River, over the next 30 years, the Board of Fish Commissioners were given authority over game in the state as well as establishing hunting and fishing licenses. In 1909, the Board of Fish Commissioners changed its name to the Fish, the Division of Fish and Game was established in 1927, set up within the Department of Natural Resources. In 1951, the Reorganization Act elevated the Division of Fish and Game to the Department of Fish, California Fish and Game collaborated with the indigenous Native American Tribes to ensure their proper fishing rights. The Yurok tribe has collaborated with them as recently as 2011, the Department helped figure out the official count of fish killed in the 2002 Fish Kill on the Klamath River. The Klamath river is important to the tribes that live along that river. By 2012, California was one of only 13 states still using Game in the title of their wildlife agency, the State Legislature changed the Departments name to Fish and Wildlife on January 1,2013.
The legislation followed recommendations of a 51-member stakeholder advisory group,18 other states use the term wildlife, while the others generally use natural resources or conservation, in the titles of their Departments. This change reflects the trend toward expansion of the Agencies missions from sport fishing and hunting alone, to protection of non-game wildlife, in June 2015, the CDFW phased out lead ammunition for hunting on state land in order to keep lead out of backcountry ecosystems. The Department of Fish and Wildlife divides the State of California into seven management regions whose boundaries mostly correspond to county borders, northern Region, Del Norte, Lassen, Modoc, Siskiyou and Trinity counties. North Central Region, Amador, Calaveras, Colusa, El Dorado, Lake, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin, Sutter and Yuba counties
Monterey Bay Aquarium
The Monterey Bay Aquarium is a non-profit public aquarium located in Monterey, United States. The aquarium was founded in 1984 and is located on the site of a sardine cannery on Cannery Row. It has an attendance of around two million visitors. It holds thousands of plants and animals, representing more than 600 species on display, the aquarium benefits from a high circulation of fresh ocean water which is obtained through pipes which pump it in continuously from Monterey Bay. The centerpiece of the Oceans Edge Wing, is a 28-foot-high,333, in this exhibit, the aquarium was the first in the world to grow live California Giant Kelp. Visitors are able to inspect the creatures of the kelp forest at several levels in the building, the largest exhibit in the aquarium is a 1,200, 000-U. S. -gallon the Open Sea exhibit, which features one of the worlds largest single-paned windows. It is one of the few aquariums to successfully care for the ocean sunfish in captivity, Sea life on exhibit includes stingrays, sea otters, sea horses, and numerous other native marine species, which can be viewed above and below the waterline.
The Monterey Bay Aquarium is one of few in the world to exhibit both bluefin and yellowfin tuna. For displaying jellyfish, it uses a Kreisel tank, which creates a flow to support. The aquarium does not house mammals other than sea otters that were rescued through its Sea Otter Program, there had been a number of attempts to build an aquarium in the Monterey area dating back almost 100 years. In 1914 an aquarium was proposed to the city council by Frank Booth with a cost of $10,000. A bond issue was sponsored in an attempt to place an aquarium in the basement of the Pacific Grove Museum by Knut Hovden in 1925 and in 1944 an aquarium is suggested for Point Lobos State Reserve. This building was dismantled in 1980, but beginning in 2002 the Monterey Bay Aquarium has blown the original Hovden Cannery steam whistle at each day to commemorate it. The aquariums original building was designed by the architectural firm Esherick Homsey Dodge & Davis, the aquariums mission is to inspire conservation of the oceans.
The aquariums initial financial backing was provided by David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, Packard, an avid blacksmith, personally designed and created several exhibit elements for the aquarium at his forge in Big Sur, including the wave machines in the Kelp Forest and aviary. His daughter, marine biologist Julie Packard, is currently Executive Director of the aquarium, whose life was an inspiration for the eventual building of the aquarium, is famous as the Doc of John Steinbecks Cannery Row and Sweet Thursday. The aquarium itself contains a display of Ricketts items, including some of his personal library, the shop sells a variety of Steinbeck books. The basic design of the aquarium pumps 7,570 litres of seawater from the Monterey Bay per minute and night, during the day the water is filtered for viewing clarity
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, refers to the plants and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the nature of our planet. Marine organisms produce much of the oxygen we breathe, shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land. Most life forms evolved initially in marine habitats, oceans provide about 99 percent of the living space on the planet. The earliest vertebrates appeared in the form of fish, which live exclusively in water, some of these evolved into amphibians which spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Other fish evolved into mammals and subsequently returned to the ocean as seals. Plant forms such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems and particularly phytoplankton, are key primary producers forming the general foundation of the ocean food chain.
Marine vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways, fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, otters, some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes. However, as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Altogether there are 230,000 documented marine species, including over 16,000 species of fish, there is no life without water, which has been characterised as the solvent of life. The Nobel prize winner Albert Szent-Györgyi referred to water as the mater und matrix, the abundance of water on earths surface is a unique feature that distinguishes earth from other planets in the Solar System. Earths hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all surfaces in the world, including inland seas, rivers.
The deepest underwater location is Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of 10,911.4 m, the mass of the oceans is approximately 1. 35×1018 metric tons, or about 1/4400 of Earths total mass. The oceans cover an area of 3. 618×108 km2 with a depth of 3682 m. If all of Earths crustal surface was at the elevation as a smooth sphere. About 97. 5% of the water is saline, the remaining 2. 5% is fresh water, Most fresh water, about 68. 7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers
Carmel-by-the-Sea, often simply referred to as Carmel, is a city in Monterey County, United States, founded in 1902 and incorporated on October 31,1916. Situated on the Monterey Peninsula, Carmel is known for its natural scenery, the city is known for being dog-friendly, with numerous hotels and retail establishments admitting guests with dogs. Carmel-by-the-Sea is located on the Pacific coast, about 330 miles north of Los Angeles and 120 miles south of San Francisco, communities nearby Carmel-by-the-Sea include Carmel Valley Village and Carmel Highlands. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 3,722. The Carmel-by-the-Sea area is permeated by Native American, Spanish and American history, the first Europeans to see this land were Spanish mariners led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542, who sailed up the California coast without landing. The Spanish did not attempt to colonize the area until 1770, Portolà and Crespí traveled by land while Serra traveled with the Mission supplies aboard ship, arriving eight days later.
The colony of Monterey was established at the time as the second mission in Alta California. When Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821 Carmel became Mexican territory, in December 1771, the transfer was complete as the new stockade of approximately 130x200 became the new Mission Carmel. Simple buildings of plastered mud were the first church and dwellings until a more sturdy structure was built of wood from nearby pine and this too was only a temporary church until a permanent stone edifice was built. He was buried with military honors. The Mission at Carmel has significance beyond the history of Serra and it contains the states first library. A welder, John Martin, acquired lands surrounding the Carmel mission in 1833, Carmel became part of the United States in 1848, when Mexico ceded California as a result of the Mexican-American War. Known as Rancho Las Manzanitas, the area that was to become Carmel-by-the-Sea was purchased by French businessman Honore Escolle in the 1850s, Escolle was well known and prosperous in the City of Monterey, owning the first commercial bakery, pottery kiln, and brickworks in Central California.
His descendants, the Tomlinson-Del Piero Family, still live throughout the area, by 1889,200 lots had been sold. The name Carmel was earlier applied to place on the north bank of the Carmel River 13 miles east-southeast of the present-day Carmel. A post office called Carmel opened in 1889, closed in 1890, re-opened in 1893, moved in 1902, abbie Jane Hunter, founder of the San Francisco-based Womens Real Estate Investment Company, first used the name Carmel-by-the-Sea on a promotional postcard. In 1902 James Frank Devendorf and Frank Powers, on behalf of the Carmel Development Company, the Carmel post office opened the same year. In 1910, the Carnegie Institution established the Coastal Laboratory, in 1905, the Carmel Arts and Crafts Club was formed to support and produce artistic works
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio
Point Lobos is just south of Carmel-by-the-Sea, United States, at the north end of the Big Sur coast of the Pacific Ocean. Point Lobos contains a number of hiking trails, many next to the ocean, and it is the site of a historic marine reserve, which was expanded in 2007. It is the home to a museum on whaling, which includes a building once used by area fishermen. The longstanding wildlife protection and scenic seascape have led to Point Lobos reputation as a local recreational scuba diving destination. The parks origins are owed to engineer Alexander Allan, who purchased a parcel of land in 1933 to prevent it from being developed. It was to be subdivided into 1,000 lots under the name of Carmelito, the iconic Point Lobos area is geologically unique and contains a rich and diverse plant and animal life both on shore and in the water. Called the greatest meeting of land and water in the world by landscape artist Francis McComas, the geological history of Point Lobos describes the rocks that create the headlands and inlets that make Point Lobos famous.
Carmel submarine canyon lies just north of Point Lobos, like Monterey Canyon to the north the canyon provides cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface during upwelling events. These nutrient rich waters fuel the high primary productivity seen in Carmel and Monterey Bays, the original Point Lobos Ecological Reserve was created in 1973. As one of Californias oldest and best known no-take reserves, its large, in 2007, the Ecological Reserve was expanded and renamed with the establishment of The Point Lobos SMR and Point Lobos SMCA by the California Department of Fish and Game. Point Lobos SMR covers 5.36 square miles, the SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited, the marine reserve is bounded by the mean high tide line and straight lines connecting the following points in the order listed, 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°55. 55’ W. long. 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long, 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long. And 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 121°56. 30’ W.
long, Point Lobos SMCA covers 8.83 square miles. Harvest of all living marine resources is prohibited in the area except the recreational and commercial take of salmon, albacore. The area is bounded by lines connecting the following points in the order listed except where noted. 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 122°01. 30’ W. long, thence southward along the three nautical mile offshore boundary to 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 122°00. 55’ W. long. 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long, and 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long
Carmel Bay State Marine Conservation Area
Carmel Bay State Marine Conservation Area is a marine protected area in Carmel Bay. Carmel Bay is adjacent to the city of Carmel-by-the-Sea and is near Monterey, the marine protected area covers 2.12 square miles. Recreational fishing of finfish and limited commercial taking of kelp is permitted within the SMCA, the Carmel Bay SMCA was established in September 2007 by the California Fish and Game Commission. It was one of 29 marine protected areas adopted during the first phase of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative, the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative is a collaborative public process to create a statewide network of marine protected areas along the California coastline. Carmel Bay is near Carmel Pinnacles State Marine Reserve, Point Lobos State Marine Reserve, on opposite sides of Carmel Bay are the only two extant stands of Monterey Cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa. This marine protected area is bounded by the high tide line and straight lines connecting the following points in the order listed. 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°56. 30’ W. long, and 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°55. 55’ W. long.
Click here for a virtual tour Habitats protected by Carmel Bay SMCA include kelp forest, sandy beach, submarine canyon head, Carmel Bay is a tourism and ocean recreation destination. Divers and kayakers are attracted to its unique pinnacle formations, granite reefs, Carmel-By-The-Sea features an iconic white sand beach. In nearby Monterey, the Monterey Bay Aquarium is a major tourist attraction featuring a 28-foot living kelp forest, the exhibit includes many of the species native to the nearby marine protected areas. The aquarium houses sea otters, intertidal wildlife, and occasionally sea turtles, California’s marine protected areas encourage recreational and educational uses of the ocean. Activities such as kayaking, diving and swimming are allowed unless otherwise restricted, similar studies in marine protected areas located off of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands have already detected gradual improvements in fish size and number. Californias MPAs Marine Life Protection Act Initiative CalOceans Carmel-By-The-Sea Monterey Bay Aquarium