Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Division of Grayndler
The Division of Grayndler is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. The division was created in 1949 and is named for Edward Grayndler, a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council from 1921 to 1934 and 1936 to 1943, General Secretary of the Australian Workers' Union from 1912 to 1941. At 32 square kilometres, it is Australia's smallest electorate, located in the inner-southern Sydney metropolitan area, including parts of the inner-west; the electorate includes the suburbs of Balmain, Balmain East, Dobroyd Point, Haberfield, Lewisham, Petersham, Rodd Island and Sydenham. The current Member for Grayndler, since the 1996 federal election, is Anthony Albanese, a member of the Australian Labor Party; the division was a solidly working-class area, although migration and gentrification have since radically changed its demography. Despite the demographic changes, it has been held by the Australian Labor Party for its entire existence. Grayndler has a high percentage of Australian Greens voters with 23 percent of the primary vote at the 2013 election.
At the 2010 election, the two-party-preferred vote was between Labor and the Greens, one of only 3 in Australia. Its most prominent members have been Fred Daly, a minister in the Whitlam government, Leo McLeay, Speaker of the House 1989–93, Albanese, a minister in the Rudd and Gillard governments and Deputy Prime Minister for three months in 2013. Daly was succeeded by Gough Whitlam's son, Tony Whitlam, who served only one term before the neighbouring Division of Lang was abolished, lost preselection to Frank Stewart, the last member for Lang. Stewart himself handed the seat to McLeay; when Transport Minister Graham Richardson was forced out of cabinet due to the Marshall Islands affair before the 1993 election, left-wing power-broker Anthony Albanese arranged for fellow left-winger Jeannette McHugh to be promoted to the ministry. McHugh's seat of Phillip had been abolished, she transferred to Grayndler. Since being a minister entitled McHugh to a seat, McLeay was forced to transfer to Watson.
McHugh handed the seat to Albanese, who still holds it today. Division of Grayndler – Australian Electoral Commission
Deputy Premier of New South Wales
The Deputy Premier of New South Wales is the second-most senior officer in the Government of New South Wales. The Deputy Premiership has been a ministerial portfolio since 1932, the Deputy Premier is appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Premier; the current Deputy Premier is the National Party's John Barilaro, sworn in on 15 November 2016. The office of Deputy Premier was created in May 1932 for Michael Bruxner, the leader of the Country Party. Prior to that time the term was sometimes used unofficially for the second-highest ranking minister in the government. In Labor governments, the Deputy Premier is the party's deputy leader. Speaking, this person has come from the left faction of the party whereas the Premier has come from the right faction. In Liberal-National Coalition governments, the position has been held by the Leader of the National Party or its predecessors. Three Deputy Premiers have subsequently become Premier in their own right: Joseph Cahill, Robert Heffron, Jack Renshaw.
However, this has not occurred since 1964. The duties of the Deputy Premier are to act on behalf of the Premier in his or her absence overseas or on leave; the Deputy Premier has always been a member of the Cabinet, has always held at least one substantive portfolio. If the Premier were to die, become incapacitated or resign, the Governor would appoint the Deputy Premier as Premier. If the governing or majority party had not yet elected a new leader, that appointment would be on an interim basis. Should a different leader emerge, that person would be appointed Premier. Political parties Country/National Labor There are six living former Deputy Premiers; the most recent death of a Deputy Premier was that of Ron Mulock, who died on 5 September 2014. Leader of the New South Wales National Party
Carr ministry (1999–2003)
The Carr ministry or Third Carr ministry was the 87th ministry of the New South Wales Government, was led by the 39th Premier of New South Wales, the Honourable Bob Carr, representing the Labor Party. The ministry covered the period from 8 April 1999, when Carr led Labor to victory at the 1999 state election, until 3 April 2003, when Carr's Labor government was re-elected at the 2003 state election. Ministers are listed in order of seniority; the first arrangement covered the period from 8 April 1999 until 28 June 2000, when Jeff Shaw retired as a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council, resulting in a reconfiguration of the ministry. 1 Della Bosca assigned additional responsibilities of Assisting the Premier on Public Sector Management and Assisting the Premier for the Central Coast. 2 Attorney General portfolio transferred from Shaw to Debus. 3 Industrial Relations portfolio transferred from Shaw to Della Bosca. The second arrangement covers the period from 28 June 2000, when Jeff Shaw retired from parliament, until 12 January 2001, when Michael Knight retired from parliament.
Only changes to the ministry are shown. 2 Attorney General portfolio transferred from Shaw to Debus. 3 Industrial Relations portfolio transferred from Shaw to Della Bosca. The third arrangement covers the period from 12 January 2001, when Michael Knight retired from parliament, until 21 November 2001, when Paul Whelan retired from parliament. Only changes to the ministry are shown. 4 Corrective Services portfolio transferred from Debus to Watkins. The fourth arrangement covers the period from 21 November 2001, when Paul Whelan retired from parliament, until 11 July 2002, when Faye Lo Po' retired from the ministry. Only changes to the ministry are shown. 5 Urban Affairs and Planning portfolio renamed as Planning portfolio. Refshauge retained. 6 Land and Water Conservation portfolio transferred from Amery to Aquilina. 7 Fair Trading portfolio transferred from Watkins to Aquilina. 8 Corrective Services portfolio transferred from Watkins to Amery. 9 Sport and Recreation portfolio transferred from Watkins to Iemma.
10 Education and Training portfolio transferred from Aquilina to Watkins. 11 Police portfolio transferred from Whelan to Costa. The fifth arrangement covers the period from 11 July 2002, when Faye Lo Po' retired from the ministry, until 2 April 2003, the ministry was configured following the 2003 state election. Only changes to the ministry are shown. 12 Women portfolio transferred from Lo Po' to Nori. 13 Community Services and Disability Services portfolios transferred from Lo Po' to Tebbutt. Hon. Bob Carr, – 39th Premier of New South Wales Members of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, 1999–2003 Members of the New South Wales Legislative Council, 1999–2003
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities; the university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington; the university comprises 9 faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. In 2018-19, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sydney as one of the world's top 25 most reputable universities, its graduates as the top 5 most employable in the world and first in Australia. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty; the university has educated seven Australian prime ministers, two Governors-General of Australia, nine state governors and territory administrators, 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices.
Sydney has produced 110 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars. The University of Sydney is a member of the Group of Eight, CEMS, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. In 1848, in the New South Wales Legislative Council, William Wentworth, a graduate of the University of Cambridge and Charles Nicholson, a medical graduate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed a plan to expand the existing Sydney College into a larger university. Wentworth argued that a state secular university was imperative for the growth of a society aspiring towards self-government, that it would provide the opportunity for "the child of every class, to become great and useful in the destinies of his country", it would take two attempts on Wentworth's behalf, before the plan was adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, on 24 September 1850 and was assented on 1 October 1850 by Sir Charles Fitzroy. Two years the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry and experimental physics was John Smith. On 27 February 1858 the university received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, giving degrees conferred by the university rank and recognition equal to those given by universities in the United Kingdom. By 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. In 1858, the passage of the electoral act provided for the university to become a constituency for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as soon as there were 100 graduates of the university holding higher degrees eligible for candidacy; this seat in the Parliament of New South Wales was first filled in 1876, but was abolished in 1880 one year after its second member, Edmund Barton, who became the first Prime Minister of Australia, was elected to the Legislative Assembly. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university, which received a sum of £200,000 in 1889.
This was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created: anatomy. A significant figure from 1927 to 1958, termed'Sydney's best known academic', was the Professor of Philosophy at the University John Anderson. A native of Scotland, Anderson's controversial views as a self-proclaimed Atheist and advocate of free thought in all subjects raised the ire of many to the point of being censured by the state parliament in 1943; the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities. At one stage, newspaper reporters descended on the university to cover brawls, secret memos and a walk-out by David Armstrong, a respected philosopher who held the Challis Chair of Philosophy from 1959 to 1991, after students at one of his lectures demanded a course on feminism.
The philosophy department split over the issue to become the Traditional and Modern Philosophy Department, headed by Armstrong and following a more traditional approach to philosophy, the General Philosophy Department, which follows the French continental approach. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989 the following bodies were incorporated into the university in 1990: Sydney Branch of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music Cumberland College of Health Sciences Sydney College of the Arts of the Institute of the Arts Sydney Institute of Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Institute of Nursing Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Guild Centre of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. Prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College; the Orange Agricultural College was transferred to the University of New England under the Act, but transferred to the University of Sydney in 1994, as part of the reforms to the University of New England undertaken by the University of New England Act 1993 and the Southern Cross University Act 1993.
In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University. In February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St John's College to develop the Sydney
Marrickville Council was a local government area located in the inner west region of Sydney, Australia. It was created on 1 November 1861 as the "Municipality of Marrickville". On 12 May 2016, Marrickville Council was merged with Ashfield and Leichhardt councils into the newly formed Inner West Council; the area was bounded by Leichhardt to the north, the City of Sydney to the east and north-east, the City of Botany Bay to the south-east, Rockdale to the south, Canterbury to the west, Ashfield to the north-west. It covers an area of 17 square kilometres; the area is bounded by Parramatta Road to the north, King Street and the Princes Highway to the east, the Cooks River and Alexandra Canal to the south, New and Old Canterbury Roads to the west. While the area's background was traditionally working-class, which made the area a stronghold for the Australian Labor Party, several waves of immigration and a continuing trend of gentrification influenced the demographics and character of the area, increasing the number of independents and Greens on the Council.
The last Mayor of Marrickville Council was Cr. Sam Iskandar of the Labor Party; the suburbs and localities within the former Marrickville Council area were: Based on artefacts found near the Cooks River and Alexandra Canal, it is believed that the area has been occupied for at least 7,000 years. The area was occupied by the Cadigal clan of the Darug people who spoke the Eora language, their name for most of the present day local government area was Bullanaming. European settlement of the area began soon after the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788; the first land grant was made in 1789, by 1809 all the land had been granted. In the 1830s, the district consisted of five large estates, including Thomas Chalder's estate named Marrick after his home town in North Yorkshire. At this point, the area was still quite rural in nature. Following the subdivision of these estates, municipalities were formed in Marrickville, Newtown, St Peters and Petersham; the first Marrickville council, consisting of six councillors elected proportionately, was elected on 9 December 1861 at the Stanmore Hotel.
The population of the inner west increased from the beginning of the 20th century, peaking at 113,000 in 1948. It was in this year that the State Government introduced the Local Government Act 1948, Marrickville Municipal Council was enlarged by merging with St Peters and Petersham on 1 January 1949; the Camperdown and Newtown municipalities had been merged with the City of Sydney, however in 1968 a boundary readjustment added parts of these areas to Marrickville. The area's background was traditionally working-class, making Marrickville Council a stronghold for the Australian Labor Party, Labor Party ructions affected the politics of the Council itself. In the 1980s, a toxic culture in inner-city party branches and inter-factional disturbances, which led to the assault of NSW Legislative Council member, Peter Baldwin, at his house in Marrickville, affected Marrickville Council most with a party committee recommending its dismissal in July 1980. Although opposed as an extreme act by Minister for Local Government, Lin Gordon, when five Labor aldermen, Barry Jones, Margaret Newman, Jack Passaris, Ken Brennan and Grahame Watson, resigned from the Council in December 1982, alleging that they had been "bashed out of office" and detailing "five years of threats and intimidation", Gordon took action.
On 14 December 1982, Gordon dismissed Marrickville Council and appointed the former Shire Clerk of Gunnedah and Walgett, Alexander Trevallion as Administrator. Council remained under administration, which included debates over an amalgamation with Leichhardt Municipality, until elections were held on 22 September 1984. On 14 December 2010 Greens councillor Cathy Peters moved a motion to support the international Boycott and Sanctions against Israel; this motion was supported by Greens and one independent councillor, including the Mayor at the time, Fiona Byrne. The motion was condemned by politicians from both sides of politics including Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd Premier Kristina Keneally and federal Greens leader, Bob Brown; the move received support from Nobel Peace Prize Laureates Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Mairead Maguire. On 14 April 2011 it was revealed that the boycott would cost Marrickville ratepayers A$3.4 million if implemented. The boycott meant the council would have to replace goods from companies such as Hewlett Packard, Holden and Motorola amongst others.
New South Wales Liberal Premier Barry O'Farrell threatened to use his powers under the Local Government Act to sack the council if it did not rescind its resolution for the boycott. At a council meeting on 19 April 2011, members of the community were invited to express their opinions, after a three hour debate the motion was rescinded. Byrne did not seek re-election, in September 2011, Morris Hanna became the new mayor after Labor supported his candidacy and his name was pulled out of the hat in the tie breaker, he is an independent. A 2015 review of local government boundaries recommended that the Marrickville Council merge with the Municipality of Ashfield and the Municipality of Leichhardt to form a new council with an area of 35 square kilometres and support a population of 186,000; the merger was implemented on 12 May 2016. At the 2011 Census, there were 76,500 people in the Marrickville local government area, of these 49.5% were male and 50.5% were female. Aboriginal and Torres Str